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1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 01-14 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) © IAEMEwww.jifactor.com MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RCC DAM BREAK BASTORA RCC DAM AS A CASE STUDY NajmObaidSalim Alghazali1 and Dilshad A.H. Alhadrawi2 (1) Corresponding author, Asst. Prof. Doctor, Civil Engineering Department, Babylon University, Iraq. (2) M.Sc. Student, Civil Engineering Department, Babylon University, Iraq. ABSTRACT This is the first study on the failure of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams. A mathematical model for over-stressing type of RCC dam failure is presented and a scenario for breach formation is presented. The hypothetical failure of Bastora dam, a RCC dam located north east of Iraq, due to overstress is selected as a case study. The reservoir outflow hydrograph is computed using the proposed mathematical model and then the outflow is routed downstream Bastora dam. The maximum water levels, maximum discharges and rescue level at the available (11) sections of Bastora River downstream Bastora dam are determined. Keywords: HEC- RAS, level pool routing method, mathematical model for RCC dam break, over-stressing failure, roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams 1. INTRODUCTION ACI 207.5R  defines Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) as "a concrete of no- slump consistency in its unhardened state that is transported, placed, and compacted using earth and rock-fill construction equipment."ICODS  defines RCC damas" a concrete gravity dam constructed by the use of a dry mix concrete transported by conventional construction equipment and compacted by rolling, usually with vibratory rollers." RCC is an economical method and accepted material for constructing dams and rehabilitating and modifying existing concrete and embankment dams , , .The worldwide acceptance of RCC dams is due to their low cost, reduction period of construction, and successful performance .RCC dams were constructed in all types of climates and in all types of countries from the most developed to the still developing .There are more than 250 RCC dams constructed throughout the world . 1
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME RCC gravity dams are designed to the same criteria as conventional concrete (CVC)gravity dams with respect to stability and allowable stresses in the concrete , , .However, there are differences in the uplift within the body of the dam and the minimumsliding factors of safety . One significant difference between a RCC dam and a CVC dam is the continuousplacing of a horizontal lift of concrete from one abutment to the other, rather thanconstructing the dam in a series of separate monoliths .Lift thicknesses depend on theplacement size, production capacity of the concrete batch plant, mixture proportions, andcompaction equipment , .There is no limited lift thickness used in all RCC dams. Thelift thicknesses used in RCC dams are 0.30 m (1 layer) , 0.60 m (composed of four 0.15m layers) , 2 m (composed of eight layers of 0.25 m) , and 0.75 to 1 m (0.3 m layers), . By the use of sloped layer method (SLM), the lift thickness is 3 to 4 m . A dam is a sword of two limits . It is mainly used to supply the necessary quantityof water downstream it, generates power, and protect from flood. On the other hand floodresulting from dam failure is considered as a national disaster and classified as first degreeaccidents for the damage it causes to human life, properties and economic systems.In manycountries the determination of the wave parameters that would follow the collapse of everylarge dam is demanded by law to organize the defense of inhabitants and structures in thevalley downstream . For the knowledge of the researchers there is no study in literature on the failure ofRCC dams. This is the first study on the failure of RCC dams and it opens the door for furtherresearches.A mathematical model for over-stressing type of RCC dam failure is presentedand a scenario for breach formation is presented. Bastora dam, located north east of Iraq, is designed as a RCC gravity dam.Fig. (1)shows the typical section of Bastora dam. The failure of Bastora RCC dam due to over-stressing is selected as a case study. The wave parameters that would follow the hypotheticalcollapse of Bastora dam are determined.Dam crest 13mEL. 897.5m asl Detail B No. of steps = 97 All steps with s:l = 0.9m:0.63m except the first step with s:l = 1.1:0.77 Detail B 0.77 0.63 0.63 Drainag gallery 1 1.10 0.7 0.90 EL. 810m asl 0.90 73.62m 0.90Figure (1): Schematic view of the typical Bastora dam section (All dimensions are in meters)  2
