Navigation system by using gis and gps
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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 232 NAVIGATION SYSTEM BY USING GIS AND GPS DeepeshNamdev1 , Monika Mehra2 , Prerna Sahariya3 , Rajeshwaree Parashar4 , Shikha singhal5 1 ( HOD cum Associate Professor (E&C, EE), Gurukul Institute of Engg. & Technology, Kota(Raj), India) 2 (M.Tech Student, Gurukul Institute of Engg. & Technology, Kota(Raj), India) 3 (M.Tech Student, Gurukul Institute of Engg. & Technology, Kota(Raj), India) 4 (M.Tech Student,Gurukul Institute of Engg. & Technology, Kota(Raj), India) 5 (M.Tech Student, Gurukul Institute of Engg. & Technology, Kota(Raj), India) ABSTRACT Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation.It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks. All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns Keywords – ERDAS, GIS, GPS, Navigation System, and Space Segments. I. INTRODUCTION A navigation system is a (usually electronic) system that aids in navigation. Navigation systems may be entirely on board a vehicle or vessel, or they may be located elsewhere and communicate via radio or other signals with a vehicle or vessel, or they may use a combination of these methods. Navigation systems may be capable of: • containing maps, which may be displayed in human readable format via text or in a graphical format. • determining a vehicle or vessel's location via sensors, maps, or information from external sources. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 232-243 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 233 • providing suggested directions to a human in charge of a vehicle or vessel via text or speech. • providing directions directly to an autonomous vehicle such as a robotic probe or guided missile. 1 .VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEM The traditional vehicle navigation system is an isolated system,which can not meet the demanding of public traveling and traffic manage. Real-time traffic information is one of the most important applications for the driver and essential feature of the vehicle navigation system. Now today most of the former navigation systems are developed based on static data instead of real-time or dynamic traffic information. In this paper, it gives the framework of vehicle navigation system based real-time traffic information, discusses spatial and temporal characteristic of real time navigation data and gets the real-time navigation data model in GIS-T, and successfully deploys it, which receives traffic information from the terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T- DMB) system.It is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations along roads also in its database. Fig.1 : navigation system in car
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 234 Fig.2: map formats Navigation with Gosmore, an open source routing software, on a personal navigation assistant with free map data from Open Street Map. Formats are almost uniformly proprietary; there is no industry standard for satellite navigation maps, although some companies are currently trying to address this with SDAL and NDS PSF. The map data vendors such as Navteq create the base map in a standard format GDF, but each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized, usually proprietary format. GDF is not a CD standard for car navigation systems. GDF is used and converted onto the CD-ROM in the internal format of the Navigation.
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 235 2. TYPES OF NAVIGATION SYSTEM 2.1 MODERN NAVIGATION SYSTEM Illustration Description Application Dead reckoning or DR, in which one advances a prior position using the ship's course and speed. The new position is called a DR position. It is generally accepted that only course and speed determine the DR position. Correcting the DR position for leeway, current effects,and steering error result in an estimated position or EP. Used at all times. Pilotage involves navigating in restricted waters with frequent determination of position relative to geographic and hydrographic features. Whenwithin sight of land Celestial navigation involves reducing celestial measurements to lines of position using tables, spherical trigonometry, and almanacs. Usedprimarily as a backup to satelliteand otherelectronic systemsthe open ocean. Table 1 2.2 ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM Illustration Description Application Radio navigation uses radio waves to determine position by either radio direction finding systems or hyperbolic systems, such as Decca, Omega and LORAN-C Losing ground to GPS. Radar navigation uses radar to determine the distance from or bearing of objects whose position is known. This process is separate from radar’s use as a collision avoidance system. Primarily when within radar range of land. Satellite navigation uses artificial earth satellite system,such as GPS, to determine position. Used in all situations. Table 2
