Improvement the level of service for signalized arterial 2
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Improvement the level of service for signalized arterial 2 Improvement the level of service for signalized arterial 2 Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 84 IMPROVEMENT THE LEVEL OF SERVICE FOR SIGNALIZED ARTERIAL Hamid Ahmed Awad Lecture, Al-Anbar University – Engineering College ABSTRACT The increase in level of traffic congestion along urban arterial makes efficient traffic management and utilization of these facilities of important considerations.The term level of service is a quality measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream, generally in terms of such service measures as speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, comfort and convenience. The present paper is conducted with the objectives of the evaluation of the level of service at Al-Forqan Street in Fallujha City, and development of alternative strategies to improve level of service. Data has been collected through field surveys on the selected arterial. The designated arterial has three signalized intersections. Traffic volume for arterials segments and signalized intersections data were collected manually, free flow speed for all segment was obtained from spot speed study, the arterial was analyzed as a street with signalized intersections (existing conditions). Highway Capacity System 2000 (HCS2000) program was used to compute Travel time, travel speed and intersection delay also this program was used to determine the level of services for each segment and for overall arterial. After improvement strategy implementation the level of service of the arterial is up graded for all segments and for overall arterial, fourth improvement strategy provides higher travel speed along the arterial segments in each direction. Keywords: Arterial, Level of service, Congestion. 1. INTRODUCTION There are main problem that urban arterials in city face its traffic congestion. Where it's caused by: (Many people working in the central business district (C.B.D.) which may have narrow streets, Shortage of off - street parking which means people park on the roads and so increase congestion, People not using public transport - either because it is less convenient, too expensive or not available and More people own and use cars). The increase in level of traffic congestion along urban arterials makes efficient traffic management of important considerations. Arterial level of service is defined in terms of average travel speed of all through vehicles on the arterial, which is considered the basic measure of effectiveness for the arterial. The arterial level INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), pp. 84-97 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET © IAEME
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 85 of service is strongly influenced by the number of intersections per mile and the average intersection delay. Also, inappropriate signal timing, poor progression, and increasing traffic flow can degrade the arterial level of service [1]. Improvement of the effectiveness of the traffic control parameters would contribute to reduce the congestion and to relief those conditions that impede the flow of traffic along the arterial. In order to obtain an effective operation of traffic along the arterial, elements that play a role in traffic operation should be considered. These elements include geometric condition (e.g., number and width of lanes, spacing between intersections) and regulatory measures (e.g., traffic signals and parking control) [2]. The objectives of the present paper are to evaluate the level of service at Al-Forqan Street in Fallujha City, and development of alternative improvement strategies to overcome its traffic operation problems. 2. METHODOLOGY The procedure for obtain the level of service along the selected arterial is shown in Figure (1). Figure (1): Urban Street Methodology [3]. Computation Field Determine LOS Compute Average Travel Speed • By segment • Over entire facility Input • Define segments and sections. • Length of segments. • Number of intersections. Free –Flow Speed (FFS) • Determine Free – Flow Speed. • Determine arterial street classification. Travel time • Compute running time. • Compute intersection control delays. Travel Time • Record time stopped at intersections. • Record travel time between segments.