Job satisfaction in banking a study of private and public sector banks

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  • 1. International Journal of Management (IJM)Volume 1 • Issue 1 • May 2010 • pp.111-129 N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESH International Journal of Management (IJM), IJMhttp://iaeme.com/ijm.html ©IAEME JOB SATISFACTION IN BANKING: A STUDY OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS N.MALLIKA* Dr.M.RAMESH** ABSTRACT It is an appraisal of the perceived job characteristics and emotional experience at work. Satisfied employees have a favourable evaluation of their job, based on their observations and emotional experiences. Saleh (1981) states that job satisfaction is a feeling which is a function of the perceived relationship between all that one wants from his job/life and all that one perceives as offering or entailing. The emphasis here is on all that one wants, whether it is important for self-definition or not. Luthans (1989) states that job satisfaction is a pleasurable, or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job, or job experience, and is the result of the employees perception of how well the job provides those things which are viewed as important. In this study an attempt has been made to regression and correlation analysis on job satisfaction and variables among the public and private bank employees in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. In order to study the objective primary data were collected with a sample size of 400 which was collected at randomly. A regression and correlation methods is used for analyzing the employee’s level of job satisfaction. The researcher has provided suitable measures to the organization for satisfying the workers. Key words: job satisfaction, contributing variables, banking sectors. *Lecturer in Business Administration, Annamalai University, **Reader in Business Administration, Annamalai University. 111
  • 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHINTRODUCTION Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be.Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job designaims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, jobenlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include themanagement style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment andautonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which isfrequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is theuse of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature oftheir work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’srelationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which theywork, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Positive attitude towards job areequivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been definedvariously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a person’s attitude towards job.Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of manyspecific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluationmay rest largely upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personalobjective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards theseends. According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation ofemployee’s feelings in four important areas. These are:1. Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtimeregulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.2. Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments,praises and blames, leaves policy and favoritism.3. Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in 112
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHcommunity, participation in social activity scalability and caste barrier.4. Personal adjustment-health and emotionality. Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about theirjob and a predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism,Turnover. Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints andgrievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctualityand worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has been foundto be a good indicator of longevity. Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which thepossessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employeesthrough adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals. Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more anindividual state of mind. The concept of job satisfaction, though of considerably recent origin, isclosely linked to motivation in the workplace and is a causal factor in improvedperformance in the workplace. These issues are again linked to job characteristics,which primarily describe the inherent features of a job, which can again motivate orde-motivate workers. The worth of employees in the running of organizations has been analyzed anddebated by management experts, sociologists and psychologists in depth and detail. Anumber of theories, most of them the result of painstaking and detailed research, arein use to explain human psychology in the workplace, the stressors and de stressors ofa working environment, and the reasons behind employee performance, or for thatmatter, the lack of it. For all practical purposes, employee satisfaction is essential for corporatesuccess and all famous leaders of corporate enterprise apparently were alsoexceptional leaders of men. Low attribute rates in companies is an indication of stable 113
