Merits of c4  coated coconut cover crush  block over aggregate block
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Merits of c4 coated coconut cover crush block over aggregate block

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Merits of c4  coated coconut cover crush  block over aggregate block Merits of c4 coated coconut cover crush block over aggregate block Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 98 MERITS OF C4 (COATED COCONUT COVER CRUSH) BLOCK OVER AGGREGATE BLOCK Balraj Bhaskar More1 (B.E.Civil, Pune University, Boy’s Hostel C, VPCOE, Baramati, Pune, India) ABSTRACT The concrete which is noble and basic construction material is made up of basically 4 ingredients. Those ingredients are water, cement, sand and aggregate in proportion 0.5:1:2:3 respectively. The water is very essential and has no substitute but other contents that is cement, sand, and aggregate have substitutes. The cements of different types are available. The sands of different types are being used. Hereby using coconut husk coated as a substitution for aggregate blocks are made. (As the coconut husk is hard and unbreakable applying normal load that’s why it can be used as aggregate substitute). We overlook coconut husk in daily life without knowing its properties and its use. As coconut husk is water absorbing fibre hence the water may degrade it and decrease its strength. Hence here using coconut-crush coating it by glass, wax and oil so that to increase its strength and decrease its water absorption. The coconut husk which we throw in garbage as a junk we can use in the concrete block production effectively without reducing its strength. The coconut husk production is in mass amount in coastal areas in the world. Therefore we can get coconut husk in large amount with lower cost than aggregate. This will make concrete block cheaper than before. These experiments carried below shows that coconut shells can be used effectively in construction. Keywords: Aggregate, Coating, Coconut-crush, Glass, Oil, Substitute, Wax 1. INTRODUCTION The concrete block is generally made up of water, cement, sand and aggregate. However the cost of block made by coated crushed coconut husk is lower than that. The coconut husk is in abundant amount in India nearby Konkan area. Generally we through coconut husk as a junk but that junk can be used as aggregate in the concrete block preparation. The coconut husk has several properties comparably similar to the aggregate. The several methods have been adopted in this experiment to decrease its water absorption. In this paper the coconut is crushed first and certain size of coconut crush is taken for experiment. The methods used are common with unusual material. The coating materials are used by deep study. The total two types of coatings are used so that to compare the difference created by their use. The partially coated and fully coated are two types of crush INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 98-105 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET © IAEME
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 99 coconut shells are used. The weight of such block is also very less which will shrink the consequence of earthquake. The coconut crush used gave the incredible result against the original concrete block made. This ends with result that the coconut shells can be used as the construction material. This will undeniably generate the one more source of money for people. The wastage of coconut shells will be diminished. The cost of such blocks is lower than aggregate concrete block. Hence it is more reasonable to purchase for poor people. Lot of inventors have made blocks by using coconut husk crush. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS 2.1 Properties of Materials 2.2 Sieve Analysis 2.3.1 Water Absorption Test 2.4 Testing Of Compressive Test of Blocks 2.1 Properties of Materials 2.1.1 Properties of Coconut Husk (Hardness and Water Absorption) The coconut husk is fibre which tough and hard to break which make it able to bear load applied on it. It is analogous to the aggregate material which is hard and unbreakable. But the other trouble with using coconut husk as aggregate is the hardness reduces as it comes in contact with water for longer duration which usually transpires if it gets used in making of blocks. This demerit of coconut husk is because of its water absorption property which tends it to absorb water and loose its strength. This demerit is removed by coating the crushed material totally by various coatings. This will decrease rate of water absorption, making it more strengthening and stable against water absorption. 2.1.2 Properties of Spray on Glass coating The glass coating is modern way of coating using Nano technology. This coating is not harmful to the wood substance which is being coated. It does not affect its genuine properties. Making coconut shell more strong and increasing its life. This type of is generally used for furniture. 2.1.3 Properties of Oil coating This type of coating is done by keeping coconut crush in the oil for 12 hours so that it will absorb oil and get fixed inside. This will compact the previous openings and will hinder water absorption. Ramblingly increases strength of block. This kind of coating is easy than others and cheaper. 