Hexagonal microstrip printed antenna design and analysis of gain for ku

  • 515 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
515
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME83HEXAGONAL MICROSTRIP PRINTED ANTENNA DESIGN ANDANALYSIS OF GAIN FOR KU- BAND APPLICATIONSSupriya JanaECE Department under West Bengal University of Technology, West Bengal, IndiaABSTRACTThe Microstrip patch antenna is one of the most preferred antenna structures forlow cost, light weight and compact design for microwave application, wireless systems & RFapplication. In this paper low gain of hexagonal microstrip printed antenna is one of theapplications of Ku-band. These antennas are of a relative interest since they can supportmultiple communication systems. The radiating elements in this antenna are composed of twotriangular and one rectangular slot from the conventional microstrip patch antenna. Theseslots are engraved in the rectangular and triangular patch, joined together in four structureswith a center point Y shaped. The theoretical analysis is based on the Zeland IE3D software.The measurement parameters satisfy required limits hence making the proposed antennasuitable for Ku- band applications. Results of the designed and simulated antenna size havebeen reduced by 11.99% with an increased frequency ratio.Keywords: Bandwidth, Compact, Gain, Patch, Resonant frequency, Slot.I. INTRODUCTIONRecently the microstrip patch antenna is the requirement of modern communicationsystems highly. Because of their simplicity and compatibility with printed-circuit technologymicrostrip antennas are widely used in the microwave frequency spectrum. Simply amicrostrip antenna is a rectangular or other shape, patch of metal on top of a groundeddielectric substrate. Microstrip patch antennas [1-5] are attractive in antenna applications formany reasons. They are easy and cheap to manufacture, lightweight, and planar to list just afew advantages. Also they can be manufactured either as a stand-alone element or as part ofan array. However, these advantages are offset by low efficiency and limited bandwidth. Inrecent years much research and testing has been done to increase both the bandwidth andradiation efficiency of microstrip antennas.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 83-96© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME84Due to the recent interest in broadband antennas a microstrip patch antenna wasdeveloped to meet the need for a cheap, low profile, broadband antenna [6-7]. This antennacould be used in a wide range of applications such as in the communications industry for cellphones [8] or satellite communication and any other microwave application [12-18].Microstrip patch antennas have many advantages over conventional antennas whichmakes them suitable for a wide variety of applications. However, a major drawback of theseantennas is the low bandwidth. Various techniques have been proposed by researchers toenhance its bandwidth.In the whole of world different standard microwave frequency bandwidth is useddifferent designations. Particularly the use of C-Band in future will possibly certainly ratherdecrease than increase. At the current point of time - C Band nevertheless is widely used. Inparticular as Ku band capacity over some regions is quite limited [11].Ku-band frequency range is allocated to be exclusively used by satellitecommunication [13] systems, thereby eliminating the problem of interference withmicrowave systems. Due to higher power levels at new satellites Ku-band allows forsignificantly smaller earth station antennas and RF units to be installed at the VSAT location.Ku Band on the other hand operates with small antennas and less expensive equipment, whilethe capacity price is higher than C Band.Ku-Band [12-18GHz] is used for most satellite communication systems particularlysatellite TV [16], broadcasting satellite service (BSS) [19], fixed satellite systems (FSS) [17],direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) [14]; VSAT systems; marine communications are used.Now especially spacebourne land mobile; Satellite messaging for commercial jets are used ontoday. Most radar band applications used in C-band but police radar has been anotherimportant application [10] in the Ku- band.II. ANTENNA DESIGNThe configuration of the conventional printed antenna is shown in Figure 1 with L=6mm, W=12 mm, substrate (PTFE) thickness h = 1.6 mm, dielectric constant εr = 4.4. Coaxialprobe-feed (radius=0.5mm) is located at W/2 and L/3. Assuming practical patch width W=12 mm for efficient radiation and using the equation [6],f୰ ൌୡଶ୛ൈ ටଶሺଵାԪ౨ሻWhere, c = velocity of light in free space.Using the following equation [9] we determined the practical length L (=6mm) & width W(=12mm).‫ܮ‬ ൌ Lୣ୤୤ െ 2∆Lܹ ൌܿ2݂ඥሺԪ௥ ൅ 1ሻ/2Where,∆௅௛ൌ ቂ0.412 ൈሺԪ౨౛౜౜ା଴.ଷሻൈሺ୛/୦ା଴.ଶ଺ସሻሺ Ԫ౨౛౜౜ – ଴.ଶହ଼ሻൈሺ୛/୦ା଴.଼ሻቃԪ௥௘௙௙ ൌ ቎ቀԪ౨ାଵଶቁ ൅Ԫ౨ିଵቆଶൈටቀଵାଵଶൈ೓ೈቁቇ቏
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME85And ‫ܮ‬௘௙௙ ൌ ൤௖ଶ ൈ ௙ೝ ൈ ඥఢ೐೑೑൨Where, Leff = Effective length of the patch, L/h =Normalized extension of the patch length,εreff = Effective dielectric constant.Figure 1: Conventional Antenna configurationFigure 2: Simulated Antenna configurationFigure 2 shows the configuration of simulated printed antenna designed with similarPTFE substrate. Two equal slots which are the combinations of two triangular and arectangular slot at the upper right and lower left corner and the location of coaxial probe-feed(radius=0.5 mm) are shown in the figure 2.
