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Optimization of production process and preservation of jalebi by using heat
 

Optimization of production process and preservation of jalebi by using heat

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    Optimization of production process and preservation of jalebi by using heat Optimization of production process and preservation of jalebi by using heat Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 230 OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS AND PRESERVATION OF JALEBI BY USING HEAT-ACID COAGULUM OF MILK Geetha P*, Arivazhagan R and Palaniswamy P T *Department of Food Process Engineering and School of Management SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram District, India ABSTRACT Chhana jalebi is a traditional food product containing chhana, maida and sugar. Though it is very popular in the Indian subcontinent, there is no optimized process for product preparation. Moreover, since it has low shelf life there is no opportunity for commercialization though it has good nutritive value. Hence this study was undertaken with the objective of optimization of chhana jalebi production process and increasing the shelf life through suitable preservative. A process optimization includes 3% fat level in chhana, 1:1 ratio of maida - chhana combination, 45% of water level in batter, 160-170°C frying temperature for 2 min, 68°Brix sugar syrup concentration for 1 min soaking time were found to be the most appropriate levels for chhana jalebi production. The composition percentage of chhana jalebi was 20.23±5.25, 12.53±0.17, 5.71±0.202, 67.11±0.19 for moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate respectively. Similarly various physico chemical and statistical analyses carried out and results were presented in this study. Sensory score of overall acceptability of the product was accomplished as 8.41±0.23 out of 9 through food connoisseur panel members. Shelf life of the product was achieved around 30 days in room temperature and more than 60 days in refrigerated condition by using potassium sorbate as preservative. Hence it is believed that process optimization and increased shelf life will pave path to commercialization of Indian traditional products if suitable packaging and automated machineries developed. This would have been considered as scope for the future studies in this field. Keywords: Chhana, Jalebi, Maida, Milk, Process Optimization and Traditional Food INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June 2013, pp. 230-241 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 231 1. INTRODUCTION India is the largest producer of milk, with a yield of 128 million tones as on 2012. Milk and milk products, being the second-largest agricultural by-products segment in India, plays a vital role in the agricultural economy. It is estimated that about 50% of total milk produced in India is converted in to traditional milk products. (Rao and Raju, 2003) The major portion of milk is converted into traditional dairy products like paneer and paneer- based products, chhana and chhana -based products, khoa and khoa-based sweets and desserts, which are deep rooted in ancient traditions and have a strong cultural heritage. Chhana is the product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid – this soft, semisolid product forms the base material for a variety of sweets. Though work on chhana based sweets like rasogolla , sandesh, Chhana podo, Chhana jhili have been carried out by several researchers, no scientific & industrial works have been carried out on chhana jalebi. Hence it is felt that the details of chhana jalebi preparation process need to be investigated in order to process optimization, quality control and increased shelf life of finished product, scale-up studies, design of machines for large-scale production and offer the same delicacy as a traditional conventional food product. 