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    Modified solar collector annexed with residential solar cooker Modified solar collector annexed with residential solar cooker Presentation Transcript

    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 53 MODIFIED SOLAR COLLECTOR ANNEXED WITH RESIDENTIAL SOLAR COOKER S. Mathana Krishnan1 , V. Srinivasan2 1 Mechanical Department, Thiagarajar college of Engineering, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India 2 Mechanical Department, Thiagarajar college of Engineering, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India ABSTRACT In this modernized world, energy is the major prerequisite for the ballgame of equipments without which man cannot survive. Solar energy is very abundant and everlasting comparable to all other energies. Scientists and researchers are still being inquired to harness the full potential of the solar radiation. By focusing sunrays to a point or line, lavish amount of heat energy is generated which is used for the cooking purpose. The predicament of solar cooker is that cooking has to be taken place under direct sunlight and absence of night time cooking. Recent developments are in progress to make possibility of residential solar cooker. This paper eliminates the predicaments of residential solar cooking in night time and also increases the efficiency of cooking by introducing vacuum tubes for better heat absorption and insulation. Phase change materials (PCM) are used for better heat storage medium as a backup for night time cooking. Factors like energy requirement, processing time, design for heat ex-changers, volume of PCM required, mass flow rate of water etc., are considered to design the system for a domestic house. Finally, this solar cooker can be the substitute for all other cooking systems and mainly reduces pollution because of LPG, kerosene, wood etc., which is used as a cooking fuel. Keywords: Solar energy, Vacuum tubes, Phase change materials, Reduces pollution, Night time cooking, Designing the system. I. INTRODUCTION Energy is strewn all over the world whose ubiety is very immense. Man has perpetually yearned to capture it and utilize it for humans. The necessity of energy escalates from day to day but legion of the fossil fuels and conventional fuels fire up to extinct. Most of the relic fuels are consumed for the cooking purpose. Cooking using solar energy is the peerless surrogate for tackling LPG demand if its efficiency is aggrandized and it also has zero pollution. Its hefty advantage is that the rays of sun are very intensive and it has the adequacy to do any work but it relies upon the way INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 53-61 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July and effectiveness by which energy is extracted. type of solar cookers are used, but these cookers are not successful. This is because of the predicaments to cook under direct sunlight and also the absence of solar energy at night time which made us to rely on other conventional cooking systems. inputs heat energy but the major detriment is that it has only low efficiency and sluggish processing. This paper primarily focuses on residential tube crammed with phase change materials that it absorbs heat energy by incident solar irradiation, that travels through glass tube and it traps the infrared radiation in solar rays. These trapped radiations are converted to heat energy. This heat energy does not travel through vacuum expect radiation losses. But this radiation loss is negligible due to small temperature difference. Hence in vacuum tub heat energy will not be transmitted to the atmosphere. so heat storage medium is obligatory. Phase change material is the resources because it delivers the stored latent heat energy at a particular (constant) melting point temperature. The efficiency of the solar cooker is placement of vacuum tube along with phase change material. This d efficiently but also stores the heat for the future usage. water or steam is circulated for cooking the condensation of wet mixture of water vapour phases. The circulation of water procures higher temperature for the food to cook and phase change materials stores the heat for the time in the absence II. DESCRIPTION International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 54 and effectiveness by which energy is extracted. At beginning box type, panel types, paraboloidal type of solar cookers are used, but these cookers are not successful. This is because of the predicaments to cook under direct sunlight and also the absence of solar energy at night time which ly on other conventional cooking systems. There