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME86III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSimulated (using IE3D [20]) results of return loss in conventional and simulatedantenna structures are shown in Figure 3-4. A significant improvement of frequencyreduction is achieved in simulated antenna with respect to the conventional antenna structure.Figure 3: Return Loss vs. Frequency (Conventional Antenna)Figure 4: Return Loss vs. Frequency (Slotted AntennaIn the conventional antenna return loss of about -7.01 dB is obtained at 13.39 GHz.Comparing fig.3 and fig.4 it may be observed that for the conventional antenna (fig.3), thereis practically no resonant frequency at around 12.65 GHz with a return loss of around -6 dB.For the simulated antenna there is a resonant frequency at around 12.6416 GHz where thereturn loss is as high as -24.9313 dB.
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME87Due to the presence of slots in simulated antenna resonant frequency operation isobtained with large values of frequency ratio. The first and second resonant frequency isobtained at f1= 12.6416 GHz with return loss of about -24.9313 dB and at f2 = 16.7591 GHzwith return losses -12.1438 dB respectively.Corresponding 10dB band width obtained for Antenna 2 at f1, f2 are 0.7945 GHz and0.747089 GHz respectively. The simulated E plane and H-plane radiation patterns are shownin Figure 5-18. The simulated E plane & H plane radiation pattern of simulated antenna for12.65 GHz is shown in figure 5 and figure 6.Figure 5: E-Plane Radiation Pattern for Slotted Antenna at 12.65 GHzFigure 6: H-Plane Radiation Pattern for slotted Antenna at 12.65 GHz
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME88The simulated E plane and H plane radiation pattern of slotted antenna for 16.75 GHz isshown in figure 7 & figure 8.Figure7: E-Plane Radiation Pattern for slotted antenna at 16.75 GHzFigure 8: H-Plane Radiation Pattern for slotted antenna at 16.75 GH
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME89The simulated Cartesian E -plane & H-plane radiation pattern (2D) of simulatedantenna for 12.65 GHz is shown in figure 9 & figure 10.Figure 9: E-Plane Radiation Pattern (2D) for slotted antenna at 12.65 GHzFigure 10: H-Plane Radiation Pattern (2D) for slotted antenna at 12.65 GHz
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME90The simulated Cartesian E -plane & H-plane radiation pattern (2D) of simulated antenna for16.75 GHz is shown in figure 11 & figure 12.Figure 11: E-Plane Radiation Pattern (2D) for slotted antenna at 16.75 GHzFigure 12: H-Plane Radiation Pattern (2D) for slotted antenna at 16.75 GHz
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME91The simulated E plane & H-plane radiation pattern (3D) of simulated antenna for 12.65 GHzis shown in figure 13 & figure 14.Figure 13: E-Plane Radiation Pattern (3D) for slotted antenna at 12.65 GHzFigure 14: H-Plane Radiation Pattern (3D) for slotted antenna at 12.65 GHz
  • 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME92The simulated E plane & H-plane radiation pattern (3D) of simulated antenna for16.75 GHz is shown in figure 15 & figure 16.Figure 15: E-Plane Radiation Pattern (3D) for slotted antenna at 16.75 GHzFigure 16: H-Plane Radiation Pattern (3D) for slotted antenna at 16.75 GHz
  • 11. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME93The simulated smith chart and VSWR of simulated antenna shown in figure 17 & figure 18.Figure 17: Simulated Smith Chart for slotted antennaFigure 18: Simulated VSWR for slotted antenna