1.1. Need for the Study Though the market of variety of traditional dairy sweets is widespread in India, they have not been commercialized due to predominance of unorganized sector and constraints on their shelf life. Unorganized sector is producing traditional dairy products without any standard methods and hygiene conditions. Hence there is urgent need to standardize the production process of traditional dairy products to commercialize in order to maximum utilization of milk which is available plenty in our country. Chhana jalebi is one among traditional dairy product, this study is undertaken to fulfill the mentioned need with following objective. 1.2. Objective of the Study Objective of this study is to optimize the chhana jalebi production process and increasing its shelf life by identifying suitable preservative with optimized concentration. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Milk was obtained from the Tamil Nadu University of Veterinary and Animal Science (TANUVAS) Milk parlour, Kattuppakkam, Chennai and was standardized to 3.0 % fat and 8.5% solids-not-fat (SNF). All other materials like Maida, sugar, sunflower refined oil, golden corn flour and cardamom seeds were procured from local super market. 2.1. Preparation method of jalebi The jalebi preparation process comprises the formation of a thick batter from wheat flour and corn flour followed by hydration time. After thorough mixing with chhana to form a batter and pouring of the batter in a skilled manner into the hot oil maintained a temperature between 165-175°C.The practice of pouring the batter into hot oil varies widely of which flow through an opening of diameter between 4 to 5 mm in a cloth is common. In some occasions, the flowable batter is allowed to pour through a port/spout by the influence
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 232 of gravity and often with gentle pressure. Skilled artisans are required to pour the jalebi batter in a particular fashion to achieve the conventional attractive shape of jalebi. On frying for a span of 2-3 min, moisture escapes gradually and the soft strands show case hardening to offer a product having semi rigid cylindrical cross section. The fried jalebies are immediately dipped into warm sugar syrup of 60-70°Brix concentration having temperature between 50 to 75°C for 1-2 min. Later, soaked jalebies removed from syrup and become ready for consumption on cooling to offer the typical crisp jalebi texture in addition to an inherent juicy mouth feel (Bajaj et al. 2002). 2.2. Optimization Methods of parameters In order to produce uniform quality product various processing parameters were tried: (i) Fat content in Milk (ii) Combination of chhana maida ratio (iii) Level of water addition (iv) Hydration time (v) Frying time and temperature (vi) Sugar Syrup concentration, (vii) Sugar syrup temperature and (viii) Time of soaking. In order to select the best form of major ingredients like chhana, maida, cornflour and water, the following were tried (i) chhana with 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5% and 6% of fat level (ii) chhana and maida ratio 15, 30, 45, 60 gms and 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 gms respectively (iii) water with 35%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 55% (iv) hydration time 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hrs (v) Frying time and temperature 120⁰C, 140⁰C, 160⁰C, 170⁰C, 180⁰C and 200⁰C for 4 mins, 3 mins, 2 mins, 1 min, 50 sec and 40 sec respectively (vi) Sugar Syrup concentration 50⁰Bx, 60⁰Bx, 65⁰Bx, 70⁰Bx and 80⁰Bx (vii) soaking time 1, 2, 3 and 4 mins 2.3. Analysis Methods The chhana jalebi units were taken into a mortar and pestle and a homogeneous mixture was made by crushing and mashing. From this mixture required mass of sample was weighed accurately for different physic-chemical analyses. Fat content was determined by Mojonnier method (BIS 1981), total protein by micro Kjeldahl method (AOAC 2005), acidity by titration method (BIS 1981), moisture by gravimetric method (BIS 1981), ash content by (AOAC 1995) procedure,. Water activity (aw) was determined by Aqualab water activity meter, USA, pH by ORLAB digital pH meter, Microbiological analysis was carried out as per BIS (1981) procedures. The carbohydrate content of chhana jalebi was derived by difference. The colour value (‘L’, ‘a’, ‘b’) was measured using hunter lab color flex meter (Hunter Associates Laboratory Inc., Reston, Virgina (USA). Texture profile analysis was performed by using Texture profile analyzer (Stable Micro Systems Model TA-XT Plus,UK). Sensory evaluation was done at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. Hedonic rating (9-point scale; 1 = dislike extremely, 9 = like extremely) (Amerine et al. 1965). Statistical analysis was subjected to one way and two way analyses of variants were used by SPSS software wherever it required. F-test of significant, Critical Difference (CD) was determined at 5 % significant level in order to determine treatment effects (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994). 