Improving impact and mechanical properties of gap graded concrete

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Improving impact and mechanical properties of gap graded concrete

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 118-131 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) © IAEMEwww.jifactor.com IMPROVING IMPACT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF GAP- GRADED CONCRETE BY ADDING WASTE PLASTIC FIBERS Dr. Abdulkader Ismail Abdulwahab Al-Hadithi Assist. Prof. -College of Eng. / University of Anbar /Ramadi, Al-Anbar, Iraq. ABSTRACT This research includes the study of the effect of adding the chips resulting from cutting the plastic beverage bottles by hand (which is used in Iraqi markets now) as small fibers added to the gap-graded concrete. These fibres were added with different percentages of concrete volumes. These percentages were (0.5%) , (1%) and (1.5%). Reference concrete mix was also made for comparative reasons. Results proved that adding of waste plastic fibres with these percentages leads to improvements in compressive strength and Splitting Tensile Strength of concretes containing plastic fibres, but the improvement in Splitting Tensile Strength appeared more clearly. There is significant improvement in low-velocity impact resistance of all waste plastic fibres reinforced concrete (WPFRC) mixes over reference mix. Results illustrated that waste plastic fibres reinforced mix of (1.5%) give the higher impact resistance than others, the increase of its impact resistance at failure over reference mix was (328.6%) while, for waste plastic fibres reinforced mix of (0.5%) was (128.6%) and it was (200%) for fiber reinforced mix of (1%). Some photos were taken to the microstructures of concrete by using Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) and Optical Microscope. Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Waste Plastic Fiber, Impact, Mechanical Properties, Gap-graded Concrete. 1. INTRODUCTION Since ancient times, fibers have been used to reinforce brittle materials. Straw was used to reinforce sun-baked bricks, and horsehair was used to reinforce masonry mortar and plaster. A pueblo house built around 1540, believed to be the oldest house in the U.S., is 118
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME constructed of sun-baked adobe reinforced with straw. In more recent times, large scale commercial use of asbestos fibers in a cement paste matrix began with the invention of the Hatschek process in 1898. Asbestos cement construction products are widely used throughout the world today. However, primarily due to health hazards associated with asbestos fibers, alternate fiber types were introduced throughout the 1960s and 1970s (1).2. FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE Concrete is considered a brittle material as it has low tensile strength and failure strain. It is difficult to suppress the formation and growth of cracks developed therein and is apt to be fractured by tensile load or dynamic load. To resolve these drawbacks and to prolong the service duration of concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete has been developed in which fibers are incorporated to improve the mechanical properties (2). Fiber-reinforced concrete, or fiber concrete, is a composite. It takes the advantages of the high compressive strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of fibers. Furthermore, it increases the energy absorption capacity of concrete through the adhesion peeling off, pulling out, bridging, and load transmitting of fibers in the concrete, and improves the ductility, toughness, and impact strength(2). The strength potential of nylon-fiber-reinforced concrete was investigated versus that of the polypropylene-fiber-reinforced concrete by Song et al(3). The compressive and splitting tensile strengths and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the nylon fiber concrete improved by 6.3%, 6.7%, and 4.3%, respectively, over those of the polypropylene fiber concrete. On the impact resistance, the first-crack and failure strengths and the percentage increase in the post first-crack blows improved more for the nylon fiber concrete than for its polypropylene counterpart. Poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) which has many special engineering aggregate properties is utilized as the sole aggregate in a research done by Xu et al(4) to develop a novel cementitious composite reinforced with Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber . Impact energy absorption capacity is evaluated based on the Charpy impact test. The results show that PVB composite material has lower density but higher impact energy absorption capability compared with conventional lightweight concrete and regular concrete. The addition of PVA fiber improves the impact resistance with fiber volume fractions. A model based on fiber bridging mechanics and the rule of mixtures is developed to characterize the impact