is also variety of appliances which heat energy but the major detriment is that it has only low efficiency and sluggish processing. focuses on residential solar cooker with night time backup by means of with phase change materials. The intention for choosing black layered incident solar irradiation, that travels through the vacuum jacketed infrared radiation in solar rays. These trapped radiations are converted to heat energy. This heat energy does not travel through vacuum expect radiation losses. But this radiation loss is negligible due to small temperature difference. Hence in vacuum tub heat energy will not be transmitted to the atmosphere. The entire heat cannot be utilized at once and so heat storage medium is obligatory. Phase change material is the most admirable heat storage medium compared to other cause it delivers the stored latent heat energy at a particular (constant) melting point . The efficiency of the solar cooker is significantly amplified by means of the design and placement of vacuum tube along with phase change material. This design not only heats the cooker the heat for the future usage. The cooker is enclosed by cooking the food. The small tank is sited next to the cooker for the mixture of water vapour because no pump will handle both liquid and vapour The circulation of water procures higher temperature for the food to cook and phase change es the heat for the time in the absence of solar irradiation. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME At beginning box type, panel types, paraboloidal type of solar cookers are used, but these cookers are not successful. This is because of the predicaments to cook under direct sunlight and also the absence of solar energy at night time which also variety of appliances which heat energy but the major detriment is that it has only low efficiency and sluggish processing. by means of vacuum layered vacuum tube is the vacuum jacketed infrared radiation in solar rays. These trapped radiations are converted to heat energy. This heat energy does not travel through vacuum expect radiation losses. But this radiation loss is negligible due to small temperature difference. Hence in vacuum tubes the absorbed The entire heat cannot be utilized at once and heat storage medium compared to other cause it delivers the stored latent heat energy at a particular (constant) melting point by means of the design and esign not only heats the cooker jacket where hot next to the cooker for the use no pump will handle both liquid and vapour The circulation of water procures higher temperature for the food to cook and phase change
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July Cooking is vital and it has to from either LPG or electricity. Troubles will be The effective cooking is also done by the alternative resources like solar energy which is explained below. The intact unit consists of vacuum tubes, phase change materials, cooker surrounded by the jacket, small tank, insulated tubes assumptions of 5 persons in a domestic house. with phase change material within that copper tube are positioned in either side with a centre cube of phase change materials. PCM is that it has superior latent heat storage. According to the pondered volume, excess PCM is placed inside the insulated cubical box at has lower value of surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio compared to other standard shapes. Hence heat loss will be minimum at the night time. which is bent for greater surface contact and to enhance the promulgated inside the copper tube. This entire setup is collector. The area of parabolic collector is calculated by unit area and the energy required. Seven coils of copper tube are contact in the cube of phase change material located in the centre. cooker for condensation of the wet mixture. completes one cycle. The temperature of water increases cooker. If this system is erected in the universe demand. By eliminating the usage of LPG III. WORKING The entire arrangement works by utilizing heat from the solar relies upon the effective ways which harness the full potential of the sun. The parabolic collector is selected for the rationale of obtaining line focus in it. The pa converge it into a line where the vacuum tube Copper tubes are mounted inside the phase change material circulated inside the copper tube which absorbs the h the vacuum tube, cube of PCM is located International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 55 to be done in all places. Energy required for this operation is only Troubles will be faced in the production of both LPG and electricity. The effective cooking is also done by the alternative