2.1.4 Properties of Wax Wax is the good adhesive and coating material. The wax also acts as binder as well as coating material. The cost of wax is also low and available in market in abundant amount. Hence wax is very useful in preparing coating around the coconut crush. 2.2 Sieve Analysis Aim- Analysis of coconut crush passing through sieves. Apparatus-Sieve, Container, Weighing Machine Procedure- Take the sample of coconut crushes of specific weight. Arrange sieves from small size to large size.Fix the container at the bottom. Drop the sample from upper sieve that of large size.Separate sieves and take the weight of sample collected in each sieve.It should of size in between 6mm to 12mm.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 100 Observation The table shows percentage passing through different sieves. Total weight of sample taken= 1200gm Observation Table 1 Graphical Representation The fig.1 elaborates the idea about size of crush material being used for testing. In the graph it can be easily identified that the maximum amount of crush amount is in between size 8 to 10.6 mm.Hence average size of crush material used is in between 8 to 10.6 mm. The same size of aggregate is used in while road construction or other constructions. The graph elaborates the idea about size of crush material being used for testing. In the graph it can be easily identified that the maximum amount of crush amount is in between size 8 to 10.6 mm. hence average size of crush material used is in between 8 to 10.6 mm. Fig. 1-Percentage passing of coconut crush from different sized sieves The same size of aggregate is used in while road construction or other constructions.This kind of size is used to avoid the curvature shaped husk to introduce into the block and disturb its structure. The obscure nature of coconut crush may be avoided by making its both faces soft by friction action. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 4 6.3 8 9.5 10.6 12.5 16 Percentage passing Percentage passing Sieve Size(mm) Passed crush(gm.) Percentage passing through each sieve (%) Cumulative Passed Crush(gm.) Cumulative percentage (%) 0.0 00 0% 00 0% 4.0 39 3.25% 39 3.25% 6.3 113 9.41% 152 12.66% 8.0 257 21.41% 409 34.083% 9.5 293 24.41% 702 58.5% 10.6 358 29.83% 1060 88.3% 12.5 87 7.25% 1147 95.58% 16 53 4.33% 1200 100%
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 101 2.3 Water Absorption Test Aim- To compare water absorption between simple coconutscrushes material and coated coconut crush material. Apparatus- Coconut crush, Wax, Oil, Weighing machine, Container. Introduction- The coconut husk is water absorbing organic material which effect on the strength of block made by it. Hence before using it in block preparation the crushed coconut shells are kept in the water for 1 hour. After that the coconut shells are kept in the open to remove water from it by evaporation. The absorption of the material is based on coating percentage that is how much area of crushed coconut shell is coated to resist water absorption. The following table shows the absorption of water by coated coconut crush. Procedure-Coconut crush with different coatings are prepared. The Simple coconut crush, wax coated coconut cover crush sample, oil coated coconut cover crush sample and glass coated coconut cover crush sample taken in equal amount as shown in observation table.Weight of each sample is taken so that to avoid error. Sample is then kept in containers separately and with proper identification mark. The container is filled with equal water amount. The sample is kept in the water for an hour. Each sample is taken out of container and then weighed W2. Sample is kept in the oven under 100o c and cooled after in air. Weight is measured that is W1. Readings are noted and water absorption is calculated by following formula. The Percentage of Water absorption = 100× (W2-W1)/W1 Or Simply Water absorption is calculated as =100× (weight after- weight before)/weight before Observation Observation Table 2 Calculation Simple Coconut Crush- 100× (220-183)/183 =20.21% Wax C4 Sample- 100× (214-185)/185 = 15.67% Oil C4 Sample- 100× (215-185)/185 = 16.2% Spray On Glass C4 Sample- 100× (190-185)/185 = 2.7% Result Result Table 3. (The above Result Table.3 illustrate that water absorption of spray on glass c4 sample is very less which is most useful material for preparing block with sufficient strength and then wax then oil coatings can be effectually used.) Type of sample Weight before Weight after Simple coconut crush 183 220 Wax coated crush 185 214 Oil coated crush 185 215 Glass coated crush 185 190 Type Of Sample % Water Absorption Simple Coconut Crush 20.21 Wax C4 Sample 15.67 Oil C4 Sample 16.2 Spray On Glass C4 Sample 2.7
