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Optimization of the lifting height causing musculoskeletal disorders

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME248OPTIMIZATION OF THE LIFTING HEIGHT CAUSINGMUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS USING SOFT COMPUTINGTECHNIQUESGargi Jaiswal1, Ashish Kumar1Haresh Kumar21Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS-DU, Allahabad India2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Motillal Nehru National Institute of Technology,Allahabad IndiaABSTRACTThe aim of present communication is to develop an ergonomic posture-predictionmodel for industry workers, engaged in lifting tasks, and to prevent the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, primarily those in the back, upper and lower extremities. Asimulated environment was prepared with the equivalence of Benara Udyog Agra. Five agegroups were selected and height of 0, 3 and 6 feet were chosen to perform the experiments.The observations were plotted and analyzed with the help of fuzzy tool of Mat Lab.Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Soft computing.1. INTRODUCTIONMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) has been a major problem in various industries.MSD’s has been drawing the attention of many researchers since many years [1], [2], [3], [4],[5], [6], [7], and [8]. Initially ,the main aim is to reduce MSD’s through some preventivemethods .But nowadays ,the researchers are giving emphasis on soft computing technique.MSD is not only limited to a specific area but it has its effect in bank offices ,workplaces,agriculture, during pregnancy etc.Akrouf et al [1] reported the cross sectional observational study which assessed thepattern of msd suffered by bank office workers in Kuwait. The most affected body parts werethe neck (53.5%, lower back (51.1%), shoulders (49.2%) and upper back (38.4%).Haroutiunian et al [9] have found the topical NSAID therapy for musculoskeletal pain. Theyconcluded that the some topical NSAID formulation have been shown to be more effectiveINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 248-258© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME249than placebo in multiple studies, on to have comparable efficacy and a better safety profilethan oral NSAIDS for single joint osteoarthritis and acute muscle injuries . In an acute andchronic low back pain, widespread musculoskeletal pain and in peripheral neuropathic painsyndromes, the current evidence does not support the use of topical NSAIDS. The findings oftheir study highlight the magnitude of health care utilization for msd’s and the central role ofprimary care physicians in the management of these conditions.Kramer et al [10] identified that it could potentionally reduces the risk of MSDs in theconstruction sector. The action research approach was based on a collaborative model ofresearchers working with workplace representatives. They searched for innovations beingused by construction companies. From a potential database of 12 s innovations, the studyfocused on 2thita innovations that varied in their penetration into worksites in thegeographical area, represented a variety of trades, and were a cross section of tools and workorganizational processes. It examined the attributes of innovations and the barriers to theiradoption. The analysis was based on observations of workers, surveys of workers andconstruction safety consultants, and company interiors. The study found that innovationswere adopted by companies for multiple advantages including productivity & quality but notnecessarily ability to reduce MSD risks, their non- complexity & cost.Zapata et al [11] had undergone through a study of visual and musculoskeletal healthdisorders among computer users. Overall , conclusions was that A significant proportionof the computer users were found to be having health problems and this denotes that theoccupational health of the people working in the computer fields need to be emphasized asa field of concern in occupational health.Authors have made an attempt to develop an ergonomic posture-prediction model forindustry workers, specially the casting industry where workers are engaged in lifting tasksmore frequently, and to prevent the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders,primarily those in the back, upper and lower extremities. A simulated environment wasprepared with the equivalence of Benara Udyog Agra. Five age groups were selected andheight of 0, 3 and 6 feet were chosen to perform the experiments. The observations wereplotted and analyzed with the help of fuzzy tool of Mat Lab.2. MATERIALS AND METHODS2.1. WorkstationThe workstation was developed with the exact dimensions to that of a Lathe machinein Benara Udyog Agra. Overall schematic picture of workstation is shown in fig: 1a. Thepurpose of this workstation was to analyze MSD’s in workers by performing experiments onthe subjects.This workstation was supported on rigid base so that during loading and unloading ofweight it should not displace from its position. Subjects of different Anthropometry werechosen. These subjects were exposed to repetitive work. Subjects underwent a standardizedphysical examination at that time and again after performing experiment under the sameconditions.For the purpose of experiments a Crank Shaft of around 20kg of weight was chosenwhich was lifted by the workers during the course of experiments. The schematic view ofcrank shaft is as shown in fig: 2b
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Resea6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, MarchFig: 1a) Workstation2.2. ParametersFollowing parameters were taken as basis of experiment:a. Age,b. Height from which load is liftedc. Frequency of lifts, andd. Rest breaks between lifts.Fig: 2 Different age groups and heights under observationInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME250a) Workstation Fig: 1b) Crankshaft under studyFollowing parameters were taken as basis of experiment:-Height from which load is lifted,.Different age groups and heights under observationrch in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –April (2013), © IAEME