  • 12. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME94All the simulated results are summarized in the following Table1 and Table2.TABLE I: SIMULATED RESULTS FOR ANTENNA 1 AND 2 w.r.t RETURN LOSSTABLE II: SIMULATED RESULTS FOR ANTENNA 1 AND 2 w.r.t RADIATIONPATTERNIV. CONCLUSIONIn the present study, printed microstrip patch antenna design is successfully achievedby introducing a novel feeding method to be able for Ku-band applications. Simulation studiesof a hexagonal microstrip printed antenna have been carried out using Method of Momentbased software IE3D [20]. Introducing slots at the edge of the patch size reduction of about11.99% has been achieved. The 3dB beam-width of the radiation patterns are 150.525° (forf1), 160.725° (for f2) which is sufficiently broad beam for the applications for which it isintended. The resonant frequency of slotted antenna, presented in the paper, designed for aparticular location of feed point (5mm, 2.5mm) considering the centre as the origin.ANTENNASTRUCTURERESONANTFREQUENCY(GHz)RETURNLOSS(dB)10 DBBANDWIDTH(GHz)Conventional f1= 9.80 -4.55 NAf2= 13.39 -7.01 NASlottedf1= 12.6416 -24.9313 0.7945f2 = 16.7591 -12.1438 0.747089ANTENNASTRUCTURERESONANTFREQUENCY(GHz)3DBBEAMWIDTH(0)ABSOLUTEGAIN(dBi)Conventional f1= 9.80 NA NAf2=13.39 NA NASlottedf1= 12.6416 150.525 0.35451f2 = 16.7591 160.752 2.63314Frequency Ratio for Conventional Antenna f2 / f1 = 1.366Frequency Ratio for Slotted Antenna f2 / f1 = 1.3257
  • 13. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME95REFERENCES[1] I.Sarkar, P.P.Sarkar, S.K.Chowdhury “A New Compact Printed Antenna for MobileCommunication”, 2009 Loughborough Antennas& Propagation Conference, 16-17November 2009, pp 109-112.[2] S. Chatterjee, U. Chakraborty, I.Sarkar, S. K. Chowdhury, and P.P.Sarkar, “A CompactMicrostrip Antenna for Mobile Communication”, IEEE annual conference. Paper ID: 510[3] J.-W. Wu, H.-M. Hsiao, J.-H. Lu and S.-H. Chang, “Dual broadband design of rectangularslot antenna for 2.4 and 5 GHz wireless communication”, IEE Electron. Lett. Vol. 40 No.23, 11th November 2004.[4] U. Chakraborty, S. Chatterjee, S. K. Chowdhury, and P. P. Sarkar, "A comact microstrippatch antenna for wireless communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol.18, 211-220,2011http://www.jpier.org/pierc/pier.php?paper=10101205[5] Rohit K. Raj, Monoj Joseph, C.K. Anandan, K. Vasudevan, P. Mohanan, “ A New CompactMicrostrip-Fed Dual-Band Coplaner Antenna for WLAN Applications”, IEEE Trans.Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, No. 12, December 2006, pp 3755-3762.[6] Zhijun Zhang, Magdy F. Iskander, Jean-Christophe Langer, and Jim Mathews, “Dual-Band WLAN Dipole Antenna Using an Internal Matching Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Antennasand Propag.,VOL. 53, NO. 5, May 2005, pp 1813-1818.[7] James, J. R. and P. S. Hall, “Handbook of Microstrips Antennas”, Peter Peregrinus,London, 1989[8] Fujimoto, K. and J. R. James (eds.), “Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook”, Artech House,Norwood, MA, 1989.[9] C. A. Balanis, “Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics”, John Wiley & Sons., New York,1989.[10] J. -Y. Jan and L. -C. Tseng, “ Small planar monopole Antenna with a shorted parasiticinverted-L wire for Wireless communications in the 2.4, 5.2 and 5.8 GHz. bands” , IEEETrans. Antennas and Propag., VOL. 52, NO. 7, July 2004, pp -1903-1905.[11] Supriya Jana & Moumita Mukherjee “Microstrip Patch Antenna for MicrowaveCommunication: Microstrip Antenna Theory: Modeling and Development”, LAPLAMBERT Academic Publishing (December 25, 2012)-Germany, ISBN: 978-3-659-31336-3.[12] Supriya Jana , Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey, Samiran Chatterjee, Arnab Das ,Bipa Datta, Moumita Mukherjee, Santosh Kumar Chowdhury, “Single Layer MonopoleHexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna for Microwave Communication”, InternationalRefereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES),ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print)2319-1821 Volume 1, Issue 4(December 2012), PP.44-48.