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHand employee friendly HR policy and a barometer of corporate well being. The onsetof higher employee turnover brings with it indications of difficult times ahead and isconsidered as a serious competitive disadvantage by business and financial analysts. The issue of job characteristics and employee satisfaction has been looked atfrom a number of perspectives. One view, which is followed by many, is theimportance of money. A number of employers feel that in today’s multipleopportunity, flexi choice, work from home environment, money is the basic reason fora person to take up a job, furthermore that people work only for money. Companiesthat pay more usually get the most applications be it at college graduation time fornew entrants to the work force, or later on for mid career shifts for middle and seniorpeople. There are again many management experts and HRD specialists who feel thatthe theory of money being the only real choice in an employment choice in a freemarket situation has many serious limitations and indeed is deeply flawed. Theseexperts feel that while money is an important factor in the contemplation of anemployment decision there are a number of other factors, which also influence suchchoices. The truth is far more complex and while the cynical continue to believe in theoverwhelming supremacy of money, in its power to buy happiness and satisfaction, beit in personal life or the workplace, a number of management thinkers, socialscientists and corporate managers feel otherwise, advocating and using distinctlydifferent HR philosophies and policies. These include the understanding of need hierarchies like Abraham Maslow’stheory of needs and ClaytonAlderfer’s ERG theory of motivation, the thinking ofHerzeberger and McClelland and the various theories of goal setting and motivationalprocesses. A number of organizations base their HR practices upon an understandingof these various theories and their adaptation to the business environment. Anothervariable which has come to occupy a permanent factor in HR policy making isemployee reaction to the comparatively new practice of having to spend a significant 114
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHpart of working time in front of laptops and computer screens, be it any job profile,such is the pervasiveness of information technology in all areas of corporate life.It is an undeniable fact that the future of business enterprise depends upon thesatisfaction level of its workforce. Dissatisfied workforces cause immediate problemsonly to their particular businesses. However, if these problems are left inadequately attended they have atendency to spiral out including other businesses, industries and regions harmingrelationships, productivity, profits and finally also the creation of national wealth.Employee satisfaction is thought to be one of the primary requirements of a well runorganization and considered an imperative by all corporate managements. The lastfive years of globalization, the rise of the Chinese economy as the world’s cheapestmanufacturing destination, the gradual pervasiveness of the internet and theemergence of outsourcing on a global scale have shaken up years of corporatepractices in both manufacturing and service sectors of the economy.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Due to globalization, today’s world has become a single village. And never had itbeen before and after people interacting to one another without considering theirculture, value, norms, attitudes and race, as it today. These interactions are not only intrade, diplomatic, social political and communication network, but also in bankingsector rather the needs and motivation as for as and all these make a today’s worldmore competitive and challenging than never before. Never before has it been so,working performance has been drive by needs and motivation so as to satisfyemployees. In order to satisfy employees there is a number of things’s or factors toconsider. Therefore, this study will investigate as to what extent job satisfaction haslead to good working performance in formal organization .The study will examine thefactors which influence employee’s job satisfaction in organization. 115
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHOBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To measure the level of job satisfaction among public and private bank employees. 2. To find out the factors contributing towards the job satisfaction of public and private bank employees. 3. To find out relationship between job satisfaction and contributing variables.REVIEW OF LITERATURE Dekker et al., (1996) examined the relationship between work force size andjob satisfaction using data from two National surveys in US and Canada. The USsample consisting of 8,428 employees (aged 23-30) and assessed for job satisfactionwith pay, promotion opportunities, job security, physical surrounding and supervisorcompetence. The number of benefits offered by the organization was tested as amediator of these relationships. This was positively related to job satisfaction with jobsecurity pay and promotion opportunities. When the effect of benefit was controlledfor these relationships, they were not satisfactorily significant. Work force size wasnegatively related to satisfaction with supervisor competence and having theopportunity to do one’s best results. Christopher and Nathan (1996) examined the role of employee perceptions ofjustice in the relationship between job satisfactions of organizational commitment.Four competing models, liking employee satisfaction commitment were identifiedfrom the literature: (I) job satisfaction is antecedent to organizational commitment (II)organizational commitment is an antecedent job satisfaction (III) organizationalcommitment and job satisfaction are reciprocally related and (IV) organizationalcommitment of job satisfaction are independent. The 4 models were then testedemploying confirmatory analytic techniques of a sample of 133 financial servicescompany employees. The result suggests that when considering the role of justicejudgments, satisfaction and commitment are causally independent. 116
