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Mobile safety systems for automobiles


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  • 1. International Journal of Computerand Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),International Journal of Computer Engineering EngineeringISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEand Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1 IJCETNumber 2, Sep - Oct (2010), pp. 166-179 ©IAEME© IAEME, MOBILE SAFETY SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMOBILES Jagannath Aghav College of Engineering, Pune E-Mail: Nikhil Sharma College of Engineering, Pune E-Mail: The safety systems in automobiles are adopting the state of the art technologies toprovide multiple functionalities to end user. There is a significant rise in number ofautomobiles in last two decades. Also the embedded system now a days have becomemore complex and intelligent. All automobile manufactures are trying to make theirvehicles more and more intelligent using the embedded systems. Thus, driving the digitalsystems in the vehicles more and more complex. Taking into consideration the availablecomputing power on the vehicle we are proposing safety system based on androidoperating system along with general purpose radio packet and global positioning systemfor automobiles. The system comprises of geographical information system, generalpurpose radio packet and global positioning system services running on android platformin a remote device and in the vehicle. The user will be able to access these services on theremote device; also will be able to communicate with the service running in the vehicle.The different type of service running on the remote device will be mapping the vehicle onthe geographical information systems, sending control signals to the vehicle services andgetting the status of the vehicle from the vehicle unit.1 INTRODUCTION High automobile theft rate is demanding implementation of more secure andreliable onboard services for automobiles. These services are bounded to be very secure,easy to use, easy to maintain and should have fast response time. The implementation ofsuch a service is a great area of concern of the leading automobile manufacturers. System 166
  • 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEproposed here has android operating system running which is secure, easy to use,maintainable and has good response time. The security issue is accomplishes byproviding mixed authentication through a password and a finger print recognition. Also,the system will be easy to use as the graphical interface for the security device will beuser friendly same as in most of the mobile. The system can be easily maintain as theonboard diagnoses for the safety device as well as the base unit in vehicle will beprovided. Also will be having fast response as we will be using the latest microcontrollerfor both the safety device and the base unit in vehicle. The safety device will be empowered by android operating system and with allthe latest technologies such as GPRS, GIS, and finger print recognition system. Androidlibraries will be used for the interfaces with the peripheral devices. GPRS module in thesafety device will be used to receive the data coming from the vehicle; also will be usedto send the data over cellular network to the base unit in the vehicle. GIS will be used toshow the GPS data coming from the base unit on the maps. Finger print recognitionsystem is used to give the additional security. The base unit will be empowered by the technologies such as, GPRS, GPS,Sensors, and Actuators. GPRS will be used to receive the GPRS packets coming from thesafety device and also will be used to send the status data and the GPS location data tothe safety device. GPS will be used to get the current location data from the GPSsatellites. Sensors are will used to get the running status of the engine, brakes, fuel level,doors, and windows. Actuators are the devices that will bring the digital control datacoming from the safety device into reality. Actuators which will be used to switch off theengine, apply auto brakes, close the windows and lock the doors. To use the safety device user will we asked for a password and a finger printinput. If user passes this authentication process he will be given the access. Using thissafety device user will be able to monitor the location of the vehicle, get the current statusof the vehicle and also control the vehicle. Depending upon the signal selected by usercorresponding packet will be formed and send to the base unit over GPRS channel. Thebase unit will accept the packet and depending upon the request will take correspondingaction. If the user wants to know the current location of the vehicle, the base unit will getthe location data first from the GPS satellite, pack it in GPRS packet and send it to the 167