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 86 3. STUDY AREA Al-ForqanStreet at Al-Fallujha city was chosen as a study location. It suffers from major traffic operation problems, especially during the peak period. This street is multilane divided arterial and extends over a distance of 1780 m. It consists of four segments and three signalized intersections, the geometric characteristics for Al-ForqanStreet in each direction (North and South bound) are described in Table (1). Table (1): Geometric Characteristics for Al-ForqanStreet Segment (North Bound) Geometric Characteristics 4321 390530680800Length (m) 107.57.57.5Roadway width (m) 4.03.02.01.5Shoulder width (m) 1.5555Median width (m) 3222Number of Lanes (m) YesYesYesYesOn street parking Segment (South Bound) Geometric Characteristics 4321 800680530390Length (m) 7.57.57.510Roadway width (m) 1.52.03.04.0Shoulder width (m) 5551.5Median width (m) 2223Number of Lanes (m) YesYesYesYesOn street parking Figure (2) : Al-Forqan Street layout Julan-Al Int. (No.1) Al- Kamaleat Int. (No.2) Al- Mahkama Int. (No.2) NB Seg. 1 800m Seg.2680m Seg.3530m Seg.4390m SB Seg.1390mSeg.2530mSeg.3680mSeg.4800m
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 87 4. TRAFFIC VOLUME DATA Estimate the traffic volume at the arterial street, by counting the hourly traffic volume for (15) hours from (7:00 am to 10:00 pm) during work day and clear weather for the selected arterial. The period of volume counting were divided into three periods (Morning Period (7:00 – 12:00) am, Afternoon Period (12:00 – 6:00) pm and Evening Period (6:00 – 10:00) pm).Table (2) shows the traffic volume at peak hour for each period for Al-Forqan Street also Tables (3, 4 and 5) show the properties of existing traffic operation of the three signalized intersection in the Al-Forqan Street. Table (2): Traffic Volumes for Al-Forqan Street. Segment (North Bound)Day 21 EveningAfternoonMorningEveningAfternoonMorning 578835298369399234Sunday 532822273303418210Monday 592772243273391205Tuesday 523740305300431218Wednesday 622978278331396197Thursday Segment (North Bound)Day 43 EveningAfternoonEveningAfternoonEveningAfternoon 752825211511607192Sunday 803736226393678188Monday 834777197346550190Tuesday 877768104412536178Wednesday 913896193503611172Thursday Segment (South Bound)Day 21 EveningAfternoonEveningAfternoonEveningAfternoon 577732210815755266Sunday 523792168800743247Monday 592700180881764242Tuesday 503711165866687205Wednesday 599699144835706274Thursday Segment (South Bound)Day 43 EveningAfternoonEveningAfternoonEveningAfternoon 278466277802932255Sunday 287444264716915213Monday 302449258703804233Tuesday 311432212717822203Wednesday 3004122647881035217Thursday
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 88 Table (3): Properties of existing traffic operation at Al-Julan intersection (No.1) Approach Movements Vol. HV (%) Number of Lanes Cycle Length(sec) Green Yellow From 40th Street (East Direction). L 820 2 4(Shared) 36 2TH 632 4 R 176 2 From Al-Julan District (West Direction). L 122 6 2(Shared) 18 2TH 415 4 R 216 7 From Al-Wahda District (North Direction). L 272 3 3(Shared) 23 2TH 444 5 R 80 7 From Al-Jamhoria District (South Direction). L 380 1 3(Shared) 35 2TH 400 4 R 440 3 Cycle Time Length (120 sec) Table (4): Properties of existing traffic operation at Al-Kamaleat intersection (No.2) Approach Movements Vol. HV (%) Number of Lanes Cycle Length(sec) Green Yellow From Al-Markaez Street (East Direction). L 108 6 2(Shared) 10 2TH 132 2 R 136 2 From Al-Kamaleat District (West Direction). L 398 3 2(Shared) 22 2TH 126 7 R 208 9 From Al-Jamhoria District (North Direction). L 146 2 3(Shared) 40 2TH 624 4 R 288 7 From Al-Mahkama Intersection (South Direction). L 320 2 3(Shared) 40 2TH 636 2 R 128 4 Cycle Time Length (120 sec)
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 89 Table (5): Properties of existing traffic operation at Al-Mahkama intersection (No.3) Approach Movements Vol. HV (%) Number of Lanes Cycle Length(sec) Green Yellow From Al-Mahkama Street (East Direction). L 260 4 3(Shared) 20 2TH 408 8 R 224 3 From Al-Abbase Street (West Direction). L 260 7 3(Shared) 27 2TH 444 6 R 280 10 From Al-Jamhoria District (North Direction). L 416 6 3(Shared) 33 2TH 588 9 R 152 2 From New Street (South Direction). L 288 3 3(Shared) 32 2TH 496 5 R 322 7 Cycle Time Length (120 sec) 5. FREE-FLOW SPEED Free-flow speed is the theoretical speed of traffic density approaches zero. It is the speed at which drivers fell comfortable traveling under physical, environmental, and traffic conditions existing on an uncongested section of urban street segment. Tables (6 and 7) present the spot speed for all segments in each direction for Al-Forqan Street, where the 85th speed is consider as free flow speed for each segment. The minimum sample size for spot speed study are computed according to this equation, the following formula is used to determine the minimum sample size,required for any statistical analysis. ܰ ൌ ൬ ܼ ‫כ‬ ܵ ‫ܧ‬ ൰ ଶ ሺ1ሻ Where: N: Minimum sample size. Z: Confidence level (95%). S: Estimate of the standard deviation. E: Range of error (2.5 km/hr).