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Effect of fat percentage in milk on the sensory quality of chhana jalebi Fat plays an important role in chhana quality. Increase the fat content in milk softening the product. Hence the preparation like jalebi, soft chhana was preferable. The
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 233 average values of sensory scores by hedonic scale were presented in table 1 along with standard deviation. Table 1 Sensory attributes of chhana jalebi on different level of fat percentage Level of fat percentage Parameters 1.5% 3.0% 4.5% 6.0% CD (P≤0.05) Colour&Appearance 7.31±0.51a 7.33a ±0.59a 7.38 ±0.744a 7.36 ±0.74a NS Flavour 7.08±0.44a 7.70±0.46b 7.89±0.45b 8.19±0.50c 0.23 Body&Texture 6.6±0.77a 8.12±0.74ab 7.52±0.98a 6.71±0.72a 0.98 Overall acceptability 7.11±0.63a 7.70±0.62d 7.47±0.66c 7.28±0.67b 0.16 Note: Values with different superscripts in a row are differ significantly at P≤0.05 Colour of jalebi varies from light yellow to brown. It clearly depicts that with increased milk fat levels, score for colour and appearance increased, it may be due to the fact that fat provides glossiness to chhana jalebi, whereas level of fat had no effect on colour and appearance score. The colour of jalebi mainly because of the browning products formed during frying and those products are mainly derivatives of proteins and interaction with carbohydrates. The fat content exhibited effect on flavor quality. The fact that with increased levels of milk fat, sensory flavour scores also increased. This could be also attributed that the typical fatty acid balances in butter fat. Milk fat contributes to typical all milk flavors. The body and texture of the product become firmer as fat content of the milk increased. In generally in milk products, the fat contributes to the soft texture where as in present project the product prepared with higher fat milk exhibited chewy body. This could be attributed to interaction of proteins and fats during frying at high temperature. According to evaluators the flavor of the product prepared from 6% fat milk was better. However, overall this product scores less because of more chewy body and texture. Using 3% fat milk, jalebi with desirable colour and body and texture was obtained. 3.2. Effect of water level in batter on the sensory quality of chhana jalebi The role of water in food preparation is of great importance. It helps to distribute particles of materials like starch and protein to produce a smooth texture. The amount of water present in food affects its texture, consistency and feels in the mouth. The average values of sensory scores by hedonic scale were presented in table 2 along with standard deviation. Table 2 Sensory attributes of chhana jalebi on different water level in batter (%) Water level in batter (%) Parameters 35 40 45 50 55 CD (P≤0.05) Colour& Appearance 7.04±0.26NS 7.06±0.19 NS 7.06± 0.19NS 7.06±0.13NS 7.06±0.18NS NS Flavour 7.1±0.29NS 7.14±0.24NS 7.18±0.22NS 7.10±0.28NS 7.12±0.25NS 0.23 Body&Texture 6.80±0.14a 7.06±0.19b 8.24±0.18c 7.08±0.19b 6.80±0.20a 0.23 Overall acceptability 6.80±0.14a 7.06±0.19ab 7.24±0.18b 7.00±0.14a 6.88±0.17a 0.20 Note: Values with different superscripts in a row are differ significantly at P≤0.05