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME251Fig: 2 show different age group and different height of the subject to be lifted. Subjectedwere asked to lift the shaft from the ground level, height of 3 feet and more than 3 feet. Itincluded overhead lifting and placing on the workstation also. The activity was repeatedlydone and accordingly results were obtained. Following questionnaire was filled up by theworkers.QUESTIONNAIRE FOR EXPERIMENTSubject ……………………………………………………………………Type of weight lifted ........................................................................Age category I / II / III / IVI - 25-35yrs L / M / HII - 36-45yrs L / M / HIII - 46-55yrs L / M / HIV - 56-65 yrs L / M / HV - 66+ yrs L / M / HWeight lifted (kg) …………………………………………………………………….(CONSTANT)Height of subject ……………………………………………………………………(CONSTANT)Frequency of lifts Low Medium High(2 lift per minute) (3 – 7 LPM) (8+ LPM)Lifting height (From ground)………………………………………………………………..Stress level (low/medium/high)I - up to 3 feet …………………………………….II - 3 – 5 feet …………………………………….III - more than 5 feet (overhead) ……………………………………...3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONDifferent results for different age group were obtained from the experiments that wereperformed on the subjects. The subjects chosen were of different age group with varyinganthropometry.The subjects were categorized in 5 major age groups. These age groups are as follows –a. 1stAge group (25 – 35 years of age)b. 2ndAge group(36 – 45 years of age)c. 3rdAge group(46 – 55 years of age)d. 4thAge group(56 – 65 years of age)e. 5thAge group(66+ years of age)
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME252Soft Computing tool was developed using Fuzzy Logic and accordingly followingresults were obtained taking into consideration aforementioned four basic parameters. Therule view for different age groups are depicted as obtained from mat lab software and theircorresponding surface view has also been drawn from fig 3a to fig 5 the rule view is shownwhich is giving the optimized value of msd as red continuous line. With the help of these ruleviews, surface views has been generated amidst of frequency of lifts, lifting height and MSDas calculated via Matlab.Fig: 3a Rule view for age group I Fig: 3b Rule view for age group II
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME253Fig: 4a Rule view of age group III Fig: 4b Rule view of age group IV
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME254Fig 5: Rule view of age group V
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME255Fig: 6a Surface view for age group IFig: 6b Surface view for age group II
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME256Fig: 7a Surface view for age group IIIFig: 7b Surface View for age group IV
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME257Fig: 8 Surface view for age group4. CONCLUSIONThe results were concluded according to the data obtained from experiments.Optimum lifting height was calculated for different age groups. The transition from no orminor pain to severe was influenced by physical and psychosocial work place factors togetherwith individual and health-related factors.Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have a significant impact on worker’s timespent in unpaid care giving roles are limited by work-related disorders in a parallel fashionMSD’s are normalized between 0 -1 for different age group along with optimumlifting height.Age Group Height of WorkerCmOptimum LiftingHeightMSD OptimizedI 158 10”-50” 0.62II 174 12”-46” 0.59III 166 15”-40” 0.64IV Simulated 19”-38” 0.68V Simulated 24”-35” 0.72
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2585. REFERENCES[1] Akrouf QA, Crawford JO, Al-Shatti AS, Kamel MI Musculoskeletal disorders amongbank office workers in Kuwait East Mediterr Health J2010 Jan; 16(1):94-100.pg 19.[2] Aldenhoven M, Sakkers RJ, Boelens J, de Koning TJ, Wulffraat NM.Musculoskeletalmanifestations of lysosomal storage disorders.Ann Rheum Dis2009 Nov;68(11):1659-65.[3] Ayanniyi O, Ukpai BO, and Adeniyi AF Differences in prevalence of self-reportedmusculoskeletal symptoms among computer and non-computer users in a Nigerianpopulation: a cross-sectional study BMC Musculoskelet Disord.2010 Aug 6; 11:177.[4] Borg-Stein J, Dugan SA.Musculoskeletal disorders of pregnancy delivery and postpartum.Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007 Aug; 18(3):459-76, ix.[5] Brewer S, Van Eerd D, Amick BC 3rd, Irvin E, Daum KM, Gerr F, Moore JS, CullenK, Rempel D.Workplace interventions to prevent musculoskeletal and visual symptoms anddisorders among computer users: a systematic review.J Occup Rehabil.2006 Sep; 16(3):325-58.[6] Cecchini M, Colantoni A, Massantini R, Monarca D. The risk of musculoskeletaldisorders for workers due to repetitive movements during tomato harvesting.J Agric SafHealth 2010 Apr; 16(2):87-98.[7] Choobineh A, Tabatabaee SH, Behzadi M Musculoskeletal problems among workers ofan Iranian sugar-producing factory. Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2009; 15(4):419.[8] Coole C, Watson PJ, and Drummond A Staying at work with back pain: patientsexperiences of work-related help received from GPs and other clinicians a qualitative study.BMC Musculoskelet Disod. 2010 aug 27: 11 (1):190.[9] Haroutiunian S, Drennan DA, Lipman AG" Topical NSAID therapy formusculoskeletal pain Pain Med 2010 Apr;11(4):535-49. Epub 2010 Mar 4.pg 19.[10] Kramer DM, Bigelow PL, Carlan N, Wells RP, Garritano E, Vi P, PlawinskiM.Searching for needles in a haystack: identifying innovations to prevent MSDs in theconstruction sector Appl Ergon 2010 Jul;41(4):577-84. Epub 2010 Feb 18.[11] Zapata AL, Moraes AJ, Leone C, Doria-Filho U, Silva CA. Pain and musculoskeletalpain syndromes related to computer and video game use in adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 2006Jun; 165(6):408-14. Epub 2006 Mar 22.[12] Dr.G.latha, Dr.V.Vaidhayanathan, V.Kokilavani and Abishek Kumar Agarwal, “Studyand Analysis of Ambient Noise using Soft Computing Techniques”, International Journal ofInformation Technology and Management Information Systems (IJITMIS), Volume 1, Issue1, 2010, pp. 23 - 31, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6405, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6413.[13] Tarun Dhar Diwan and Upasana Sinha, “The Machine Learning Method RegardingEfficient Soft Computing and Ict using Svm”, International journal of Computer Engineering& Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 124 - 130, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367,ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.