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 90 Table (6): Observed speed distribution for all segments Class width (Km/hr) Segments (North Bound) 1 2 3 4 Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency 25 - 30 1 2 2 2 30 - 35 3 7 5 13 35 - 40 8 19 13 23 40 - 45 12 23 18 15 45 - 50 16 15 22 14 50 - 55 20 13 11 11 55 - 60 14 7 9 8 60 - 65 9 5 7 5 65 - 70 7 4 6 4 70 - 75 6 3 4 3 75 - 80 4 2 3 2 N (observed) 100 100 100 100 N (required) 81 75 83 84 Class width (Km/hr) Segments (South Bound) 1 2 3 4 Frequency Frequency Frequency Frequency 25 - 30 2 3 2 1 30 - 35 8 4 5 4 35 - 40 19 17 16 7 40 - 45 20 22 22 15 45 - 50 16 18 15 22 50 - 55 12 11 11 16 55 - 60 9 9 9 12 60 - 65 5 5 7 10 65 - 70 4 4 6 7 70 - 75 3 4 5 4 75 - 80 2 3 2 2 N (observed) 100 100 100 100 N (required) 77 82 85 71
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 91 Table (7): Speed Characteristics of observed speed for all segments Speed Characteristics Segments (North Bound) 1 2 3 4 Value Value Value Value Average Speed (km/hr) 53.3 47.25 49.75 46.35 85th Speed (Free flow speed) (km/hr) 63.77 57.38 61.33 57.00 Standard Deviation (km/hr) 11.41 11.03 11.58 11.68 Speed Characteristics Segments (South Bound) 1 2 3 4 Value Value Value Value Average Speed (km/hr) 47.40 48.40 49.20 51.75 85th Speed (Free flow speed) (km/hr) 57.31 58.84 61.27 61.62 Standard Deviation (km/hr) 11.18 11.52 11.73 10.69 6. ARTERIAL INTERSECTION DELAY In order to compute the arterial or section speed, the individual intersection delays are needed. The intersection total delay for the through movement is considered the delay which is used in the arterial evaluation because average travel time is influenced by both stopped delay and delay due to decelerating and accelerating. Total delay can be related to stopped delay as follows: Equation (2) is used to compute the control delay and equations (3) and (4) are used to compute uniform delay and incremental delay , respectively . ݀ ൌ ݀ଵሺܲ‫ܨ‬ሻ ൅ ݀ଶ ൅ ݀ଷ ሺ2ሻ ݀ଵ ൌ 0.5‫ܥ‬ ሾ1 െ ሺ݃ ‫ܥ‬⁄ ሻሿଶ ൣ1 െ ൫‫݊݅ܯ‬ ሺܺ, 1ሻ൯ሺ݃ ‫ܥ‬⁄ ሻ൧ ሺ3ሻ ݀ଶ ൌ 900ܶ ቎ሺܺ െ 1ሻ ൅ ඨሺ‫ݔ‬ െ 1ሻଶ ൅ 8‫ܺܫܭ‬ ܿܶ ቏ ሺ4ሻ Where: d: Stopped delay (sec/veh). d1: Uniform delay (sec/veh). PF: Progression adjustment factor. d2: Incremental delay (sec/veh). d3: initial queue delay to account for delay due to any initial queue at the beginning of the analysis period. X: volume to capacity (v/c) ratio for the lane group (also termed degree of saturation). C: Cycle length (sec).