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME2. OBJECTIVES OF THE PRESENT STUDY I. Presenting a mathematical model for RCC dam break due to overstress. II. Determining the wave parameters that would follow the hypothetical collapse of Bastora damdue to overstress.3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CVC DAM BREAK A study of the different conventional concrete (CVC) gravity dam failures indicatesthat concrete gravity dams breach by sudden collapse, overturning, sliding away of the damdue to inadequate design, earthquakes, enemy attack and over-stressing . Failure ofconcrete gravity dams are often more catastrophic, because they have less obvious symptomsprior to failure, collapse may be very rapid, with little or no advance warning . For the lack of data on the change of breach geometry with time or in order tosimplify the analysis, CVC dams’ break studies were based on the assumption of complete(or partial) instantaneous removal of the dam , , . Complete instantaneous failureof a dam is conservative in the sense of simulating the worst possible downstream floodingconditions but, in most cases, is unrealistic.4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RCC DAM BREAK RCC gravity dams like CVC gravity dams, they may fail due to sudden collapse,overturning, sliding away of the dam due to inadequate design, earthquakes, enemy attackand over-stressing. In this study, the failure of RCC gravity dams due to over-stressing isinvestigated. According to the characteristics of RCC gravity dams, mentioned in the introduction,it cannot be assumed that their failure due to overstressing is instantaneous but it can beassumed gradual with a short time. The hydraulics of instantaneous and gradual collapse of adam is in fact quite different. Instantaneous failure of a dam causes a positive wave in thedownstream direction and a negative wave in the upstream direction. In gradual failure, thebreach dimensions grow with time and the reservoir level drops uniformly. Complete gradualfailure of a RCC dam due to overstressing can be assumed in the sense of simulating theworst case. To build a mathematical model for the failure of RCC gravity dams due tooverstressing, the data on the change of breach geometry with time and the breach outflowequation are required. In 2010, two studies for the failure of CVC gravity dams were presented. In the firststudy, presented by Asrate , the breach width should be taken 0.2-0.5 times the crestlength of the dam and the breach development time should be about 0.2 hour. This means thatthe failure of CVC gravity dams is gradual with a short time. This can be used for the gradualfailure of RCC gravity dams since for overstress failure type the breach shape anddevelopment for these two types of dams are equal. For other types of failure such as slidingfailure type the breach shape and development for these two types of dams are not equalbecause there are differences in the uplift within the body of the dam and the minimumsliding factors of safety . In the second study, presented by Welch , the breachoutflowof CVC gravity dams is computed by using Eq. (1): 3
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME ܳௗ ൌ 0.9 ݄ כ ܾ כଵ.