  • 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEsafety device. For status packet the system will gather the current state of the engine,brakes, doors, windows and fuel tank from the sensors and will send the information backto the safety device. In case of control packet, the base unit will take correspondingaction according to the request. If the user requests to stop the vehicle, the base unit willinstruct the brake actuator to apply auto brakes to the vehicle. If the user wants to switchoff the engine, the base unit will instruct the engine actuator to cut-off the fuel supply byclosing throttle valve and also to disconnect the spark plug from electric supply resultingin switching off the engine. If the user wants to close the doors and lock the windows thebase unit will send control signals to corresponding actuators to perform the requestedtask. Section 2 presents a quick overview of the proposed system. Section 3 illustratesthe details of Safety device and its functions. Section 4 gives a detailed description offunctionalities of the base unit in the automobile. Section 5 presents a detail algorithm ofthe proposed technique. Section 6 gives a snapshot of the Java code for our algorithm.Section 6.2 shows a detail code for each module. Section 7 presents the conclusions ofthis paper.2 OVERVIEW OF SAFETY SYSTEM DESIGN Safety system is broadly divided into two sections: Safety device and Automobilebase device. The Safety device is like a safety control which is capable of monitoring andcontrolling the automobile remotely. It is powered by technologies such as Androidoperating system, GPRS, GIS and finger print recognition system. The main functions ofthe safety device are authentication of the user, sending control Section 4.2, statusSection 4.1and location request packets to the automobile unit. These packets will besend on the GPRS network. The location request packet will be responded by theautomobile unit as a location response packet. This packet will contain locationcoordinates that will be directly mapped on the GIS maps using Android build in GISsupport. The Automobile will be responding to the packets coming from the Safetydevice. 168
  • 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME Figure 1 System Layout3 SAFETY DEVICES The safety device will be capable of monitoring and controlling the automobileremotely with Android operating system running on it. We have chosen Androidoperating system because its open source and it has a wide software support for all thetechnologies available in the market. Each of the hardware interfaced with the device willbe registered as a service on the Android system. These services will communicate withthe automobile unit on behalf of the user. Due to the large supported libraries provided byAndroid the implementation can be made more effective and easy. For the communication with the automobile base unit we have chosen GPRS,because GPRS makes efficient use radio spectrum to combine mobile access with theinternet protocol. GPRS provides high data rates. Using GPRS we will be able to sendand receive the control data with high speed as, GPRS provides high bandwidth. Also, wecan use GPRS used to get the location of the vehicle based on the cell triangulationtechnique whenever GPS is not working. The safety device will be mapping the automobile on GIS maps based on thelocation co-ordinates coming from the automobile base unit. As Android has a build insupport for the GIS maps the mapping will not be problem. We have defined three packet formats depending upon the type of request that thesafety device can make those are, control packet, status packet and location requestpacket. The control packet will ask the automobile unit 4 to perform control actions suchas switching off the engine, applying auto brakes, closing the windows and locking thedoors. The status packet will ask the automobile unit to send the current status of the 169
  • 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEautomobile parts such as, engine, fuel level, windows and doors. The location requestpacket will ask for the current location of the automobile. Figure 2 Safety device block diagram4 AUTOMOBILE BASE UNIT The automobile base unit will get the control or status request packet from thesafety device and the microcontroller running in the base unit will respond to theserequests in corresponding form. The technologies that the base unit will be using is GPSreceiver, GPRS transmitter and receiver, microcontroller, sensors and actuators.4.1 Status packet response The status request coming from the safety device will be asking for the status ofthe automobile parts such as, engine, fuel level, doors and windows. On arrival of thestatus packet the microcontroller will communicate with the sensor present on the engine,fuel tank, doors and windows and gets the current value the sensors are holding. Once themicrocontroller gets the value of the sensors it will preprocess the value and pack it into astatus response packet and send it back to the safety device.4.2 Control Packet response If the user wants to control the vehicle a control packet will be send to the vehicleasking the base unit to perform certain actions. Depending upon the actions listed in the 170