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 92 c: Capacity of lane group (veh/hr). g: Effective green time for lane group (sec). T: Duration of analysis period (hour). K: Incremental delay adjustment for the actuated control; and I: Incremental delay adjustment for the filtering or metering by upstreamsignals. 7. ANALYSIS 7.1 Input Required Data The first step in the analysis is obtaining these data: (Define segments and sections, Length of segments, Number of intersections,Free – Flow Speed and arterial street classification), these input data are shown in Table (8). Table (8): Input data for Al-Forqan Street IVIIIIIIArterial Street Class 40 to 50 (km/hr) 50 to 55 (km/hr) 55 to 70 (km/hr) 90 to 70 (km/hr) Ranges of free-flow speeds Segment (North Bound) North Bound (NB) 4321 63.7757.3861.3357.00Free Flow Speed (Km/hr) IIIIIIIIArterial Street Class 390530680800Length (m) 3Number of intersection Segment (South Bound) South Bound (SB) 4321 57.3158.8461.2761.62Free Flow Speed (Km/hr) IIIIIIIIArterial Street Class 800680530390Length (m) 3Number of intersection 7.2Compute Running time, intersection control delay, travel speed and determine LOS for all segments There are two principal components of the total time that a vehicle spends on asegment of an urban street: running time and control delay at signalized intersections. Highway Capacity System (HSC 2000) program is used toCompute the running time, control delay at signalized intersections for all segments, travel speed and determined LOS for all segments and for overall arterial. Table (9) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (existing Condition). 8. IMPROVEMENT THE LEVEL OF SERVICE FOR AL-FORQAN STREET 8.1 Repair the distresses in Al-Forqan Street (first improvement) The arterial street is liable to more defects happening during the repeated traffic loads on the street while some of sections are contained clearly distresses specially, in segments (2 and 3) in each directions. These parts of the arterial street must be maintained and repaired at a level that permit vehicles to travel safety and at speeds required to provide a profitable and competitive service. Table (10) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after first improvement).
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 93 Table (9): Level of service for Al-Forqan Street (existing condition) North Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D31.591.30.044.347.08001 D28.386.55.037.444.16802 E24.976.74.037.835.05303 C42.233.30.04.628.73904 South Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. F19.870.80.042.128.73901 E25.176.05.035.435.65302 D26.991.17.041.742.46803 B58.749.00.01.048.18004 Arterial LOS 574.9Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 30.1Total travel speed (km/hr) DTotal Arterial LOS Table (10): Level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after first improvement) North Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D31.591.30.044.347.08001 D30.081.50.037.444.16802 D26.272.70.037.835.05303 C42.233.30.04.628.73904 South Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. F19.870.80.042.128.73901 D26.971.00.035.435.65302 D29.184.10.041.742.46803 B58.749.00.01.048.18004 Arterial LOS 553.9Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 31.2Total travel speed (km/hr) DTotal Arterial LOS
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 94 8.2 Eliminating on-street parking in Al-Forqan Street (second improvement) The eliminating on-street parking along Al-ForqnStreet would be increased the lane group capacity; therefore, the value of the traffic volume to the capacity (v/c) would be became low and the result would be improved in the level of service for the arterial street. Table (11) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after second improvement). Table (11): Level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after second improvement) North Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D32.289.40.042.447.08001 D31.178.70.034.644.16802 D27.070.70.035.735.05303 C46.030.60.01.828.73904 South Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. F20.468.70.040.028.73901 D27.769.00.033.335.65302 D31.178.80.036.342.46803 A59.248.60.00.548.18004 Arterial LOS 534.5Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 32.3Total travel speed (km/hr) DTotal Arterial LOS 8.3Addition lane for all segments in each direction (third improvement) To improve the level of service in Al-Forqan Street add lane for all segment (each direction) along Al-Forqn Street would be increased the lane group capacity; therefore, the value of the traffic volume to the capacity (v/c) would be became low and the result would be improved in the level of service for the arterial street. Table (11) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after third improvement). 8.4Construction tunnel for through movement (north and south) bound in Al_Mahkama intersection (fourth improvement) Tunnel is suggested to be the fourth improvement. This improvement includes a construction of a tunnel for through movement in (north and south) in Al- Mahkam intersection (third intersection), where this tunnel will make the through movement without delay in this intersection, this tunnel will be two lane two directions. Table (12) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after fourth improvement).