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESH Khaled et al., (1994) used responses from a questionnaire administered to 442employees of Saud-Arabia organization to examine the predictive strength of jobsatisfaction, organizational commitment, value commitment, and continuancecommitment with respect to turnover. Each of these variables predicted turnoversignificantly. When compared with each other, organizational commitment correlatedsignificantly with turnover more than job satisfaction and value commitment,continuance commitment was not as strong in its prediction as expected. Results indicate that expressive orientation has a significant impact on jobsatisfaction in addition to multiplying the impact of job commitment on jobsatisfaction. Expressive orientation, professional commitment, and job commitmentwere found to have positive relationships with job satisfaction, and their inclusion inthe model significantly improved its predictive capacity. Expressive orientation alsoappears to protect workers from the negative effects of bureaucratic and clientfrustrations. These findings have strong policy implications for those who managesocial service. Efforts should be made to select workers who are expressive andprofessionally oriented, and professionalism should be encouraged. Evidence ispresented that the presumption by management that pay is unimportant to socialservice workers makes them feel exploited and lowers their job commitment. Caudron (2001) has pointed out that in booming economy employees haveenough option to find better jobs and if they start thinking that they can do better atother companies, their job dissatisfaction rises. As today’s employees are not onlylooking solely for huge financial rewards as they can easily satisfy their basic needssuch as food and clothing but also they are looking for their job to provide thefriendships, family support, community, and sense of identity. Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study "Job Satisfaction as Related toOrganizational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil"concluded that that there is no significant difference between managers and engineersin terms of their job satisfaction and both the groups appeared almost equally satisfiedwith their jobs. When the managers and engineers were compared on organizationalclimate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers scored 117
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHsignificantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating thatthe managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them. Velnampy (2008), in his study "Job Attitude and Employees Performance ofPublic Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka" concluded that jobsatisfaction does have impact on future performance through the job involvement, buthigher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycleof event that is clearly in keeping with the development perspective. Attitudes such assatisfaction and involvement are important to the employees to have high levels ofperformance. The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction andinvolvement, and performance are significantly correlated. Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study "Changes in HRM and jobsatisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment RelationsSurvey" examined that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense ofachievement from work between 1998and 2004; a number of other measures of jobquality are found to have increased over this period as well. It also finds a decline inthe incidence of many formal human resource management practices. The paperreports a weak association between formal human resource management practices andsatisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements imperceptions of job security,the climate of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the mostimportant factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievementbetween 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in satisfaction with sense ofachievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during theperiod under study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the qualityof work. Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study "Effect of Job satisfaction onPerformance: An Empirical Study" concluded that the companies that are laggingbehind in certain areas of job satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so thattheir employees show good performance level, as it is provided that performance levellowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress &satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware of the benefits of 118