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 236 3 .GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. 3.1 Basic concept of GPS A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include • the time the message was transmitted • satellite position at time of message transmission The receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite using the speed of light. Each of these distances and satellites locations define a sphere. The receiver is on the surface of each of these spheres when the distances and the satellites' locations are correct. These distances and satellites' locations are used to compute the location of the receiver using the navigation equations. This location is then displayed, perhaps with a moving map display or latitude and longitude; elevation information may be included. Many GPS units show derived information such as direction and speed, calculated from position changes. In typical GPS operation, four or more satellites must be visible to obtain an accurate result. Four sphere surfaces typically do not intersect. Because of this we can say with confidence that when we solve the navigation equations to find an intersection, this solution gives us the position of the receiver along with accurate time thereby eliminating the need for a very large, expensive, and power hungry clock. The very accurately computed time is used only for display or not at all in many GPS applications, which use only the location. A number of applications for GPS do make use of this cheap and highly accurate timing. These include time transfer, traffic signal timing, and synchronization of cell phone base stations. Although four satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases. If one variable is already known, a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. For example, a ship or aircraft may have known elevation. Some GPS receivers may use additional clues or assumptions such as reusing the last known altitude, dead reckoning, inertial navigation, or including information from the vehicle computer, to give a (possibly degraded) position when fewer than four satellites are visible. The current GPS consists of three major segments. These are the space segment (SS), a control segment (CS), and a user segment (US). The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space, and each GPS receiver uses these signals to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and the current time. The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. The control segment is composed of a master control station, an alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scient the Standard Positioning Service ( 3.2 Space Segment A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view example at 45°N, changes with time. The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS parlance. The GPS design originally called for approximately circular orbits, but this was modified to six orbital planes with four satellites each.The orbits are centered on the Earth, not rotating with the Earth, but instead fixed with respect to the distant stars. The six orbit planes have approximately 55° relative to Earth's equator) and are separated by 60° (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). The orbital period is one-half a sidereal day, i.e., 11 hours and 58 minutes. The orbits are arranged so that at least six satellites are always within The result of this objective is that the four satellites are not evenly spaced (90 d within each orbit. In general terms, the angular difference between satellites in each orbit is 30, 105, 120, and 105 degrees apart which, of course, sum to 360 degrees. Orbiting at an altitude of approximately 20,200 approximately 26,600 km (16,500 repeating the same ground track each day.This was very helpful during development because even with only four satellites, correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. For military operations, the ground track repeat can be used good coverage in combat zones. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 237 Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scient the Standard Positioning Service (GPS navigation devices). Fig.3 gps constellation A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 45°N, changes with time. The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles (SV) in GPS parlance. The GPS design originally called for 24 SVs, eight each in three , but this was modified to six orbital planes with four satellites ed on the Earth, not rotating with the Earth, but instead fixed with respect to the distant stars. The six orbit planes have approximately 55° inclination ) and are separated by 60° right ascension of the ascending node (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). The orbital period half a sidereal day, i.e., 11 hours and 58 minutes. The orbits are arranged so that at lways within line of sight from almost everywhere on Earth's surface. The result of this objective is that the four satellites are not evenly spaced (90 d within each orbit. In general terms, the angular difference between satellites in each orbit is 30, 105, 120, and 105 degrees apart which, of course, sum to 360 degrees. of approximately 20,200 km (12,600 mi); orbital radius of km (16,500 mi), each SV makes two complete orbits each e same ground track each day.This was very helpful during development because even with only four satellites, correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. For military operations, the ground track repeat can be used International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scientific users of A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this The space segment (SS) is composed of the orbiting GPS satellites, or Space Vehicles SVs, eight each in three , but this was modified to six orbital planes with four satellites ed on the Earth, not rotating with the Earth, but instead fixed with inclination (tilt ascending node (angle along the equator from a reference point to the orbit's intersection). The orbital period half a sidereal day, i.e., 11 hours and 58 minutes. The orbits are arranged so that at from almost everywhere on Earth's surface. The result of this objective is that the four satellites are not evenly spaced (90 degrees) apart within each orbit. In general terms, the angular difference between satellites in each orbit is mi); orbital radius of mi), each SV makes two complete orbits each sidereal day, e same ground track each day.This was very helpful during development because even with only four satellites, correct alignment means all four are visible from one spot for a few hours each day. For military operations, the ground track repeat can be used to ensure