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 95 Table (11): Level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after third improvement) North Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D32.588.70.041.747.08001 D31.677.40.033.344.16802 D27.469.60.034.735.05303 B47.229.70.01.028.73904 South Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. E21.565.40.036.728.73901 D28.068.00.032.435.65302 D31.677.50.035.142.46803 A59.548.40.00.348.18004 Arterial LOS 524.9Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 32.9Total travel speed (km/hr) DTotal Arterial LOS Table (12): Level of service for Al-Forqan Street (after fourth improvement) North Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D32.588.70.041.747.08001 D31.677.70.033.544.16802 B54.035.30.00.335.05303 B47.229.70.01.028.73904 South Bound Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. B48.029.30.00.628.73901 D28.068.00.032.435.65302 D31.677.50.035.142.46803 A59.548.40.00.348.18004 Arterial LOS 454.6Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 38.0Total travel speed (km/hr) CTotal Arterial LOS
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 96 9. FORECASTING TRAFFIC VOLUME DATA Traffic forecast factor is calculated as follows: V = (1 + Ar)y (5) Where: V: Traffic Forecast Factor. Ar: Annual rate of traffic increase. Y: Traffic analysis period (year) In the present study, the target year is taken to be the (2023). The annual rate of traffic increase is assumed to be (2%). Table (13) shows the level of service for Al-Forqan Street (for target year 2023). Table (13): level of service for Al-Forqan Street (for target year 2023) NB Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. D32.090.10.043.247.08001 D30.580.30.036.144.16802 B53.635.60.00.635.05303 C44.331.70.03.028.73904 SB Art. LOS Travel speed (km/hr) Sum of time (sec) Other delay (sec) Inter total delay (sec) Running time (sec) Length (m) Seg. B46.929.90.01.228.73901 D27.369.80.034.135.65302 D30.281.00.038.642.46803 A59.148.70.00.648.18004 Arterial LOS 467.1Total travel time (sec) 4800Total length (m) 37.0Total travel speed (km/hr) CTotal Arterial LOS
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July-August (2013), © IAEME 97 10. CONCLUSION A comparison analysis for travel speed in each segmentwas performed based on the improvement strategies. Table (14) summarized the percent of increasing in travel speed related to the improvement strategies. Table (14): Percent of increasing in travel speed related to the improvement strategies % improvement in Travel speed in segment (North Bound)Improvement 4321 05.260Repair the distresses 98.49.92.2Eliminating on-street parking 11.81011.73.2Addition lane 11.811711.73.2Construction tunnel % improvement in Travel speed in segment (South Bound)South Bound (SB) 4321 08.27.20Repair the distresses 0.815.610.43Eliminating on-street parking 1.217.511.68.6Addition lane 1.217.511.6142Construction tunnel REFERENCES 1. Nicholas J. Garber and Lester A. Hoel(200), “Traffic and Highway Engineering”, Third Edition , Thomas Learning , New York. 2. C. JotinKhisty and B. Kent Lall(1990), “Transportation Engineering”, Second Edition, prentice – Hall International, Inc., Washington. 3. Transportation Research Board (2000), “High way Capacity Manual2000”, Washington. 4. American Association of State High Way and Transportation Officials (2001), “A Policy on Geometric Design Highways and Streets”, Washington. 5. S.G.Umashankar and Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “Prediction of Transportation Specialized Views of Median Safety by using Fuzzy Logic Approach”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 38 - 44, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 6. Bant Singh and Dr. Srijit Biswas, “Effect of E-Quality Control on Tolerance Limits in Wmm & Dbm in Highway Construction - A Case Study”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 33 - 45, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.