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHknowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of goal ofindustries. Job Satisfaction is in regard to ones feeling or state-of-mind regarding thenature of their work. Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, eg, thequality of one’s relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physicalenvironment in which they work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter describes methodological produces that will be adopted by theresearcher in collecting relevant information on the research topic and analysis of thedata.RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collections andanalysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purposewith the economy in procedure. Descriptive research design was adopted in order toachieve the objectives of the study. This type of research design is more flexible tocarry out the research. The design provides the opportunity for considering differentaspects of the problem. The researcher adopted the method of experience survey tocollect the data.SAMPLING SIZE Subjects of the present study were selected from managerial and non-managerial staff of public and private sector banks from Cuddalore District,Tamilnadu. India. Three public sector banks and three private sector banks wereselected for the study. A total of 400 subjects were selected equally from the sixorganisations selected for the study. 119
  • 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHMETHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The data collection pertaining to this study involves both primary andsecondary methods. The primary data was collected using questionnaire fromrandomly selected samples. The secondary data were collected from sources likemanuals, company records, magazines and internet.ANALYSISTable: 1. Level of job satisfaction among employees in public banksPublic sector banks Level job satisfaction Frequency Percent Low 03 1.5 Medium 77 38.5 High 120 60.0 Total 200 100.0Table: 2 Level of job satisfaction among employees in private banksPrivate sector banks Level job satisfaction Frequency Percent Low 65 32.5 Medium 133 66.5 High 02 1.0 Total 200 100.0Public sector banks: Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological andenvironmental conditions providing satisfaction to person with his job. The jobsatisfaction perceived by the employees based on the opinion. Among the employeesin the opinion, 1.5 percent of the employees have state that the job satisfaction is Low,38.5 percent of the employees have stated that the job satisfaction is Medium and 60percent of them state that the job satisfaction is high. At outset it is implied thatmajority of the employees perceive high level of job satisfaction, very few employeesperceive medium and low level of job satisfaction. It is interesting to note that only 120
  • 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHminimum percent of the employees low level of job satisfaction. It is a good sign andit indicates that the organization has better environment for the public bank employeesto job.Private sector banks: The job satisfaction perceived by the employees based on the opinion. Amongthe employees in the opinion, 32.5 percent of the employees have state that the jobsatisfaction is Low, 66.5 percent of the employees have stated that the job satisfactionis Medium and 1 percent of them state that the job satisfaction is high. At outset it isimplied that majority of the employees perceive medium and low level of jobsatisfaction, very few employees perceive high level of job satisfaction. Soorganizations try to concentration on employees need in private banks.Table: 3. Relationship between job satisfaction and contributing variablesamong public sector banksPublic sector banks JI OC QWL OCLIM JC Pearson 0.360** 0.436** 0.080 0.232** 0.004 correlationJS Significant 0.000 0.000 0.260 0.001 0.959 (2-tailed) N 200 200 200 200 200JS: job satisfaction, JI: job involvement, OC: organizational commitment,QWL: quality of work life, OCLIM: organizational climate and JC: job content. The result shows that the job involvement (0.360) is positively andsignificantly correlated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment (0.436)and organizational climate (0.232). The R-value 0.436 from the table for 121
  • 12. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHorganizational commitment of employees is highly influenced by job satisfaction. Soit is inferred that job satisfaction is highly correlated with organizational commitment,job involvement and organizational climate among public bank employees will alsobe high. The other variables are job content (0.004) and quality of work life (0.080)not significantly correlated with job satisfaction. From the correlation table it is foundthat there is significant relationship between the job satisfaction and job involvement,organizational commitment and organizational climate, except job content and qualityof work life. The findings of the study go hand in hand with the early research done byPenny Wright (1990) analyzed job satisfaction in relation to organizationalcommitment based on the sample of 264 Bank tellers. This study identified thatdifferent job characteristics are found to be associated with job satisfaction andorganizational commitment. In the case of career of tellers, job satisfaction andorganizational commitment are enhanced by participation in decision making, jobchallenge and promotional opportunities. In people oriented tellers, job satisfactionand organizational commitment had affected positively through a cohesive andeffective association. Khaladetal (1994) administered to 442 employees of a Saudi Arabianorganization to examine job satisfaction, organization commitment; valuescommitment and continues commitment with respect to turnover. Each of thesevariables predicted the turnover significantly. When compared with each otherorganized commitment correlated significantly with job satisfaction and valuecommitment. Christopher and Nathan (1996) examined the role of employee perceptions ofjustice in the relationship between job satisfactions of organizational commitment.Four competing models, liking employee satisfaction commitment were identifiedfrom the literature: (I) job satisfaction is antecedent to organizational commitment (II)organizational commitment is an antecedent job satisfaction (III) organizationalcommitment and job satisfaction are reciprocally related and (IV) organizationalcommitment of job satisfaction are independent. The 4 models were then tested 122