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 238 As of December 2012, there are 32 satellites in the GPS constellation. The additional satellites improve the precision of GPS receiver calculations by providing redundant measurements. With the increased number of satellites, the constellation was changed to a nonuniform arrangement. Such an arrangement was shown to improve reliability and availability of the system, relative to a uniform system, when multiple satellites fail. About nine satellites are visible from any point on the ground at any one time (see animation at right), ensuring considerable redundancy over the minimum four satellites needed for a position. 3.3 Control Segment Fig..4:-Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum The control segment is composed of 1. a master control station (MCS) 2. an alternate master control station 3. four dedicated ground antennas and 4. six dedicated monitor stations The MCS can also access U.S. Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) ground antennas (for additional command and control capability) and NGA (National Geospatial- Intelligence Agency) monitor stations. The flight paths of the satellites are tracked by dedicated U.S. Air Force monitoring stations in Hawaii, Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, Colorado Springs, Colorado and Cape Canaveral, along with shared NGA monitor stations operated in England, Argentina, Ecuador, Bahrain, Australia and Washington DC. The tracking information is sent to the Air Force Space Command MCS at Schriever Air Force Base 25 km (16 mi) ESE of Colorado Springs, which is operated by the 2nd Space
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 239 Operations Squadron (2 SOPS) of the U.S. Air Force. Then 2 SOPS contacts each GPS satellite regularly with a navigational update using dedicated or shared (AFSCN) ground antennas (GPS dedicated ground antennas are located at Kwajalein, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, and Cape Canaveral). These updates synchronize the atomic clocks on board the satellites to within a few nanoseconds of each other, and adjust the ephemeris of each satellite's internal orbital model. The updates are created by a Kalman filter that uses inputs from the ground monitoring stations, space weather information, and various other inputs.Satellite maneuvers are not precise by GPS standards. So to change the orbit of a satellite, the satellite must be marked unhealthy, so receivers will not use it in their calculation. Then the maneuver can be carried out, and the resulting orbit tracked from the ground. Then the new ephemeris is uploaded and the satellite marked healthy again.The Operation Control Segment (OCS) currently serves as the control segment of record. It provides the operational capability that supports global GPS users and keeps the GPS system operational and performing within specification.OCS successfully replaced the legacy 1970’s-era mainframe computer at Schriever Air Force Base in September 2007. After installation, the system helped enable upgrades and provide a foundation for a new security architecture that supported the U.S. armed forces. OCS will continue to be the ground control system of record until the new segment, Next Generation GPS Operation Control System (OCX), is fully developed and functional. The new capabilities provided by OCX will be the cornerstone for revolutionizing GPS’s mission capabilities, and enabling Air Force Space Command to greatly enhance GPS operational services to U.S. combat forces, civil partners and myriad of domestic and international users.The GPS OCX program also will reduce cost, schedule and technical risk. It is designed to provide 50% sustainment cost savings through efficient software architecture and Performance-Based Logistics. In addition, GPS OCX expected to cost millions less than the cost to upgrade OCS while providing four times the capability. The GPS OCX program represents a critical part of GPS modernization and provides significant information assurance improvements over the current GPS OCS program. • OCX will have the ability to control and manage GPS legacy satellites as well as the next generation of GPS III satellites, while enabling the full array of military signals. • Built on a flexible architecture that can rapidly adapt to the changing needs of today’s and future GPS users allowing immediate access to GPS data and constellations status through secure, accurate and reliable information. • Enables new modernized signals (L1C, L2C, and L5) and has M-code capability, which the legacy system is unable to do. • Provides significant information assurance improvements over the current program including detecting and preventing cyber attacks, while isolating, containing and operating during such attacks. 4. GIS (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS) Geographic Information Systems are computer based tools for mapping and analysing features and events on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualisation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps”