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 234 It is clearly showed that there is no impact of water level in batter on color & appearance and flavor of the product. The Body and texture of the product become firmer as water content increased in the batter as certain level. This could be attributed to gelation and water absorption. The crust thickness increases nonlinearly with decrease in moisture content during frying. The body and texture score of the product prepared from 35% to 45% were statistically increased from 6.80 to 8.24 whereas further increase of water level in batter such as 50% and 55% were statistically decreasing scores such as 7.08 and 6.80 respectively (P≤0.05). This is because of interaction of water and protein during frying. 3.3. Effect of frying temperatures on the sensory quality of chhana jalebi Frying determines the nature of the product. Foods fried at the optimum temperature and time has golden brown color, properly cooked, crispy, and optimal oil absorption (Blumenthal 1991). However, under fried foods at lower temperature or shorter frying time than the optimum have white or slightly brown color at the edge, and have un-gelatinized or partially cooked starch at the center. Over fried foods at higher temperature and longer frying time than the optimum frying have darkened and hardened surfaces and a greasy texture due to the excessive oil absorption. . The average values of sensory scores by hedonic scale were presented in table 3 along with standard deviation. Table 3 Sensory attributes chhana jalebi soaked in different frying temperatures °(C) Frying temperatures (°C) Parameters 120-130 for 4-5 mins 140-150 for 3- 4 mins 160-170 for 1-2 mins 180-200 for 40-50 secs CD (P≤0.05) Colour& Appearance 7.78±0.29NS 7.88±0.16 NS 7.98±0.35NS 7.88±0.13 NS NS Flavour 6.80±0.57a 7.10±0.72ab 7.70±0.57bc 6.56±0.84a 0.52 Body&Texture 6.30±0.44a 6.95±0.377ab 8.11±0.36bc 6.60±0.54a 0.44 Overall acceptability 6.50±0.50a 6.95±0.37a 8.00±0.58b 6.60±0.54a 0.5 Note: Values with different superscripts in a row are differ significantly at P≤0.05 These color and flavor changes resulted from the increased rate of non-enzymatic browning (Maillard) reactions between proteins and reducing sugars at higher temperatures. Lower the temperature results white in colour and higher the temperature of frying gives dark brown colour and cooked flavour. The typical fried flavor is mainly due to lipid degradation products originating from frying oils. The texture of fried products is influenced by the type of the oil used and frying temperature and time. Crispness is an important texture characteristic of fried foods. Crispness indicates freshness and high quality (Szczesniak 1988). For example, a crisp fried food should be firm and should snap easily when deformed,
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 235 emitting a crunchy sound (Christensen and Vickers 1981). Same case was observed in chhana jalebi fried at 160-170°C. Lower the temperature of frying results in chewy texture, more oil absorption, hard product and higher the frying temperature results case hardening. At the temperature of frying at 160-170°C for 1-2 mins gives crispy texture, light golden color, pleasant flavor. 3.4. Effect of different levels of sugar syrup concentration on the sensory quality of chhana jalebi The concentration of sugar syrup not only provides taste and correct sweetness of the product but also has an influence on soaking characteristics of sugar syrup, shelf life and accepted by the society. Further, uniform soaking depends on temperature of syrup and time of soaking. The average values of sensory scores by hedonic scale were presented in table 4 along with standard deviation. Sugar syrup concentration does not give any impact on scores on color and appearance of chhana jalebi. Increasing the concentration of sugar gives intense sweetness and lowers the concentration results low sweetness. Table 4 Sensory attributes chhana jalebi soaked in different sugar syrup concentrations Sugar syrup concentrations (°Brix) Parameters 50 60 65 68 70 80 CD P≤0.05) CA 7.75±0.36NS 7.75±0.23NS 7.75±0.31NS 7.75±0.23NS 7.75±0.36NS 7.75±0.47NS NS FL 6.90±0.74a 7.34±0.55a 8.17±0.18bc 8.70±0.13c 7.17±0.74ab 6.53±0.84a 0.59 BT 6.90±0.74a 7.30±0.44a 7.34±0.47ab 8.12±0.45bc 7.50±0.50a 7.20±0.57a 0.4 OA 6.90±0.74a 7.10±0.74a 7.14±0.77a 7.92±0.68b 6.90±0.74a 6.80±0.75a 0.44 CA- Color and appearance, FL- Flavor, BT- Body and texture, OA- overall acceptability Note: Values with different superscripts in a row are differ significantly at P≤0.05 In generally in milk products, the low sugar syrup contributes to the soggy texture where as in present project the product prepared with higher sugar syrup exhibited hard body. The sugar syrup concentration of 68⁰ brix for 2mins had showed optimal sweetness, desirable sugar syrup absorption, crispiness and more juiciness. 