energy. A good correlation was obtained for the materials tested when experimental results are compared to those predicted by the developed model. Experimental investigations were conducted by Song et al(5) on tyre fiber specimens with different variables such as length, diameter of holes and percentage of coarse aggregate replacement by tyre fibers. Impact resistance test was done by ACI standard and acid and water absorptions tests were conducted by Indian standard. Results obtained from the tests are use to determine the optimum size of the tyre fiber specimen that could be used in the rubberized concrete mixture to give the optimum performance. The rubberized concrete with tyre fiber specimen L50-D5 10% has shown good transport characteristics and impact resistance. 119
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3. WASTE PLASTIC FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE Alhozaimy(6) study the effects of using recycled fibers (RP) from industrial or post consumer recycled plastic waste as reinforcing fibers in concrete. The mechanical properties, plastic shrinkage cracking and permeability of RP fibrous concrete were investigated. Four different volume fractions (1, 2, 3 and 4%) of recycled plastic low density polyethylene fibers (RP fibers) and control with no RP fibers were considered. The results showed that at volume fraction of 1 to 2% of RP fibers, plastic shrinkage cracking was almost similar to plain concrete without RP fibers (i.e., 0%) while at a volume fraction of 3 to 4 %, no plastic shrinkage cracks were observed. Also, it was found that RP fibers have no significant effect on the compressive and flexural strengths of plain concrete at volume fractions used in this study. However, the RP fibers increased flexural toughness up to 270%. Yadav(7) investigates the change in mechanical properties of concrete with the addition of plastics in concrete. Along with the mechanical properties, thermal characteristics of the resultant concrete is also studied .This research found that the use of plastic aggregates results in the formation of lightweight concrete. The compressive, as well as tensile strength of concrete reduces with the introduction of plastics. The most important change brought about by the use of plastics is that the thermal conductivity of concrete is reduced by using plastics in concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used by Ismail (8) et al as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.3. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM3.1. Materials 3.1.1. Cement Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) ASTM Type I is used. The cement is complied to Iraqi specification no.5/ 1999(9)3.1.2. Fine Aggregate Natural gap-graded sand is used in production of concrete specimens which was used in this study. Results of sieve analysis of this sand are shown in Table (1).3.1.3. Coarse Aggregate Gap-graded uncrushed course aggregate is used for all concrete mixes in this study. Table (2) gives the sieve analysis results of that course aggregate. 120
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Table (1): Sieve Analysis Results of the Sand Used. Percent Passing No Sieve Size (mm) Limits of British Standard Fine aggregate Specifications (BSS. 882 (Zone 1))(10) 1 4.75mm 100 90-100 2 2.36mm 46.6 60-95 3 1.18mm 4.6 30-70 4 600micron 0.28 15-34 5 300micron 0 5-20 6 150micron 0 0-10 120 Lower Passing Percentage 100 100 95 Upper Passing Percentage Passing % 90 80 Percentage 70 Actual Fine Agg. 60 60 Grading 46.6 40 34 30 20 20 15 10 4.6 5 0 0.28 0 0 Seive Size (mm) Fig.1: Grading of fine aggregate used in this study. Table (2): Sieve Analysis Results of the Gravel Used. Percent Passing No Sieve Size (mm) Limits of British Standard Specifications Coarse aggregate (BSS. 882 (Zone 1))(10) 1 37.5 100 95-100 2 20 80 30-70 3 10.0 18.8 10-35 4 5.0 1.2 0-5 121
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 120 100 100 95 Percentage Passing % 80 80 70 Lower Passing 60 Percentage Upper Passing 40 Percentage 35 30 Actual Coarse 20 18.8 Aggregate Grading 10 5 0 1.2 0 37.5mm 20mm 10mm 5mm Seive Size (mm) Fig.2: Grading of coarse aggregate used in this study.3.1.4 Mixing Water Ordinary tap water is used in this work for all concrete mixes and curing of specimens.3.1.5. Plastic Fiber Plastic fibers with average 1cm length and average 2mm width were produced by cutting plastic beverage bottles by hand.3.2. Preparation of Specimens and Curing. The moulds were lightly coated with mineral oil before use, according to ASTM C192-88(11), concrete casting was carried out in three layers. Each layer was compacted by using a vibrating table until no air bubbles emerged from the surface of concrete and the concrete is levelled off smoothly to the top of moulds.3.3 Mixing and Compaction of Concrete Mixing operations were made in the concrete laboratory in the civil engineering department of University of. A 0.1m3 pan mixer was used. Pouring the coarse aggregates made mixing and cement in two alternate times and mixing them dry while adding the fibers until a homogenous dry mix is obtained. The water is added then and mixing continued until final mixing mix is obtained. The concrete mix is poured, in three layers, in the molds. An electrical vibrator made compaction for not more than 10 sec. 122