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 240 Fig. No.5: GIS users Importance of GIS in Navigation System is that we can create maps and by using GCP’s (ground control point) create rectified map.[1] 5. REMOTE SENSING Taking a closer look from a distance is the concept behind remote sensing, broadly defined as a method of obtaining information about properties of an object without coming into physical contact with that object. [2] A more specific definition of remote sensing relates to studying the environment from a distance using techniques such as satellite imaging, aerial photography, and radar. While the majority of remote sensing technologies utilize electromagnetic radiation for measurements, other methods use seismic waves or acoustics. Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) technology is used to collect measurements from the sea floor by collecting point or raster data derived from the strength and time of the acoustic return. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) uses single and multibeam sonar for numerous applications like mapping seafloor geology, field verifying other remotely sensed data sets, navigation, disaster recovery and salvage, and habitat studies, among other uses. [3] The beginnings of remote sensing technology are based in photography. The first aerial images of the earth were captured using cameras attached to balloons and kites in the mid- nineteenth century. During World War I aerial views captured by cameras mounted on airplanes were used for military reconnaissance. This method of aerial photography became the standard for depicting the earth’s surface from a vertical (looking straight down) or oblique (at various angles, generally less than 45°) perspective from that time until the 1960s. [4]
  • 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 241 [5] Fig No.6: Geometric Transformation
  • 11. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 242 Satellites developed by Russian and American space programs expanded the field of vision in the 1960s by obtaining views from beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Landstat, Nimbus, ERS, RADARSAT and UARS are satellite programs used for earth observation. Images collected by NASA’s Landsat satellite program, first launched in 1972, are used to monitor a number of environmental factors including water quality, glacier recession, sea ice movement, invasive species encroachment, coral reef health, land use change, deforestation rates and population growth. Satellite imagery is also used to help assess damage from natural disasters such as fires, floods, and tsunamis, and subsequently, plan disaster relief and flood control programs. [6] Remote sensing methods are used to gain a better understanding of the Earth and its functions. A Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is being developed to connect earth observation systems around the world. A comprehensive and coordinated system of earth observations could lead to better management of environmental data and could fulfill numerous societal benefits including: • Reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. • Understanding environmental factors affecting human health and well-being. • Improving management of energy resources. • Understanding, assessing, predicting, mitigating, and adapting to climate variability and change. • Improving water resource management through better understanding of the water cycle. • Improving weather information, forecasting and warning. • Improving the management and protection of terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. • . Understanding, monitoring and conserving biodiversity. [7] The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan encourages the adoption of international standards to achieve interoperability among diverse systems. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society has identified the need to create standards for standards for collecting, processing, storing, and disseminating shared metadata, data, and derived products. [8] 6. CONCLUSION The technology of the Global Positioning System is allowing for huge changes in society. The applications using GPS are constantly growing. The cost of the receivers is dropping while at the same time the accuracy of the system is improving. This affects everyone with things such as faster Internet speed and safer plane landings. Even though the system was originally developed for military purposes, civil sales now exceed military sales (See Figure below). Fig. 5 Graph of GPS Remote sensing provides a cost-effective method for mapping and monitoring broad areas, and has the advantage that the spread of diseases such as dieback is not enhanced by remote monitoring. Archived data can be used to monitor how areas have changed through time.
  • 12. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 243 REFERENCES [1] Deepesh Namdev, S.Mangal, M.Singh,Image Processing with GIS and ERDAS,Lambert Academic Publication, Germany,June- 2012. [2] Bichlien Hoang American Meteorology Society “Glossary of Meteorology.” [3] NOAA Coastal Services Center“Remote Sensing for Coastal Management.” [4] NASA. “The Remote Sensing Tutorial.” [5] James B.Campbell, Introduction to Remote Sensing, The Guilford Press Fourth Edition, 2007 [6] NASA. “The Numbers Behind Landsat.” [7] GEO-Group on Earth Observations “Societal Benefits”. [8] Ashley Caudill IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. “GEOSS Standards”. [9] Seema vora, Prof.Mukesh Tiwari and Prof.Jaikaran Singh, “GSM Based Remote Monitoring of Waste Gas at Locally Monitored GUI with the Implementation of Modbus Protocol and Location Identification Through GPS”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 52 - 59, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [10] Rahul T. Dahatonde and Shankar B. Deosarkar, “Design of Radiating-Edge Gap- Coupled Broadband Microstrip Antenna for GPS Application”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 303 - 313, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.