ହ ௗ ሺ1ሻWhere Qd = the discharge at the dam site (m3/s), hd = breach head (m) - defined as a depth ofwater, and b = breach width (m).This study is also for the gradual failure of CVC gravity dams. Based on the assumption thatfailure of RCC gravity dams due to over stress is gradual, Eq. (1) can be used to compute thebreach outflowof RCC gravity dams. In summary, the failure of RCC gravity dams due to overstress is gradual with a shorttime. The breach outflow can be computed by using Eq. (1) and the breach width should betaken 0.2-0.5 times the crest length of the dam and the breach development time should beabout 0.2 hour.5. THE HYPOTHETICAL FAILURE OF BASTORA DAM DUE TO OVERSTRESS5.1 Methodology I. Computing the reservoir outflow hydrograph using the proposed mathematical model with actual field data. II. Routing the reservoir outflow hydrograph downstream Bastora dam using the computer program HEC-RAS 3.1.3 (2005) (The Hydrologic Engineering Center - River Analysis System) to determine the maximum discharges, maximum stages and rescue level at selected sections of Bastora River downstream Bastora dam.5.2 AssumptionsThe following assumptions are adopted in this study: I. The hypothetical failure of Bastora dam is due to overstressing. II. The breach dimensions grow linearly with time. III. The beauty of one-dimensional analysis using cross-sectional averaged flow quantities is that the details of two-or-three-dimensional variations of these variables in the channel can be avoided in the computation while a reasonable solution of the flow can be obtained . Therefore, the flow in Bastora River is assumed to be one dimensional. IV. The cross sections of Bastora River remain constant during the flood routing. V. The Manning’s roughness coefficient (n = 0.0255) is assumed to remain constant with time and distance along the study reach.6. RESERVOIR OUTFLOW HYDROGRAPHDetermination of the reservoir outflow hydrograph is divided into two tasks: I. Simulating the dam breach. II. Routing the reservoir outflow hydrograph through the breached and outlet structures. 4
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME6.1 Simulating the dam breach The breach width is taken 0.2-0.5 times the crest length of Bastora dam and thebreach development time is 0.2 hour. The breach side slopes is taken equal to zero.Thebreach shape develops in time from initiation to its ultimate configuration.6.2 Routing the Reservoir Outflow Hydrograph The reservoir outflow hydrograph is computed using the level pool routing method. The reservoir flood routing process requires determination of the following:6.2.1 Bastora reservoir elevation-storage relationshipEq. (2) represents the Bastora Reservoir Storage-Elevation Relationship : ܸ ݁݉ݑ݈ൌ 9.669 ି01 כହ ሾ .݈ܧെ801.5ሿଷ.ଶସଷ ሺ2ሻwhere: El. = reservoir water surface elevation (m asl)Volume = volume of the reservoir (MCM) at elevation (El.)6.2.2 The inflow and outflow from the reservoir for the initial conditionThe maximum mean monthly outflow from Bastora reservoir was (21.6 m3/s) which occurredon December 1976 . This flow is assumed to be the initial inflow and outflow fromBastora reservoir.6.2.3 The initial elevation of the reservoir water surface before the failureBastora reservoir is assumed to be full to its maximum live storage capacity. Thiscorresponds to spillway sill level of (892.5 m asl).6.2.4 The inflow to Bastora reservoir at failure timeThe flood hydrograph of 1000 years return period computed by , shown in Table (1),isselected as the inflow to Bastora reservoir at failure time.This flood hydrograph representsthe maximum instantaneous inflow hydrograph. Table (1): Flood hydrograph for 1000 years Return Period at Bastora Dam  Time Inflow Time Inflow (hr) (CMS) (hr) (CMS) 0 0.0 7 97.4 1 120.9 8 43.8 2 510.0 9 18.5 3 680.6 10 7.4 4 567.0 11 2.9 5 364.9 12 0.0 6 199.4 5
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME6.2.5 Modeling outlet works, spillway and breach flows modelsIt is assumed that at the onset of failure the outlets are locked for any reason. Therefore, theirflows are not modeled.The reservoir water surface elevation was assumed to be at elevation(892.5m asl) at the onset of failure which is at the spillway sill level. Therefore, the spillwayflows are not modeled.The breach is defined by its sill elevation and width, both given as afunction of time. Eq. (1) is used to calculate breach outflow.6.3 Bastora Dam Break Simulation Five different cases of breach width are investigatedfor the analysis of Bastora dambreak simulations (0.2, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, and 0.5 times Bastora dam crest length) to determinethe peak outflow. In all these five cases, the initial breach elevation is taken corresponding tothe top of Bastora dam (EL. 897.5 m asl). The final bottom elevation of the breach is taken as(EL. 810.0 m asl) corresponding to the average foundation level of Bastora dam at thelocation of the breach. The growth of the breach is proceeded vertically down at a rate of 7.3 m/ minute untilthe breach reaches its final elevation and horizontally towards the dam sides at the same rateuntil the dam destroyed completely except the dam parts that lie above the reservoir watersurface elevation. The breach parameters for the five cases of failure and discharges through the breachare shown in Table (2). The outflow hydrographs for various breach widths are shown in Fig.