  • 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEcontrol packet the microcontroller will ask the following actuators to perform thecorresponding action. The control packet can have actions like, switch-off the engine,apply brakes, lock the doors and close the windows or a combination of all. If the controlaction is switching off the engine the microcontroller will issue a close command to theactuator placed on the engine. The engine can be switched off by closing the throttlevalve. If the control request is of applying brakes the microcontroller will ask the actuatorplaced on the brakes to apply the brake automatically. Simultaneously the doors and thewindows can be locked and closed respectively using the actuators.4.3 Location request packet In case of location request packet the microcontroller will get location parametersand send them back to the safety device. The microcontroller will get the current locationfrom the GPS receiver or if the GPS receiver is not working the microcontroller willcalculate the location using the GPRS cell triangulation method. Once the microcontrollergets the location parameters it will send the location to the safety device using the GPRSnetwork.5 ALGORITHMA detailed algorithm is given below:1: Display Login Page and Get the Personal Identification Number (PIN)2: Match the PIN submitted by the user and the stored PIN3: if the PIN matches then4: continue,5: else6: Display "Incorrect PIN" and goto end7: end if8: Ask the user to input the finger prints and match with stored finger prints9: if Finger print matches then10: continue11: else12: Display "Finger print Note matched" and goto end13: end if 171
  • 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME14: Display menu 1: Watch vehicle on map 2: Get current status 3: Control the vehicle 4: Exit15: if choice = 1 then16: goto 2617: else if choice = 2 then18: goto 3119: else if choice = 3 then20: goto 3521: else if choice = 4 then22: goto end23: else24: display "Enter correct choice" and goto step 1425: end if26: Initialize the GPRS transmitter and ask for GPS co-ordinates.27: Get the GPS co-ordinates from the GPRS receiver.28: Initialize the GIS map and Map the GPS co-ordinates on the GIS MAP.29: Display the GIS map to the user30: If user stop the view goto step 1431: Initialize the GPRS transmitter32: Send a signal to In Vehicle unit to send the current status of each sensor.33: Get the data from the GPRS receiver Display the data in graphical format to the user34: If user stop the display goto step 6, else goto step 14 for every 0.5 seconds35: Initialize the GPRS transmitter. Send a packet to the in- vehicle unit indicating thefollowing packet will be a control signal packet36: Display "What u want to do?" : 1: Switch off the engine 2: Lock the Doors 3: Close the windows 172
  • 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME 4: Send a message 5: Exit37: If 1 Make “Engine off = true" in control packet38: If 2 Make “Lock Doors = true" in control packet39: If 3 Make “Close Window = true" in control packet40: If 4 Display “Type the message" and get message in msg and send msg as a textmessage to In vehicle base unit41: If 5 goto step 4342: Default Display "Enter correct choice“ goto step 3643: Stop the process6 JAVA PROGRAM A detailed implementation of the proposed technique is given below,6.1 Main Program The function following will display the menu for the user and also get the desiredaction that the user wants to perform.public class Main{ public static void main(String[] args) { Menu mn = new Menu(); mn.displayClientMenu(); int ch = mn.getChoice(); switch(ch) { case 1: System.out.println("Show status"); showStatus(); break; case 2: System.out.println("Control vehicle"); 173
  • 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME sendControl(); break; case 3: System.out.print("U have choice to exit"); exit(); } }Following function is a code snapshot of sending the control packet over GPRSnetwork.private static void sendControl(){ GprsReceiver gp = new GprsReceiver(); gp.setPacket("control"); gp.setGprsID(123); gp.sendPacketControl(gp.createPacketControl());}This code snapshot will display the status of the automobile parts.private static void showStatus(){ GprsReceiver gp = new GprsReceiver(); gp.setPacket("status"); gp.setGprsID(123); gp.requestPacketStatus(); gp.sendPacket(); gp.receivePacketStatus(); gp.DisplayPacketStatus();}private static void exit(){ throw new UnsupportedOperationException("Not yet implemented");} 174