3.5. Effect of chhana - maida combination The major role of a binding agent affects the composition , rheology & the sensory attributes of the product . It also influences holding capacity of dough with its ingredients taste and binds with moisture. The average value of sensory scores with mean value was given in table 5.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 236 Table 5 Sensory attributes of chhana jalebi on combination of maida and chhana (gms) Maida(gms) Sensory attributes scored on 9- point hedonic scale Chhana (gms) Parameters 15 30 45 60 CD(P≤0.05)=0.47 Colour and appearance 20 7.00±0.0b 7.44±0.48a 6.71±0.35a 6.80±0.44a 30 6.64±0.41a b 7.64±0.58a 6.86±0.45a 6.81±0.29a 40 6.47±0.33a 7.46±0.45a 6.90±0.54a 7.19±0.41a 50 6.47±0.33a 7.36±0.35a 6.96±0.44a 7.83±0.45b 60 6.14±0.31a 7.32±0.34a 6.77±0.47a 8.10±0.37b 70 6.14±0.31a 7.30±0.34a 6.54±0.33a 7.820.311b Flavour 20 7.20±0.27b c 7.76±0.43a 6.71±0.35a 6.80±0.44a CD(P≤0.05)=0.54 30 6.60±0.49a b 8.13±0.41ab 6.86±0.45a 6.81±0.29a 40 6.43±0.40a 7.69±0.43a 6.90±0.54a 7.19±0.41a 50 6.42±0.42a 7.55±0.37a 6.96±0.44a 7.83±0.45b 60 6.09±0.35a 7.45±0.30a 6.77±0.47a 8.10±0.37b 70 5.94±0.60a 7.27±0.30a 6.54±0.33a 7.82±0.31b Maida(gms) Body & Texture 20 7.18±0.69a 7.86±0.21a 6.47±0.31a 6.76±0.50a CD(P≤0.05)=0.41 30 7.33±0.84a b 8.08±0.51ab 6.71±0.41a 6.93±0.46a 40 7.22±0.89a 7.89±0.21a 7.00±0.58a b 7.19±0.41ab 50 7.18±0.87a 7.76±0.17a 6.83±0.32a 7.71±0.61bc 60 7.07±0.79a 7.59±0.30a 6.82±0.48a 8.10±0.37b 70 6.83±0.77a 7.51±0.40a 6.66±0.37a 7.82±0.31b Overall acceptability 20 7.18±0.69a 7.84±0.23b 6.68±0.35a 6.90±0.54a CD (P≤0.05)=0.24 30 7.02±0.72a 8.27±0.22bc 6.75±0.41a 6.99±0.52a 40 6.88±0.73a 7.98±0.10b 7.20±0.20a 7.19±0.41a 50 6.74±0.66a 7.82±0.10b 6.73±0.33a 7.71±0.61ab 60 6.74±0.66a 7.59±0.30ab 6.72±0.48a 8.10±0.37b 70 6.64 ±0.61a 7.51±0.40ab 6.60±0.37a 7.82±0.31b Values with different superscripts in a column are differ significantly at P≤0.05 As per the table, it was clearly showed that increase of maida levels from 20gms to 70gms on the product had no significant difference. But increase of chhana levels from 15gms to 60gms on the product had significant difference. It may be observed that the all the combination of chhana and maida ratio had significant influence on overall acceptance of the product. The statistical analysis also reveals that there was significant (P≤0.05) difference between products made by using different combination of chhana and maida ratios were presented in table 5.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 237 3.6. Optimized process of chhana jalebi production After optimization of individual parameters, chhana jalebi was manufactured as per optimized conditions mentioned in figure 1. Fig. 1: Standardization flow chart for chhana jalebi preparation Chhana jalebi was prepared from chhana made by using milk with 3 % fat. Chhana was mixed with hydrated Maida, cornflour and water to form a smooth and uniform batter. Kneaded batter was extruded through an aperture made in soft PET bottle to give a peculiar shape and thereafter dropped into hot oil for deep frying at about 160-170°C till surface color became light golden to yellow golden color. The fried units were then dipped in hot sugar syrup for 1 min. Next day, chhana jalebi was analyzed for its physic chemical characteristics. 3.7. Characterization of the standardized Chhana jalebi At the end of manufacture trials, the chhana jalebi had the following characteristics. The chhana jalebi sample was golden yellow in color and was coiled shape. The final product is crispy with porous core, slightly juicy with syrup oozing out when chewed. The average values of nutritional composition, texture, colour and sensory scores were given in table 6.