(2). Based on the results shown in Table (2), the breach parameters corresponding to case 5are selected because the outflow is maximum which represents the worst case. For case 5,shown in Fig. (2), after about 16 minutes from the dam failure, the peak breach outflow is(138023.92 m3/s) and after about 99 minutes from the dam failure, the whole volume of thereservoir is going out to the river reach, and this indicates that the reservoir was depleted atthe end of the simulation time. The breach formation is assumed to consist of two phases. Thesketch of case (5) is presented in Fig. (3). Table (2): The Breach Parameters and Discharges Max. dischargethrough the Breach width(w) Breach elevation(m) Caseno. breach (m3/s) (m) Initial Final 1 115.46 897.50 810.00 116218.90 2 173.19 897.50 810.00 120890.47 3 202.06 897.50 810.00 124243.07 4 230.92 897.50 810.00 128171.92 5 288.65 897.50 810.00 138023.92 6
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 7
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME7. ROUTING THE RESERVOIR OUTFLOW HYDROGRAPH DOWNSTREAMBASTORA DAM The (HEC-RAS) computer program is used to route the reservoir outflow hydrographdownstream Bastora dam. This software is based on the four-point implicit finite differencesolution of the one dimensional unsteady flow equations of Saint-Venant. The derivation ofSaint-Venant equations, the continuity equation (conservation of mass) and momentumequation (conservation of momentum) are available in most text books of open channelhydraulics, e.g., , , . The one dimensional Saint-Venant equations,after neglecting the eddy losses, windshear effect and lateral flow, are written as: ߲ܳ ߲ܣ ൌ0 ሺ3ሻ ߲ݐ߲ ݔ ߲ܳ ߲ሺܳ ଶ ⁄ܣሻ ߲ݖ ݃ ܣ൬ ܵ ൰ ൌ 0 ሺ4ሻ ߲ݐ ߲ݔ ߲ݔwhere Q = discharge (L3T-1), A = cross - sectional area of flow (L2), z = water surfaceelevation (L), x = distance along the channel (L), t = time (T), g = gravity - accelerationconstant (LT-2), Sf = friction slope, defined as ݊ଶ ܳ ଶ ܵ ൌ ሺ5ሻ ܣଶ ܴ ସ⁄ଷin whichn = Manning’s roughness coefficient and R = hydraulic radius (L) The basic data requirements for performing the one dimensional flow calculationsusing HEC-RAS are classified as geometric data and hydraulic data .7.1 Geometric Data According to the available data, a reach distance along Bastora River of (14 Km)downstream Bastora dam is considered. The site of (11) cross sections in this reach is shownin Fig. (4). 8
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME7.2 Hydraulic Data7.2.1 Manning’s Coefficient Manning’s roughness coefficient (n = 0.0255) determined by  is used in this studyand it is assumed to remain constant with time and distance.7.2.2 Unsteady Flow Data22.214.171.124 Initial Condition As mentioned in paragraph 6.2.2, the inflow to and outflow from Bastora reservoir forthe initial condition is assumed (21.6m3/s) which is the maximum mean monthly. Therefore,this outflow from Bastora reservoir is the initial flow for the (14 Km) reach along BastoraRiver.Table (3) shows the initial water surface elevation along the study reach for the steadyflow of (21.6 m3/s). . Table (3): Bed Channel and Water Surface ElevationSection Distance Downstream Channel Bed Elevation Water Surface No. Bastora Dam (km) (m asl) Elevation (m asl) 1 0.00 586.20 586.72 2 1.00 575.70 576.33 3 2.50 565.40 565.64 4 4.25 554.90 555.66 5 6.00 544.70 545.27 6 7.00 534.30 534.45 7 8.50 523.90 524.71 8 10.25 513.50 514.20 9 11.50 503.10 503.83 10 12.75 492.80 493.48 11 14.00 482.40 483.4126.96.36.199 Boundary Conditions188.8.131.52.1 Upstream Boundary Condition The reservoir outflow hydrograph for case (5), shown in Fig.(2), is used as theupstream boundary condition.184.108.40.206.2 Downstream Boundary ConditionThe downstream boundary condition is a rating curve at the last section of the routed reach.The best fit equation for the discharge - stage data at the last sectionis: ݖൌ 483.81 0.07471 ܳ .ହ െ 1.407 expሺെܳ ሻ ሺ6ሻwherez = water surface elevation (m asl) and Q = discharge (m3/s). The coefficient ofdetermination (R2) for Eq. (6) is 0.997. 9