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 102 Fig,2. Variation of absorption of water by different types of coated coconut crushes The Fig.2 elucidates the variation of water absorption of coconut crush with material coated around it. Which directly represent that water absorption though glass coated coconut cover crush is too low and hence it can be used meritoriously than other coating. The wax coating has also shown good result as compared to its cost in the market. Hence wax is also a coat while preparing blocks. 2.4 Testing Of Blocks by STM Aim-Test for strength of blocks by STM Material- Coconut crush, coated coconut cover crush by wax, coated coconut cover crush by oil, coated coconut cover crush by glass Cement 53 grade, Sand Size of block prepared is 10×6×4 cm3 Procedure The 4 types of blocks for three readings on 7th , 14th and 28th day are prepared. The first block using simple coconut crush is prepared. Coconut crush is used as a substitution for aggregate. The materials water, cement, sand and coconut crush in proportion 0.5:1:2:3 are mixed and block is made. The second block is made by following sameprocedure but by using wax coated coconut cover crush. The same proportion is used. The third block is made by using oil coated coconut cover crush with same ingredients and same proportion as in 1st step. The fourth type is normal concrete block made by water, cement, sand, aggregate with same proportion that is 0.5:1:2:3 respectively. These buckets are made to compare its strength with other blocks made up of crushed coconut. Total 12 blocks of size 10×6×4 cm3 are prepared by using above techniques. The blocks are kept in the water so for sufficient curing. The curing makes blocks stronger. A day before testing one block of each is removed and kept for drying so that to gain strength. The readings are taken on 7th , 14th and 28th day. The strength of the blocks after observed after testing is given in the following observation table. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Simple coconut cover crush Oil coated coconut cover crush Wax coated coconut cover crush Glass costed coconut cover crush % Water Absorption % Water Absorption
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 103 Observation Observation Table 4 Terms used in Observation Table 4 • Simple coconut crushed blocks- blocks prepared by using simple coconut crush material. • Wax coated coconut cover crush block- Blocks prepared by using coconut crush which is coated by wax. • Oil coated coconut cover crush block- Blocks prepared by using coconut crush which is coated by oil. • Glass coated coconut cover crush Block- Block prepared by coating crushed coconut husk by spray on glass coating. • Aggregate concrete block- Blocks prepared by using aggregate material. Result The Fig.3 shows the comparison between compressive strength of blocks made simple coconut crush, wax coated coconut crush, oil coated coconut crush and glass coated coconut cover crush. The glass coated coconut cover crush block has greatest strength amongst all of them. Then wax coated coconut cover crush blocks and then blocks made by simple coconut crush. In this test oil coated coconut cover crush blocks failed to maintain strength as it did in other tests. Fig.3.Graph of comparison between compressive strength of various blocks This anomalous behaviour of this block might be due to its non-sticky nature and lack of binding nature. Hence this concludes that the use of glass coated coconut cover crush blocks and wax coated coconut cover crush blocks have better strength than aggregate blocks. Day of Testing Simple Coconut Crushed Block(KN) Wax C4 Block(KN) Oil C4 block(KN) Glass C4 Block(KN) Aggregate Concrete Block(KN) 7th day 77.9 62 53 80 69.5 14th day 91 98.6 92.1 117.5 95 28th day 109.7 147.4 115.7 161.3 140.3 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Simple coconut crush block Oil coated coconut cover crush block Wax coated coconut cover crush block Glass coated coconut cover crush block Aggregate concrete block 28th day 14th day 7th day 0th day
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 104 3. CONCLUSION 3.1 Advantages The coconut husk is available in abundant amount hence no question of deficiency if it is used in the blocks.Although coconut is fibre have lower strength than aggregate coating it by various polymers and other adhesive binders it gives better result than aggregate as shown in observation table no.4. The C4 block production will give coconut producer new source of money which will indirectly reduce paucity. This will indirectly help to development of the country.Wastage of coconut husk will be ceased as it will be the source of money. Aggregate which we take out from the crust of earth makes the crust loose and decrease the stability of earth which will automatically get discontinued if we begin production of C4 block. This will be environment friendly and will reduce pollution. The coatings like glass, wax etc. easily available in the market hence easy to get raw material. The cost of these kinds of blocks is lower than aggregate concrete blocks which will be good for middle class people.C4 blocks are light and hence will cause less damage in the times of earthquake. Coconut husk which is wood fibre absorbs sound if used in large amount. 