resources like solar energy which is explained consists of vacuum tubes, phase change materials, cooker surrounded by the insulated tubes and parabolic collector. The system is designed with the assumptions of 5 persons in a domestic house. The vacuum tubes of size 124 mm diameter with phase change material within that copper tube arrangements are made. The two in either side with a centre cube of phase change materials. The intent latent heat storage. The volume of phase change material is phase change materials are crammed in two vacuum tube excess PCM is placed inside the insulated cubical box at the centre. The cubical box is chosen as it has lower value of surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio compared to other standard shapes. Hence heat loss will be minimum at the night time. The copper tubes are placed inside the vacuum tube which is bent for greater surface contact and to enhance the better heat transfer and ed inside the copper tube. This entire setup is positioned in the line focus of the parabolic The area of parabolic collector is calculated by considering available solar irradiation . Seven coils of copper tube are to be found for better surface area hase change material located in the centre. The small tank is wet mixture. A pump is also built-in for the circulation of water and it completes one cycle. The temperature of water increases aggressively and it cooks the food in the cooker. If this system is erected in the universe, we can easily face the LPG and electrical power eliminating the usage of LPG, we can control the carbon emissions in large quantity. works by utilizing heat from the solar irradiation and the efficiency ways which harness the full potential of the sun. The parabolic collector is of obtaining line focus in it. The parabolic collector reflects sun rays and converge it into a line where the vacuum tube packed with phase change material mounted inside the phase change material. The water as a working substance is which absorbs the heat extracted by the vacuum tube located which is well insulated from the surroundings which also International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME Energy required for this operation is only in the production of both LPG and electricity. The effective cooking is also done by the alternative resources like solar energy which is explained consists of vacuum tubes, phase change materials, cooker surrounded by the The system is designed with the diameter are filled two vacuum tubes intent for choosing volume of phase change material is calculated. vacuum tubes and The cubical box is chosen as it has lower value of surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio compared to other standard shapes. Hence The copper tubes are placed inside the vacuum tube t transfer and water is in the line focus of the parabolic solar irradiation per for better surface area The small tank is sited next to the for the circulation of water and it aggressively and it cooks the food in the and electrical power , we can control the carbon emissions in large quantity. radiation and the efficiency ways which harness the full potential of the sun. The parabolic collector is rabolic collector reflects sun rays and with phase change material is positioned. . The water as a working substance is eat extracted by the vacuum tube. In between which is well insulated from the surroundings which also
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 56 plays an effective role in heat transfer. Hot water is transferred to the cooker by insulated pipes to eliminate transmission heat loss. Due to the solar irradiation, water gets heated up in step by step process. This hot water is made circulated through the jacket in the cooker. The small tank is sited next to the cooker for the condensation of the wet mixture of water vapour. A pump is used to drive the system of fluids. A valve is fitted for the adjusting of mass flow rate of water. This mass flow rate will controls the cooking temperature. If the mass flow rate is higher, it obtains lower cooking temperature and vice versa. This system surely meets the demand of LPG and power consumption and it also reduces pollution. IV. CALCULATION Assumptions 1) It is assumed that 7L cooker is suited for 5 people in a house 2) The cooking food is considered to be water 3) The location for cooking is chosen to be Madurai, Tamilnadu, India 4) It is assumed that maximum final temperature of the food is 130-150o C 5) Parabolic collector to be designed for PCM to attain maximum temperature of 160o C 6) Optimum melting point of PCM is 120o C 7) Time required to cook food during night time is assumed