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME8. RESULTS OF FLOOD ROUTING The computed discharge hydrographs at the (11) sections in Bastora River are shownin Fig. (5).The computed peak discharges, maximum water levels and their time ofoccurrence at the (11) sections in Bastora River are listed in Table (4). The computed peakdischarges and the computed peak elevations at the (11) sections in Bastora River are shownin Fig. (6) and Fig. (7)respectively. Table (4): Peak Discharges, Water Levels and their Time of OccurrenceSection Peak Discharge Time of Peak Elevation Time of No. (m3/s) Occurrence (min) (m asl) Occurrence (min) 1 138023.9 16 593.92 18 2 135916.1 18 591.86 22 3 126939.6 22 576.62 26 4 123507.0 26 576.01 26 5 122401.5 26 561.48 28 6 121650.9 28 548.70 28 7 120092.7 28 538.71 30 8 117398.7 30 528.54 34 9 113848.9 32 516.92 36 10 110360.9 32 508.99 38 11 103945.0 36 508.96 38 10
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 11
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Rescue level is an elevation, which is considered safe from flooding. It is usuallytaken 1 to 4 meters above the maximum calculated water levels, rounded to the next fullmeter . The rescue level is taken 2 meters above the maximum calculated water levels,rounded to the next full meter. Fig. (8)shows the computed rescue levels along Bastora Riverfor the selected sections.9. CONCLUSIONSI. For the hypothetical failure of Bastora Dam due to overstress, case (5) represents the worst case because it gives maximum outflow.II. The values of computed peak discharges and maximum water levels at the (11) sections in Bastora River may be considered high values. The 14 Km reach downstream Bastora Dam is flooded in a short time. These are because:A. The inflow and outflow from the reservoir for the initial condition is taken equal to (21.6 m3/s) which is the maximum mean monthly outflow from Bastora reservoir.B. Bastora reservoir is assumed to be full to its maximum live storage capacity before the failure of Bastora Dam.C. The inflow to Bastora reservoir at failure time is taken as the flood hydrograph of 1000 years return period which is the maximum instantaneous inflow hydrograph.D. The breach development time is taken equal to 0.2 hour.According to this, the computed peak discharges and maximum water levels at the (11)sections in Bastora River correspond to the worst case. 12
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME10. RECOMMENDATIONS I. A physical model based on Bastora dam data is required to show the validity of the proposed mathematical model. II. In addition to the overstress failure of RCC gravity dams, they, like CVC gravity dams, may fail due to overturning, sliding, earthquakes, or enemy attack. Constructing physical models to investigate these types of failures will led to novel researches into RCC dams’ failures and new insights into RCC dam breach mechanisms. III. The last section (section 11) floods after (36 min); therefore, peoples must evacuate from this area before this time when the dam breaks. IV. The rescue level ranged from (596 m asl) at section (1) to (511 m asl) at section (11). This can be used as a rescue boundary to evacuate peoples from the areas which are threatened by the flood wave. V. The rescue level determined in this study should be taken into consideration when it is planned to construct any building downstream Bastora dam. VI. When the cross sections within Bastora reservoir are available, the hypothetical failure of Bastora dam can be studied by using the dynamic model and the results can be compared with the hydrologic model used in this study. VII. Cross sections data downstream section (11) are required in order to determine the peak discharges and maximum water levels at these sections. VIII. Downstreamwater levels can cause backwater effects into the breach, thus reducing the outflow