  • 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME}6.2 Detail of each module The code given below is a prototype of detail functionalities of each module usedin the system Following code is a prototype of the GPRS receiver modulepublic class GprsReceiver{ private int GprsID; private String Packet; public int getGprsID() { return GprsID; } public void setGprsID(int GprsID) { this.GprsID = GprsID; } public String getPacket() { return Packet; } public void setPacket(String Packet) { this.Packet = Packet; }Following code is a prototype of GPRS control packet creating module ControlPacket createPacketControl() { String side = "Road Side"; ControlPacket cp = new ControlPacket(); 175
  • 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME StatusPacket sp = new StatusPacket(); sp.getCarPosition(); sp.isBracksStaus(); sp.isDoorStatus(); sp.isEngineStatus(); sp.isWindowStatus(); System.out.print("Current status of vehicle is"); System.out.print("sp.getCarPosition()"+"sp.isBracksStaus()"+"sp.isDoorSt atus()"+"sp.isEngineStatus()"+ "sp.isWindowStatus()"); System.out.print("What u want to do"); int ch =0; while(ch != 5) { System.out.print(“1: Switch engine off 2: Lock Doors 3:Close windows 4:Apply Brakes 5:Exit”); set(ch); switch(ch) { case 1: cp.setWindowStatus(false); break; case 2: cp.setDoorStatus(false); break; case 3: cp.setCarPosition(side); break; case 4: cp.setBracksStaus(false); break; } 176
  • 12. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME } return cp; } void receivePacket() { Receiver Packet from GPRS receiver } void DisplayPacket() { Display the received packet }private void sendPacketControl(ControlPacket cp) Sends the GPRS control packet overthe GPRS tramitter} void requestPacketStatus() { Request for a Status packet to the in Vehicle Base Unit } void receivePacketStatus() { Receives a Status packet from the In Vehicle Base Unit } void DisplayPacketStatus() { Displays a Status Packet Received from the GPRS receiver }}7. CONCLUSION The system we have proposed is secure, reliable, easy to maintain and use. Wehave integrated the state of the art technologies to fulfill the current requirements of the 177
  • 13. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEMEvehicles. After installation of the device, theft rate will be reduced to great extent as theautomobile is in continuous monitoring and control. On board diagnosis will help infinding and solving the errors. Adding/Updating functionalities to the automobile will beeasy as the underlying Android Operating System has a wide software support. Installingthe safety system will result in reduction of the theft rate, improving the diagnoses of theautomobile by tracking the current status of the automobile parts.REFERENCES [1] Craig Simonds, “Software for the Next-Generation Automobile". IT Professional, November/December 2003, pp 7-11. January 2003. [2] Ward Vanlaar, “Legislation, Regulation and Enforcement for Dealing with Distracted Driving in Europe". International Conference on Distracted Driving, Toronto. October 2005. [3] T. Costlow, “Sensing significant growth". Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Automotive Engineering International, pp.74-78, May 2004. [4] D. Jiang, V. Taliwal, A. Meier, and W. Holfelder, “Design of 5.9 GHz DSRC- Based Vehicular Safety Communication". IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, October 2006. [5] USA Today. (2004) Top car-theft areas in each state. [Online]. Available: [6] O. Tettero, D. J. Out, H. M. Franken, and J. Schot, “Information security embedded in the design of telematics systems" Computers and Security, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 145164, 1997 [7] M. E. Zarki, S. Mehrotra, G. Tsudik, and N. Venkatasubramanian, “Security issues in a future vehicular network". in Proceedings of European Wireless, Next Generation Wireless Networks, vol. 1, Feb. 2002, pp. 270274. [8] S. Duri, M. Gruteser, X. Liu, P. Moskowitz, R. Perez, M. Singh, and J.M. Tang, “Framework for security and privacy in automotive telematics". in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Mobile Commerce. ACM Press, 2002, pp. 2532. 178
  • 14. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print),ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 1, Number 2, Sep - Oct (2010), © IAEME [9] Ming-Chiao Chen, Jiann-Liang Chen b, Teng-Wen Chang “Android based vehicular network management system" Science Direct Computer Communications 2008 [10] William Enck, Patrick McDaniel “Understanding Androids Security Framework" October 2008 [11] Chia-Chen Hung, Hope Chan, and Eric Hsiao-KuangWu “Mobility Pattern Aware Routing for Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks" IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the WCNC 2008 proceedings 179