to be 1½ hours 1. Energy required to cook food Volume of the Cooker V = 0.007 m3 For water, Density = 1000 kg/m3 Mass m = 7 kg Specific heat (at constant pressure) Cp = 4.187 kJ/kg K Initial temperature of food TA = 30o C (room temperature) Maximum final temperature of food TB = 130o C Temperature difference dT = 100o C Required heat energy Q = m * Cp * dT = 7 * 4.187 *100 Q = 2930.9 kJ 2. Time for backup Due to absence of sunlight during night time cooking, let maximum time required to cook during night time = 1 ½ h 3. Temperatures Maximum Cooking temperature T1 = 150o C Maximum temperature of PCM T2 = 160o C 4. PCM selection Required melting point of PCM = 120o C Name = S117 Melting point = 117o C Density = 1450 kg/m3 Latent heat L = 160 kJ/kg Specific heat capacity Cp = 2.61 kJ/kgK Thermal conductivity k = 0.7 W/mK
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 57 5. Mass of PCM Heat energy required to boil 1L q = 291.14kJ By experiment, Time taken to reach boiling point of water = 20 min For 20 min energy supplied = 291.14 kJ Let us assume backup time t = 1 ½ h For 1 ½ h energy required Q = 1310.13 kJ/L For 7 Litre, Total energy required Q = 9170.91 kJ Q = m * L m = Q/L m = 57 kg 6. Design Calculation Available vacuum tubes diameter S.No Diameter (mm) Volume occupied by PCM (kg) 1 37 3 2 64 10 3 124 25 Mass of PCM occupied in single vacuum tube (124mm dia) m1 = 25 kg Mass occupied by copper pipe in single vacuum tube m2 = 5 kg Difference in the mass dm = 20 kg Mass of PCM that can be filled in a single vacuum tube = 20 kg By placing 2 vacuum tubes i.e., No. of vacuum tubes n = 2 Total mass of PCM that can be filled in vacuum tubes = 40 kg Total mass of to be filled to get 1 ½ h backup = 57 kg Remaining volume of PCM = 17 kg 17 kg of PCM can be filled in a cube of side 23 cm Copper pipe is coiled in that cube of PCM 7. Design of coil Assumptions Copper pipe diameter d = 12 mm Coil diameter D = 150 mm Free gap G = 10 mm No. of turns n = 7 Secondary Length of the coil l = 100 mm • Total length of the coil, L = n * ((2 * π * r) + G) + (2 * l) L = 53 cm
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July 8. Mass of CO2 emission by LPG LPG contains 70% propane and 30% butane. The chemical reactions are Propane: C3H8+5O2 3CO2+4H2O Butane: 2C4H10+13O2 8CO2+10H2 By atomic weight calculation, It is found that 1 ton of LPG emits 3.04 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The above graphs shows the temperature readings in Madurai with average day time temperature as maximum temperature and minimum temperature to be a night time temperature. This graph shows that there will be enough solar irradiation in the tropical region to implement the steam cooking which is more suitable for houses and also hotels. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 58 emission by LPG LPG contains 70% propane and 30% butane. 2O atomic weight calculation, und that 1 ton of LPG emits 3.04 ton (approx) of CO2 The above graphs shows the temperature readings in Madurai with average day time temperature as maximum temperature and minimum temperature to be a night time temperature. This graph shows that there will be enough solar irradiation in the tropical regions especially in India to implement the steam cooking which is more suitable for houses and also hotels. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME The above graphs shows the temperature readings in Madurai with average day time temperature as maximum temperature and minimum temperature to be a night time temperature. s especially in India
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July The calculation is performed for above all assumptions and the total system is designed for the domestic house. From the graph, it is foun hence it meet the cooking requirements by adopting the above design will be little more investment than other systems. But which total cost of cooking will be only the maintenance cost of the system. By improving the design of vacuum tubes, PCM selection, tracking mechanism collector shapes etc., will have a great scope in the market. In future this would be a new backu multi purposes. V. CONCLUSION As our demand for LPG and electrical energy are escalating day by day, the amount of fossil fuel will become scarce on one day. By implementing this system, it eradicate for cooking. The key behind this efficacious solution is the p papers, the overall system will work only during the daytime then it will not be compact and there will b cooker in each and every house will replace LPG and electric stove. Installation of this system in India reduces more than millions of temperature can be greatly reduced in