considerably. Hence it is required to take into consideration the backwater effects. IX. It is assumed that the streambed is fixed without erosion or sedimentation. Erosion and sedimentation simulation are needed to be investigated.REFERENCES ACI 207.5R, “Roller-Compacted Mass Concrete",1999. ICODS, “Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety: Glossary of Terms", FEMA Publication, 1-28, 2004. ACI 309.5R, "Compaction of Roller-Compacted Concrete", 2000. Hansen, K.D., and Reinhardt, W.G., “Roller- Compacted Concrete Dams”, McGraw- Hill, USA, 1991. ICOLD, “Roller- Compacted Concrete Dams”, Bulletin 126, ICOLD, 2003. Dunstan, M.R.H., "The State-of-the-Art of RCC Dams in 2002", Proc. of RCC Dams Workshop in Iran: 11-22, 2003. Kimitaka, U., "Roller Compacted Concrete Dam and Utilization of Fly Ash in Japan", k.uji @ ecomp.metro-u-ac.jp, 2005. USACE, "Seismic Design Provisions for Roller Compacted Concrete Dams", EP 1110- 2-12, 1995. USACE, “Roller- Compacted Concrete”, EM 1110- 2- 2006, 2000. USACE, "Structural Design Using the Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Construction Process", ETL 1110-2-343, 1993. 13
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Batista, E.L., Graca, N.G., Bitten court, R.M. and Andrade, W.P., "First Brazilian Experience Using the Horizontally Advancing Sloped layer Construction of RCC at Lajeado Dam", Middle East RCC Conference, Jordan, 102-112, 2002. Nagayama, I., and Jikan, S., "30 Years History of Roller-Compacted Concrete Dams in Japan", 4th International Symposium on RCC Dams, Madrid, 1-14, 2003. Qiu, T., and Forbes, B.A., "Use of the Sloped Layer Method for Bonded Joints on Tannur RCC Dam, Jordan", ANCOLD 2003 Conference on Dams, 1-10, 2003. Alghazali, N.O., “Mathematical Model of Al-Adhaim Dam Break”, M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, Babylon University, 1999. Rajar, R., "Mathematical simulation of dam-break flow", J. Hydr. Div., ASCE, 104(7), 1011-1025, 1978. Alghazali, N.O., “Evaluation of Some Design Parameters of Roller Compacted Concrete Dams”, Ph.D. Thesis, Building and Construction Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq, 2007. Centre for Inter disciplinary Study of Mountain and Hill Environmental (CISMHE), “Dam Break Analysis & Disaster Management Plan Report”, University of Delhi, 2010. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks Water Management Branch (LPWMB), “Inspection & Maintenance of Dams. Dam Safety Guidelines”, British, Columbia, 1998. Macdonald, T.C. and Monopolis, J.L., "Breaching characteristics of dam failures", J. Hydr. Div., ASCE, 110(5), 567-586, 1984. Wurbs, R. A., “Dam Breach Flood Wave Models”, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 113, No. 1, pp. 29-46, 1987. Featherston, R.E. and Nalluri, C., “Civil Engineering Hydraulics”, 3rd ed., Blackwell Since, UK, 1995. Asrate, A.K., “Sensitivity Analysis of Dam Breach Parameters”, M.Sc. Thesis, Engineering College, California State University, 2010. Welch, D., “Breach Parameter Estimator and Dam Break Rules of Thumb Documentation”, V. 2. 30, 2010. Xia, R. and Yen, B.C., "Significance of averaging coefficients in open channel flow equations", J. Hydr. Div., ASCE, 120(2), 169-189, 1994. Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R. and Mays, L.W., “Applied Hydrology”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988. El Concorde Consultant Engineers, “Bastora Dam and Irrigation Project”, Planning Report, Volume-1, Dam Planning Report, Republic of Iraq, Ministry of Water Resources, General Directorate for Engineering Designs, 2006. Henderson, F.M., “Open Channel Flow”, Macmillan, New York, 1966. Attari, J. and Yazdandoost, F., “Hydraulics of Dams & River Structures”, A. A. Balkema, London, 2004. Chaudhry, M.H., “Open Channel Flow”, 2nd ed., Columbia, 2008. HEC-RAS, “Users Manual”, Version 3.1.3, USACE, Hydrologic Engineering Center, Davis, California, 2005. Swiss Consultants, “Mosul Flood Wave”, 1984. Karim M Pathan, “Finite Element Analysis Of 99.60 M High Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Gravity Dam - Special Emphasis on Dynamic Analysis” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 391, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316, Published by IAEME. 14