3.2 Application These blocks are light weight and have more compressive strength than aggregate concrete block hence can be used in the small structures effectively. These blocks does not cause huge damage to the people like aggregate blocks cause hence can be used at earthquake prone zone. Coconut husk is available mostly at coastal area. The countries like Africa, India, America have large coastal area hence it will be advantageous there. The c4 blocks can be used in rural constructions as its cost is low. It can be used to construct residential buildings up to certain fixed height.C4 blocks can be used for protection walls around building. The coconut is sound absorbing up to certain extent hence C4 blocks also acts as sound absorber if used in extended amount. This property of C4 blocks making its wide use in theatres etc. 3.3 Final Conclusion The blocks made by spray on glass coated coconut crushed material and wax coated coconut crush material have more strength and lighter weight than blocks made by aggregate. On the other hand the cost of C4 blocks is also lower than aggregate concrete block. These blocks must be used at earthquake sensitive areas. The rural areas where aggregate material is difficult to manage C4 blocks will be always beneficial. Hence C4 blocks are more reasonable and more beneficial in construction than concrete blocks. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I appreciate from the bottom of my heart to Mr Dhanraj More for helping me in “Testing of Blocks by STM” experiment. Special thanks to Professor Shimphale for allowing me to use STM while testing. 4. REFERENCES [1] Chandramouli K., Srinivasa Rao P., Pannirselvam N., Seshadri Sekhar T.and Sravana P. APRIL 2010, “STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBRE CONCRETE” VOL. 5, NO. 4, APRIL 2010 ISSN 1819-6608 ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences [2] S.D.K.G Singhapura, M.A.P. Perera, P.G.S. Chathushka, G.H.M.J Subashi De Silva,In 2010, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ruhuna.“ Investigation on Compressive strength of masonry blocks manufactured using Crushed Coconut Shells”.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 105 [3] Maninder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur in 2012 .“A Review on Utilization of Coconut Shell as Coarse Aggregates in Mass Concrete”.International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 7 No.11 (2012)© Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm [4] Daniel Yaw Osei Department of Civil Engineering Cape Coast Polytechnic, Cape Coast, Ghana in 2010.“ Experimental assessment on coconut shells as aggregate in concrete”International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 6726 www.ijesi.org Volume 2 Issue 5 May. 2013 PP.07-11 [5] Kabiru Usman Rogo, Saleh Abubakar. ( Department of Civil Engineering Technology, , Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, Nigeria.Department of Civil Engineering technology, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna State) , in December 2010 Nigeria“Exploratory Study Of Coconut Shell As A Coarse Aggregate In concrete” Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences volume 2. [6] Utsev, J. T., Taku, J. K. in September 2012 “Coconut Shell Ash As Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement In Concrete Production”. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 8. [7] Amarnath Yerramalaa Ramachandrudu recently in October 2012, “Properties of Concrete with Coconut Shells as Aggregate Replacement”.International Journal of Engineering InventionsISSN: 2278-7461, www.ijeijournal.com Volume 1, Issue 6 (October2012) PP: 21-31 [8] Paramasivam Suresh Kumar, Md. Abdul Mannan, and KurianVelluruzhathil John.Civil Engineering Program, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.”High Performance Reinforced Concrete Beams made with SandstoneReactive Aggregates”.The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 2008, 2, 41-50 [9] M. Mageswariand Dr. B.Vidivelli.1Research Scholar, Structural Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, 600 002, Tamilnadu, India.Professor of Structural Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, 600 002, Tamilnadu, India. “The Use of Sheet Glass Powder as Fine Aggregate Replacement inConcrete”.The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 2010, 4, 65-71 [10] Stefan Bogdanov, Beeswax Book, Chapter 2 “Beeswax, Production, Properties Composition and Control”. [11] Patrick D. Miles, W. Brad Smith recent in October 2009, Research Note NRS-38 “Specific Gravity and Other Properties of Wood and Bark for Tree Species Found in North America” [12] Leur Van Broekhuizen, Pieter van Broekhuizen in November 2009 “Nano Products In Construction Industry” Europian Federaton Of Building And Wiidworkers. [13] J.H. Han And J.M. Krochta, In 2011 “Physical Properties and Oil Absorption by Coated Paper”. [14] T.A. Misev*, R. van der Linde, 15th July 1997 elaborated the topic “Powder coatings technology: new developments at the turn of the century” in the journal Progress in Organic Coatings 34 (1998) 160–168. [15] H. Denga,, C.T. Reynolds , N.O. Cabreraa, N.-M. Barkoulaa,, B. Alcocka, T. Peijs ,11 March 2010 on topic “The water absorption behaviour of all-polypropylene composites and its effect on mechanical properties”.epage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compositesb. [16] Raghatate Atul M.2009, “Use of Plastic in a Concrete to Improve Its Properties”. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974. [17] M.Venu and P.N.Rao, “Study of Rubber Aggregates in Concrete:An Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 15 - 26, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [18] Dr. Prahallada. M.C, Dr. Shanthappa B.C and Dr. Prakash. K.B., “Effect of Redmud on the Properties of Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete an Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 25 - 34, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.