  • 13. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHemploying confirmatory analytic techniques of a sample of 133 financial servicescompany employees. The results suggest that when considering the role of justicejudgments, satisfaction and commitment are causally independent. Verma and Upadhayay (1986) in their study reported a positive correlationbetween job involvement and organizational commitment. They also observed thatthere was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and job involvement.Table: 4. Relationship between job satisfaction and contributing variablesamong private sector banksPrivate sector banks JI OC QWL OCCLIM JC Pearson 0.287** 0.246** 0.326** 0.138 0.142* correlationJS Significant 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.052 0.045 (2-tailed) N 200 200 200 200 200JS: job satisfaction, JI: job involvement, OC: organizational commitment,QWL: quality of work life, OCCLIM: organizational climate and JC: jobcontent. The result shows that the job involvement (0.287) is positively andsignificantly correlation with job satisfaction and quality of work life (0.326),organizational commitment (0.246) and job content (0.142). The R-value 0.326 fromthe table for quality of work life and job satisfaction clearly implies that quality ofwork life of employees is highly influenced by job satisfaction. So it is inferred thatjob satisfaction is highly correlated with quality of work life. Quality of work lifeamong the private bank employees will also be high. The dimension of organizationalclimate 0.138 is not significant correlated with job satisfaction. From the correlationtable it is found that there is significant relationship between job satisfaction and jobinvolvement, quality of work life, organizational commitment, and job content, exceptorganizational climate among the private bank employees. 123
  • 14. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHTable: 3. Stepwise multiple Regression Analysis for the Job Satisfaction andcontributed variables among public sector bank employees.Public sector banks Details R R2 Adjusted S.E F- Significant regarding R2 Value contributed variablesOrganizational 0.436 0.190 0.186 0.46399 46.420 0.000 commitment Income 0.507 0.257 0.249 0.44554 34.040 0.000 Job 0.526 0.277 0.266 0.44067 24.992 0.000 involvement A stepwise regression analysis explains about contributing variables amongbank employees. It is observed that the organizational commitment, income and jobinvolvement significantly contribute towards the job satisfaction. The compute F-value for these factors is found to be significant at 1 percent level. The R2 value 0.190organizational commitment is indicate that highest percentage of variances on jobsatisfaction could be determined by these factors. The R2 value 0.067 and 0.02indicate that income and job involvement are the most contributed variables for thejob satisfaction among the bank employees.Table: 4 Job satisfaction and outcome variables among public sector bankemployeesPublic sector banksCoefficients Un standardized Standardized t – value Significant Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta (Constant) -1.485 0.509 -2.919 0.004Organizational 0.019 0.004 0.324 4.669 0.000 commitment 124
  • 15. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESH Income 0.153 0.039 0.244 3.944 0.000 Job 0.011 0.005 0.162 2.320 0.021 involvement A stepwise regression analysis was performed keeping job satisfaction as thedimensions of organizational commitment, income and job involvement asindependent variables. It is found that among the organizational commitment, incomeand job involvement is found to significantly influence the job satisfaction.Organizational commitment (0.324) highly influencing the job satisfaction and jobinvolvement (0.162) least influencing the job satisfaction.Table: 5 Stepwise multiple Regression Analysis for the Job Satisfaction andcontributed variables among private sector bank employees.Private sector banks Details R R2 Adjusted S.E F- Significant 2 regarding R Valuecontributed variables Quality of 0.326 0.106 0.102 0.46134 23.556 0.000 work life Job 0.369 0.136 0.127 0.45482 15.477 0.000involvement A stepwise regression analysis explains about contributing variables amongbank employees. It is observed that the quality of work life and job involvementsignificantly contribute towards the job satisfaction. The compute F-value for thesefactors is found to be significant at 1 percent level. The R2 value 0.102 quality ofwork life is indicate that highest percentage of variances on job satisfaction could bedetermined by these factors. The R2 value 0.025 indicates that job involvement is themost contributed variables for the job satisfaction among the private sector bankemployees. 125