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3.4. Mixes Table (3): Mix Proportions of Materials Used in this Work for Making One Cubic Meter of Concrete. Waste Plastic Fibers Cement Sand Gravel Water Symbol Waste Waste (kg) (kg) (kg) Liter Plastic Plastic Fibers(kg) Fibers% RC 412.5 618.7 1237 185.6 0 0 F0.5 410.4 615.6 1231.2 184.7 5.5 0.5% F1.0 408.4 612.6 1225.12 183.8 11 1% F1.5 406.3 609 1218.94 182.8 16.5 1.5%3.5. Tests3.5.1. Compressive Strength Test The compressive strength of concrete is one of the fundamental properties used to specify the quality of concrete. The digital hydraulic testing machine (ELE) with capacity of (2000) KN and rate of 3 KN/Sec, is used for the determination of compressive strength of concrete. Three cubes of (100×100×100) mm concrete were tested according to B.S.1881. Part(5):1989(12). The average of three cubs was recorded for each testing age (7, 28 and 56) days respectively for compressive strength.3.5.2. Spletting Tensile Strength Splitting tensile strength was conducted on cylinders of (100mm diameter and 200mm height according to ASTM C496-05 (13). The average of three specimens in each case was taken. The splitting tensile strength was determined by using the digital hydraulic testing machine (ELE) with capacity of (2000) KN and rate of (0.94) KN/Sec. The average of three cylinders was recorded for each testing age (7, 28 and 56) days respectively for splitting tensile strength.3.5.3. Low Velocity Impact Test Eight 56-day age (500 × 500 × 50) mm slab specimens were tested under low velocity impact load. The impact was conducted using 1400gm steel ball dropping freely from height equal to 2.4m. The test rig used for low velocity impact test consists of three main components: Plate (1). A steel frame, strong and heavy enough to hold rigidly during impact loading. The dimensions of the testing frame were designed to allow observing the specimens (square slab) from the bottom surface to show developing failure, during testing. The specimen was placed accurately on mold which were welded to the support ensure the simply supported boundary condition. The vertical guide for the falling mass used to ensure mid-span impact. This was a tube of a round section. -Steel ball with a mass of 1400 gm. -Specimens were placed in their position in the testing frame with the finished face up. The falling mass was then dropped repeatedly and the number of blows required to cause first crack was recorded. The number of blows required for failure (no rebound) was also recorded. 123
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Plate (1): Test Rig Used for Low Velocity Impact Test4-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1. Compressive Strength Figs. (3) and (4) show the variation the compressive strength with waste plastic fiber percentages for all ages. From these figures it can be seen that, the compressive strength of all specimens increases with time, but the percentage of increasing in compressive strength differs ut between the reference concrete RC and the fiber reinforced concrete FRC. Table (4) show the results of compressive strength of all mixes in this research. All the mixes have shown strength values above (35) MPa at 56 day age. Fiber reinforced values mixes with waste plastic fibers percentage by volume (Vf%) equal to (0.5%) and (1%) have a compressive strength more than that of reference mix at 56 age of test. The maximum value of increment was equal to (7.5%) for concrete mix containing (1%) waste plastic fiber. The o compressive strength of mix with (Vf=1.5%) decrease if comparing with reference mix at 28 day and 56 day ages. The reason of this is the fiber after which (1%) had formed bulks and segregat segregate on mix. This led to form stiff bond about these bulks. Table (4): Compressive Strength of FRCs at Different Ages with Compressive strength (MPa) at indicated ages in Waste plastic fibers (day) Mix Vf % 7 28 56 RC 0 26.4 33 41.2 FR0.5 0.5 23.4 32 41.3 FR1.0 1 27.3 34 44.3 FR1.5 1.5 26 29 35 124