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 238 Table 6 Quality characteristics of standardized chhana jalebi Quality characteristics Mean value with SD Quality characteristics Mean value with SD Physical characteristics Chemical characteristics (%) Weight of jalebi, g 5.1±0.22 Moisture 20.23±5.25 Thickness of jalebi, cm 0.81±0.09 Fat 12.53±0.17 Diameter of jalebi, cm 6.51±0.48 Protein 5.71±0.202 Sugar syrup absorbed by each jalebi (g) 2.77±0.20 Sucrose 40.21±0.30 Oil absorbed by each jalebi (g) 1.57±0.04 Ash 0.29±0.06 pH 5.05±0.07 Carbohydrate 67.11±0.19 Acidity (% of lactic acid) 0.310±0.01 Water activity 0.825±0.002 Sensory characteristics (9-Point scale) Textural characteristics Colour and Appearance 7.83±0.16 Hardness (N)* 0.028±0.003 Flavour 8.42±0.16 Fracturability (N)* 1.38±3.584 Body and Texture 8.26±0.34 Cohesiveness (no unit) 0.438±0.109 Overall acceptability 8.41±0.23 Adhesiveness (N sec)* -0.012±0.008 Color characteristics Springiness (no unit) 0.694±0.101 L* 51.04±1.47 Chewiness (no unit) 0.008±0.003 a* 10.35±2.29 Gumminess (no unit) 15.82±5.416 b* 29.97±2.66 *It is a force required to compress the sample from 2mm distance Based on the results, it was concluded that the standardized chhana jalebi samples have high protein and fat content, golden yellow in color, fracturability that is brittleness of the product was average as the product is crispy. The overall acceptability score was above 8, it indicates that the product was “extremely like” range and acceptable. 3.8. Shear thinning efficiency Shear thinning efficiency of batter was measured by using rheometer. Batter was prepared and kept required sample on rheometer platform. Rheometer was operated, through which graph with values was received from the monitor. Same analyses were repeated around 20 times and mean value with standard deviation was taken for arriving final value. Resultant graph was accomplished by using final mean values. Based on the graph following values were identified. Viscosity was 2.76+1.27 Pa.S; Shear rate was 55.05+28.01 1/S and Shear stress was 121.5+26.41. This graph was clearly showing the indirect proportion relationship between viscosity and shear rate. i.e. shear rate increases viscosity decreases. From these results, it is clearly indicated that the prepared jalebi has shear thinning rate / shear thinning efficiency which gives exact batter consistency for making jalebi coils. 3.9. Effect of preservatives on the changes in Chhana jalebi during storage Chhana jalebi was prepared according to the standardized process as shown in figure. 1 for further investigation. It was observed that chhana jalebi without preservative at room temperature (28°±2C) can stay good up to 3-4 days whereas at refrigerated temperature (4°±2C) it can stay good up to 9-10 days. The study was conducted to increase the shelf-life at 28±20 C using two permitted preservative like potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate at
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 239 four different levels and study sensory changes during storage period until product spoiled. They were added in different concentrations in sugar syrup. Sodium benzoate was added in concentrations which are 100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm &500ppm and potassium sorbate was added in the concentrations which are 600ppm, 800ppm, 1000ppm and 1500ppm. And then it was found out which concentration gave more shelf life and best result. Table 7: Preservative effects on sensory score of chhana jalebi samples treated with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate stored for 10days at ambient temperature (28°C) Sensory attributes Sodium benzoate (300ppm) Potassium sorbate (800ppm) Slope value R2 value Slope value R2 value CA 0.025 0.848 0.001 0.905 FL 0.024 0.863 0.001 0.863 BT 0.021 0.82 0.001 0.837 OA 0.0021 0.696 0.001 0.828 CA- Color and appearance, FL- Flavor, BT- Body and texture, OA- overall acceptability The finalized preservative i.e. Potassium sorbate contained samples of 800ppm were showed 30days without any adverse effect on its body and texture, flavour, colour and appearance at ambient temperature and 60 days at refrigerated conditions. From the table 7 and 8, it was clearly indicated that R2 value of potassium sorbate has high compared to sodium benzoate. Table 8: Temperature effects on sensory score of chhana jalebi samples treated with sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate stored for 10days at ambient temperature (28°C) and refrigerated temperature (4°C) sensory attribute s Sodium benzoate (300 ppm) Potassium sorbate (800 ppm) 28°C 4°C 28°C 4°C Slope value R2 value Slope value R2 value Slope value R2 value Slope value R2 value CA -0.374 0.738 -0.121 0.749 -0.3 0.8 -0.108 0.895 FL -0.376 0.756 -0.128 0.738 -0.306 0.788 -0.11 0.895 BT -0.434 0.813 -0.136 0.82 -0.302 0.804 -0.107 0.911 OA -0.433 0.825 -0.121 0.781 -0.318 0.818 -0.114 0.879 CA- Color and appearance, FL- Flavor, BT- Body and texture, OA- overall acceptability Thus indicates it has 25 times more effective against microbial growth than sodium benzoate. Similarly, same effect was observed in refrigerated temperature than ambient temperature.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME 240 4. CONCLUSION Chhana jalebi production process was successfully optimized. Process optimization includes 3% fat level in chhana, 1:1 ratio of maida - chhana combination, 45% of water level in batter, 160-170°C frying temperature for 2 min, 68°Brix sugar syrup concentration for 1 min soaking time were found to be the most appropriate levels for chhana jalebi production. The composition percentage of chhana jalebi was 20.23±5.25, 12.53±0.17, 5.71±0.202, 67.11±0.19 for moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate respectively. Similarly various physico chemical and statistical analyses carried out and results were presented in this study. Sensory score of overall acceptability of the product was accomplished as 8.41±0.23 out of 9 through food connoisseur panel members. Shelf life of the product was achieved around 30 days in room temperature and more than 60 days in refrigerated condition by using potassium sorbate as suitable preservative. Hence it is believed that process optimization and increased shelf life will pave path to commercialization of Indian traditional products if suitable packaging and automated machineries developed. This would have been considered as scope for the future studies in this field. REFERENCE 1. Amarja Satish Nargunde, (2013) Role of Dairy Industry in Rural Development, International Journal of advanced research in Engineering and technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 08-16, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499 2. Amerine M A, Pongborn R H and Roescler E B (1965) Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food, pp. 338–339. New York, NY: Academic Press 3. AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis, 12th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC 4. Bajaj P Mathur P and Sharma S (2002) Safety of street foods: study of a food plaza in Delhi. Indian Food Industry 21(3):39-43 5. Berry SK (1992) Role of air in foods, Indian Food Industry 11(2):40–46 6. Blumenthal, M.M. (1991) A new look at the chemistry and physics of deep fat frying, Food Technology 45 (2): 68–74 7. Blumenthal, M.M., and R.F. Stier, (1991) Optimization of deep-fat frying operations, Trends in Food Science and Technology 2: 144–48 8. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Govt of India (1981) Methods of test for dairy industry: Part 2 Chemical analysis of milk (IS 1479: Part 2). New Delhi, India 9. Chakkaravarthi.A Punil kumar H N and Bhattacharya S (2009) jilebi-An Indian traditional sweet: Attributes, manufacturing practices and scope for large scale production. Indian Food Industry 28 (2): 30-36 10. Chitale SR (2000) Commercialization of Indian traditional foods: Jeelebi, Ladoo and Bakervadi. In: Proc. International Conference on Traditional Foods, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India, pp 331 11. Christensen, C.M., and Z.M. Vickers, (1981) Relationships of chewing sounds to judgement of food crispness, Journal of Food Science 46: 574–79 12. De (2005) Outlines of Dairy Technology, pp. 419. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 13. J.M. Sieliechi, et.al, (2013) Coagulation-settling of natural organic matter from soft tropical water using aluminium and Iron (iii) sulphate, International journal of advanced research in Engineering and technology, Vol 4, No 4, pp. 118-133
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