the future. to this hectic world. The effects of thermo physical properties of PCM, installation methodology, location of PCM are the scope for future work REFERENCES [1] RM Muthusivagami, R Velraj, R Sethumadhavan, “ storage—A review”, Renewable [2] S.D. Pohekar, D. Kumar, M. Ramachandran in India—a review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9 (2005), pp. 379 [3] Association of Conservation of Notes. Association of Conservation of Energy, 1994(13): p. 1. [4] P.A. Funk, D.L. Larson, “Parametric model of solar cooker performance”, (1998), pp. 63–68 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 59 The calculation is performed for above all assumptions and the total system is designed for the domestic house. From the graph, it is found that the average day temperature of Madurai is hence it meet the cooking requirements by adopting the above design. The drawbacks in this system will be little more investment than other systems. But the payback period will be few years which total cost of cooking will be only the maintenance cost of the system. By improving the design of vacuum tubes, PCM selection, tracking mechanism collector shapes etc., will have a great scope In future this would be a new backup storage collector which stores heat energy for the As our demand for LPG and electrical energy are escalating day by day, the amount of fossil fuel will become scarce on one day. By implementing this system, it eradicates power consumption is efficacious solution is the phase change material. In previous papers, the overall system will work only during the daytime and if PCM is kept inside the house then it will not be compact and there will be many predicaments. By adopting this residential solar cooker in each and every house will replace LPG and electric stove. Installation of this system in millions of tons of CO2 emissions. The rise in the rate of global warming perature can be greatly reduced in the future. Thus this system could bring extravagant changes to this hectic world. The effects of thermo physical properties of PCM, installation methodology, location of PCM are the scope for future work. RM Muthusivagami, R Velraj, R Sethumadhavan, “Solar cookers with and without thermal ”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2), 691 S.D. Pohekar, D. Kumar, M. Ramachandran, “Dissemination of cooking energy alternatives Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9 (2005), pp. 379 Association of Conservation of Energy. Association of Conservation of Energy Briefing Association of Conservation of Energy, 1994(13): p. 1. Parametric model of solar cooker performance”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME The calculation is performed for above all assumptions and the total system is designed for d that the average day temperature of Madurai is 35o C . The drawbacks in this system will be few years after which total cost of cooking will be only the maintenance cost of the system. By improving the design of vacuum tubes, PCM selection, tracking mechanism collector shapes etc., will have a great scope p storage collector which stores heat energy for the As our demand for LPG and electrical energy are escalating day by day, the amount of fossil power consumption aterial. In previous and if PCM is kept inside the house By adopting this residential solar cooker in each and every house will replace LPG and electric stove. Installation of this system in emissions. The rise in the rate of global warming could bring extravagant changes to this hectic world. The effects of thermo physical properties of PCM, installation methodology, Solar cookers with and without thermal and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2), 691-701 Dissemination of cooking energy alternatives Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9 (2005), pp. 379–393 Association of Conservation of Energy Briefing Parametric model of solar cooker performance”, Solar Energy, 62
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 60 [5] M. Wentzel, A. Pouris,”The development impact of solar cookers: a review of solar cooking impact research in South Africa”, Energy Policy, 35 (2007), pp. 1909–1919 [6] Weider, S., An Introduction To Solar Energy For Scientists and Engineers. 1982, New York: John Wiley & Sons. [7] N.M. Nahar, “Performance and testing of a hot box storage solar cooker”, Energy Conversion and Management, 44 (2003), pp. 1323–1331 [8] Lane, G.A., Solar Heat Storage: Latent Heat Materials Volume I: Background and Scientific Principles. Vol. I. 1983, Florida: CRC Press, Inc. [9] G.O.G. Lof,”Recent investigation in the use of solar energy for cooking”, Solar Energy, 7 (1963), pp. 125–133 [10] CIBSE. Guide A3 Thermal Properties of Building Structures. 