  • 16. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHTable: 6 Job satisfaction and outcome variables among private sector bankemployeesPrivate sector banksCoefficients Un standardized Standardized t – value Significant Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 0.376 0.238 1.582 0.115 Quality of 0.018 0.005 0.252 3.496 0.001 work life Job 0.009 0.004 0.187 2.592 0.010involvement Table: 6 a stepwise regression analysis was performed keeping jobsatisfaction as the dimensions of quality of work life and job involvement asindependent variables. It is found that among the quality of work life and jobinvolvement is found to significantly influence the job satisfaction. Quality of worklife (0.252) highly influencing the job satisfaction and job involvement (0.187) leastinfluencing the job satisfaction.MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS The study implies that the overall job satisfaction by the bank employees ismedium. The contributing variable like job involvement, organizational commitmentand organizational climate is found and significantly influence the job satisfactionperceived by the employees. It is also observed that organizational climate leastinfluences the job satisfaction perceived by the employees.SUGGESTIONS The job satisfaction depends up on the feeling of employees about theirworking environment. When their physical and psychological environment isconducive they will perceive a good job satisfaction. Some of the ways through whichthe job satisfaction can be improved are 126
  • 17. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESH1. It has been found that employees of private sector banks were less satisfied with their jobs compared to employees of public sector banks. To increase their satisfaction, private sector banks need to improve job security.2. Relationship with co-workers and supervisors makes the employees to feel better and it help to increase productivity and responsibility of workers and it helps to increase profit of the organization.3. It was found that level of job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment, quality of work life, organizational climate and job content for private bank employees are not satisfied with job. So the private banking sectors try to consider the respondents needs and fulfill the same.4. At outset it is implied that majority of the private bank employees perceive medium and low level of job satisfaction, very few employees perceive high level of job satisfaction. So organizations try to concentration on employees need in private banks.CONCLUSION Job satisfaction, its causal factors and its effect upon organisational health areall part of the various factors under study for this assignment. Job satisfaction for anindividual can be influenced by a number of factors that include first the job itself,the salary, the promotion policy of the company, the attitudes of the coworkers, thephysical and mental stress levels involved, the working conditions, the interest andchallenge levels. Higher job satisfaction has been linked with employees who areable to exercise autonomy and with those who have a higher level of job involvementWomen have been found to report significantly higher job Satisfaction than menalthough this gender gap appears to be narrowing. The correlation coefficient shows apositive relationship existing among. Organizational commitment, job involvement,quality of work life, organizational climate, job content, income and job satisfactionperceived by public and private bank employees. Researcher found that private bankemployees perceived low level of job satisfaction. So management try toconcentration on employee satisfaction level, it is help to increase pay, promotion,job security, rewards and reduce work load ect., and also observed that public bankemployees are very satisfied with job. 127
  • 18. International Journal of Management (IJM), N.MALLIKA & Dr.M.RAMESHREFERENCES1. Adams, M. (1999), "Fair and square: equal payment for male and femaleemployees", HR Magazine, Vol. 44 No.5, pp.38-44.2. Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1977), "Attitude-behavior relations: a theoretical analysisand review of empirical research", Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 84 pp.888-912.3. Alina Jleana Petrescu, Rob Simmons, Lancaster, (2008), Human resourcesManagement practices and workers job satisfaction, International journal ofmanpower, Vol. 29, No.7 2008 pp. 651-667.4. Atinmo, M. I. (1978), "Some factors affecting job satisfaction in Nigerian librarypositions", Careers, Vol. 4 pp.107.5. Andrew Szilagyi and Marc Wallace, Jr. organizational behaviour andperformance, Scott, foresman and company, Glenview, Illinois, London, 1980.6. Brickman, P. (1975), "Adaptation level determinants of satisfaction with equal andunequal outcome distributions in skill and chance situations", Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology, Vol. 32 pp.191-8.7. Cranny, C. J., Smith, P. C., and Stone, E. F. (1992). Job Satisfaction: HowPeople Feel About Their Jobs and How It Affects Their Performance. New York:Lexington Books.8. Hamermesh D. (2001), The changing distribution of job satisfaction. Journal ofHuman Resources 36, 1-309. Hagedorn, L.S. (1996), "Wage equity and female faculty job satisfaction: the roleof wage differentials in a job satisfaction causal model", Research in HigherEducation, Vol. 37 No.5, pp.569-98.10. Johan. E. Mathien and James L. Farr further evidence for the discriminatevalidity of measures of organizational commitment, job involvement and job 128
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