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 45 43 Vf% of waste plastic fibers 0% 40 Vf=0.5% Vf=1% Compressive Strength (MPa) 38 Vf=1.5% 35 33 30 28 25 23 20 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Age (Day) Fig. 3: The relationship between compressive strength and age for all mixes. Compressive Strength (Mpa) 41.2 60 44.3 41.3 35 33 34 32 40 29 26.4 27.3 23.4 0% 26 20 0.5% 0 1% 1.5% 0% 0.5% 1% Age (Day) 1.5% Vf% of waste plastic fibers Fig.4: Development of Compressive Strengths for all Concrete Mixes at All Ages.4.2. Splitting Tensile Strength The results of splitting tensile strength for various types of concrete specimens at age (7, 14, 56) days. The relationship between splitting tensile strength and various ratios of waste plastic fiber is shown in figures (5) and (6). It can be seen that the addition of waste plastic fibers leads to increase of remarkable splitting tensile strength but it decreases after (Vf=1% ) of waste plastic fiber ,but it is still higher than the splitting of reference concrete. The increase is due to the fact that the presence of waste plastic fibers arrests cracks progression. Also we can note that the plain concrete cylinders fail suddenly and split into two separate parts, while the mode of failure in cylinders with waste plastic fibers is cracked at failure without separation. The maximum splitting tensile strength is obtained at mixing containing (1%) waste plastic fiber by volume. 125
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Table (5): Splitting Tensile Strength of FRCs at Different Ages Compressive strength (MPa) at indicated ages in Waste plastic fibers (day) Mix Vf % 7 28 56 RC 0 0.88 1 1.44 FR0.5 0.5 0.884 1.04 1.6 FR1.0 1 1.138 1.57 1.7 FR1.5 1.5 1 1.38 1.38 1.80 Vf% of waste plastic fibers 1.70 0% Vf=0.5% 1.60 Vf=1% Vf=1.5% Splitting Tensile Strength (MPa) 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.90 0.80 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 5 10 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Age (Day) Fig.5: The relationship between splitting tensile strength and age for all mixes. Splitting Tensile Strength (Mpa) 1.7 1.6 2 1.44 1.57 1.38 1.5 1.13 1.04 1 1.132 1 0.884 0.88 1 0% 0.5% 0.5 1% 56 0 1.5% 7 0% 1% 0.5% 1.5% Age (Day) Vf% of waste plastic fibers Fig.6: Development of Seplitting Tensile Strengths for all Concrete Mixes at All Ages. 126
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4.3. Impact Resistance and Mode of Failure The impact resistance of concrete slabs was determined in terms of the number of blows required to cause complete failure of the slabs. The mass of (1400 gm) was repeatedly dropped for a (2400 mm) height up to the failure of slabs. Two sets of number of blows were recorded depending on the mode of failure: at first crack and at failure. Total fracture energy here is the product of the height of the drop (2.4 m) and weight of the dropped mass (1.4 kg) by the number of blows to failure. The results of low velocity impact tests of all mixes at age of (56) days are presented in Table (4) below, it can be seen that there is a significant improvement in the low-velocity impact resistance for the all mixes containing waste plastic over reference mix. Fig.(7) shows the effect of adding waste plastic which were added as a percentage by volume of the concrete at first crack and failure. It can be seen that, when the ratio of waste plastic: concrete percentage increased the impact resistance also increased. For a (1.5%) ratio the number of blows reached to (30) blows at failure while they recorded as (16) at first crack (each result average for two specimens). The increase of its impact resistance at failure over reference mix was (328.6%). Fig.(8) showed the relationship between impact resistance and splitting tensile strength at failure. From figures (7), (8) and (9) it can be noticed that, at percentage of (1.5%) of waste fiber add to concrete, the specimens show a good resistance to fracture due to the distribution of fiber across the concrete. That means the increase in tension stress, ductility, more energy absorption and bond strength. Some photos were be taken to the microstructure of WPFRC by optical microscope in the laboratories of Iraqi Ministry of Sciences and Technology and other photos were be taken by Scanning Electronic Microscope Technology (SEM) in the labs of South West Jiaotong University-China. Plate (2) and Plate (3) show the waste plastic fiber inside the microstructure of concrete. Table (4): Results of impact test at 56 days age No. of blows to first No. of blows to Total energy (Nm) crack failure Panels Vf % First Results Mean Results Mean Failure crack RC 6 8 0 5 7 164.8 230.72 4 6 FR0.5 9 17 0.5 9 16 296.64 527.36 9 15 14 18 FR1.0 1 13 21 428.48 692.16 12 24 15 33 FR1.5 1.5 16 30 527.36 988.8 17 27 127
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 30 25 Impact Resistance First Crack Impact Resistance (No. of Blows) Final Failure 20 15 10 5 0 0.3 0.8 1.3 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 (Vf%) of Wast Plastic Fibers Fig. 7: The relationship between impact resistance (number of blows) and fiber content by volume for all mixes. 1.8 Polynomial 1.7 Splitting Tensile Strngth (MPa) 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 8 13 18 23 28 5 10 15 20 25 30 Impact Resistance (No. of Blows Until Failure) Fig. 8: The relationship between splitting tensile strength and impact resistance (number of blows) and for all mixes. 128