1986, London: The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. [11] Hoogendoorn, C.J. and G.C.J. Bart, Performance and modelling of latent heat stores. Solar energy, 1992. 48: p. 53-58. [12] K. Ashok, “A review of solar cooker designs”, TIDE, 8 (1998), pp. 1–37 [13] K. Schwartzer, M.E.V. Silva, “Solar cooking system with or without heat storage for families and institutions”, Solar Energy, 75 (2003), pp. 35–41 [14] Balzar, P. Stumpf, S. Eckhoff, H. Ackermann, M. Grupp, “A solar cooker using vacuum-tube collectors with integrated heat pipes”, Solar Energy, 58 (1996), pp. 63–68 [15] Abhat, A., Low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage: Heat storage materials. Solar Energy, 1983. 30(4): p. 313-332. [16] Ghoneim, A.A. and S.A. Klein, The effect of phase change material properties on the performance of solar air based heating systems. Solar Energy, 1989. 42: p. 441-447. [17] Lane, G.A., Solar Heat Storage: Latent Heat Materials Volume II: technology. 1983, Florida: CRC Press Inc. [18] R. Kumar, R.S. Adhikari, H.P. Garg, A. Kumar, “Thermal performance of a solar pressure cooker based on evacuated tube solar collector”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 21 (2001), pp. 1699–1706 [19] Felix Regin, S.C. Solanski, J.S. Saini, “Heat transfer characteristics of thermal energy storage system using PCM capsules: a review”, Renewable and sustainable Energy Reviews, 12 (2008), pp. 2438–2458 [20] M.R.I. Ramadan, S. Aboul-Enein, A.A. El-Sebaii, “A model of an improved low cost indoor solar cooker in Tanta”, Solar and Wind Technology, 5 (1998), pp. 387–393 [21] S.D. Sharma, K. Sagara, “Latent heat storage materials and systems: a review”, International Journal of Green Energy, 2 (2005), pp. 1–56 [22] B. Zalba, J.M. Marin, L.F. Cabeza, H. Mehling, “Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 23 (2003), pp. 251–283 [23] D. Buddhi, L.K. Sahoo, “Solar cooker with latent heat storage: design and experimental testing”, Energy Conversion and Management, 38 (1997), pp. 493–498 [24] R. Domanski, A.A. El-Sebaii, M. Jaworski, “Cooking during off-sunshine hours using PCMs as storage media”, Energy, 20 (1995), pp. 607–616 [25] Eissenberg and al., what’s in store for phase change thermal storage materials for active and passive solar applications. 1980. P. 12-16. [26] S.D. Sharma, D. Buddhi, R.L. Sawhney, A. Sharma, “Design, development and performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for evening cooking in a solar cooker”, Energy Conversion and Management, 41 (2000), pp. 1497–1508
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 61 [27] D. Buddhi, S.D. Sharma, A. Sharma, “Thermal performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for late evening cooking in a solar cooker having three reflectors”, Energy Conversion and Management, 44 (2003), pp. 809–817 [28] D.L. Bushnell, “Performance studies of solar energy storing heat exchanger”, Solar Energy, 41 (1998), pp. 503–512 [29] K.K. Pillai, B.J. Brinkwarth, “The storage of low-grade thermal energy using phase change materials”, Applied Energy, 2 (1976), pp. 205–216 [30] S.D. Sharma, T. Iwata, H. Kitano, K. Sagara, “Thermal performance of solar cooker based on an evacuated tube solar collector with a PCM storage unit”, Solar Energy, 78 (2005), pp. 416–426 [31] H.M.S. Hussein, H.H. El-Ghetany, S.A. Nada, “Experimental investigation of novel indirect solar cooker with indoor PCM thermal storage and cooking unit”, Energy Conversion and Management, 49 (2008), pp. 2237–2246 [32] M. Kenesarin, K. Mahkamov, “Solar energy storage using phase change materials”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11 (2007), pp. 1913–1965 [33] Lane, G.A., Low temperature heat storage with phase change materials. The international journal of ambiant energy. . Vol. I. 1980. P. 155-168. [34] Pravin N. Gajbhiye and Rupesh S.Shelke, “Solar Energy Concentration Techniques in Flat Plate Collector”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 450 - 458, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [35] Prakash Kumar Sahu and Prof.Dr.A.C.Tiwari, “Implement of Solar Energy in Thermal Power Station for Increase Sensible Heat of Makeup Water for Save the Conventional Energy, A Review & Case Study”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 180 - 186, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [36] Talal K. Kassem, “Investigation of Solar Cooker with Pcm Heat Storage for High Altitude Places (Taif City)”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 555 - 564, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.