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME 988.8 1000 Total Energy (Nm) 692.16 800 527.36 600 527.36 428.48 230.72 400 296.64 164.8 200 Failure 0 First crack 0% 1% 0.5% 1.5% Vf% Fig. 9: The relationship between total energy and waste plastic fiber content by volume for all mixes. a b Plate(2):a-50X photo of WPFRC microstructure by optical microscope. 50X b-200X photo of WPFRC microstructure by optical microscope. 200X 129
  13. 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME b a c Plate(3):a-150X photo of WPFRC microstructure by SEM. b-150X photo of WPFRC microstructure by SEM. c-200X photo of WPFRC microstructure by SEM.5. CONCLUSION Based on the expiremental work and results obtained in this study, the following conclusions can be presented: 1. Addition of waste plastic fibers with different volume ratios to gap-graded concrete slightly increases the compressive strength up to (Vf=1%) at ages 7, 28, and 56 days comparing with the original mix. The maximum values of increasing were about (3%) for 28 days and (7.5%) for 56 days age for WPFRC mix with (Vf=1%) . 2. Addition of waste fiber with different volume ratios to gap-graded concrete increases the splitting tensile strength for WPFRC mixes at ages 28, and 56 days comparing with the original mix. The max. value of increasing is (57%) for 28 day while (18%) for 56 days age for the mix with (Vf=1%) of waste plastic fiber to . Another mixes also show increasing in the splitting tensile strength but not as (1%) percentage. 3. A significent improvement in the low velocity impact resistance of all gap-graded mixes modified with waste plastic fibers over reference mix. The increase in the waste plastic fibers percentage gives higher number of blows at both first crack and failure comparing with reference mix. The amount of increasing varied from (128.5% ) at (Vf= 0.5%) to (328.6%) for (1.5%) volume ratio at failure. 4. Results of this study open the way to use of waste plastic for developing the performance properties of gap-graded concrete and extension in studying the hole properties of gap-graded concrete containing these kind of fibers. 130
  14. 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my extreme and very special thanks and appreciation to Dr. Fuhi Li - Department of Civil Engineering Material - School of Civil Engineering/Southwest Jiaotong University for his assistance in preparing samples and taking SEM for these samples.6. REFERENCES 1-ACI Committe 544, ”State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, (ACI 544.R-96), ACI Publication, January 1996, Reapproved (2006): pp:2-3. 2-Kaiping, Liu ; Hewei, Cheng and Jing, Zhou.”Investigation of brucite-fiber-reinforced concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research Journal,Vol.(34).2004, pp:1981-1986. 3-Song, P.S., Hwang, S. and Sheu, B.C.” Strength properties of nylon- and polypropylene-fiber- reinforced concretes”, Cement and Concrete Research Journal,Vol. 35 (2005) pp:1546– 1550. 4-Xu, Boa, Toutanji, Houssam A. and Gilbert, John Gilbert, “Impact resistance of poly(vinyl alcohol) fiber reinforced high-performance organic aggregate cementitious material”, Cement and Concrete Research Journal,Vol. 40 (2010),pp: 347–351. 5- Senthil, Kumaran ; Lakshmipathy, G. M. and Mushule, Nurdin ,“ Analysis of the Transport Properties of Tyre Fiber Modified Concrete”, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,Vol. 4 (3), 2011,,pp: 400-404. 6- Alhozaimy, Abdulrahman M. ,” Fiber Reinforced Concrete using Recycled Plastic”, Final Research Report No. 425/47, King Saud University, College of Engineering, Research Center, July 2006, p-45. 7- Yadav, Ishwar Singh, ”Laboratory Investigations of the Properties of Concrete Containing Recycled Plastic Aggregate”, Thesis report, Civil Engineering Department, Thapar University, MAY 2008 , p-92. 8- Ismail, Zainab Z. and AL-Hashmi, Enas A. ,” Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement”, Waste Management Journal, Vol.(28),2008, pp:2041–2047. 9-Iraqi standard specification, (1999),”Portland Cement”, No(5). 10- B.S. 882, “Specification for Aggregate from Natural Sources for Concrete ”, British Standards Institution, 1992. 11- ASTM C-192. “Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory", 1988. 12-B.S. 1881, Part 116, ”Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes", British Standards Institution, 1989,3pp. 13-ASTM C496-05. ”Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. American Society of Testing and Material International . ASTM Standard, Philadephia, Vol. 04-02.2005. 14. Dharani.N, Ashwini.A, Pavitha.G and Princearulraj.G, “Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Recron 3s Fiber Reinforced Hyposludge Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 182 - 189, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 15. Dr. Prahallada.M.C, Dr. Shanthappa B. C and Dr. Prakash. K.B., “Effect of Redmud on the Properties of Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete an Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 25 - 34, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 131

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