[13] Supriya Jana, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey, Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, MoumitaMukherjee, Santosh Kumar Chowdhury, Samiran Chatterjee, “Single Layer MonopoleHexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Television”, International Journal of SoftComputing and Engineering (IJSCE), ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-6, January 2013,PP.321-324.[14] Supriya Jana, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey, Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, MoumitaMukherjee, Samiran Chatterjee, “Single Layer Monopole Hexagonal Microstrip PatchAntenna for Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) System”, International Journal ofComputational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com), ISSN: 2250-3005(online), Vol. 3Issue. 1, January 2013, PP.110-115.[15] Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, Samiran Chatterjee, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Supriya Jana,Moumita Mukherjee, Santosh Kumar Chowdhury, "Multi-Band Microstrip Slotted Patch
  • 14. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME96Antenna for Application in Microwave Communication," International Journal of Scienceand Advanced Technology, (ISSN 2221-8386), Vol. 2, Issue-9, 91-95, September 2012.[16] Supriya Jana, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey, Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, MoumitaMukherjee, Samiran Chatterjee, “Single Layer Monopole Hexagonal Microstrip PatchAntenna for Satellite Television”, National Conference on Advancement of Computing inEngineering Research (ACER-13),Article No.-51,PP.19-20,March-2013;Co-sponsored by:IEEE Kolkata Section; Operational Research Society of India(ORSI) Kolkata Chapter;Rural Development Forum Institution of Engineers(India)[IEI]; Publication Partner:Academy & Industry Research Collaboration Center(AIRCC), (ISSN:2231-5403);(ISBN:978-1-921987-11-3); DOI:10.5121/csit.2013.3234; CS&IT-CSCP2013;vol.3,No.2,2013; PP.369-375,March 2013.[17] Supriya Jana, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Sudeshna Dey “Single Layer MonopoleHexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna for Fixed Service Satellite (FSS) System”,1stInternational e-Conference On Developments in Computer Sciences, Electronics andCommunication Technologies(e-DCSECT-2013),March-2013; Organized by: CosmicJournals; Under its : GREEN INITIATIVE PROGRAM; Published in: International Journalon Electronics & Communication Technology (IJECT), [ISSN:2230-7109(Online)][,ISSN:2230-9543(Print)], Vol.4, Issue Spl-2 (January-March 2013),PP. 112-116; GlobalImpact Factor:0.306;Evaluation Score 2012: 12.31; Index Copernicus Evaluation Report2011: 5.09.[18] Arnab Das, Bipa Datta, Samiran Chatterjee, Bipadtaran Sinhamahapatra, Supriya Jana,Moumita Mukherjee, Santosh Kumar Chowdhury, “A Compact Multi-resonant MicrostripAntenna”, 13thBiennial National Symposium on Antennas and Propagation 2012 (APSYM2012), Paper ID: 13102, 2012.Co-sponsored by: IEEE Student Branch, Cochin;UGC;Indian National Science Academy;AICTE;Department of Atomic Energy(Govt. OfIndia); Department of Science & Technology (Govt. Of India); CSIR (Govt. Of India);KSCSTE (Govt. Of India). Published by The Directorate of Relations and Publications;ISBN: 978-43-80095-40-0; PP.99-102, December 2012.[19] Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association. Web: http://www.sbca.com/[20] Zeland Software Inc. IE3D: MoM-Based EM Simulator. Web: http://www.zeland.com/[21] Ravindra Kumar Yadav, Jugul Kishor and Ram. Lal Yadava, “Compensation of DielectricCover Effects on Cp Hexagonal Microstrip Antenna”, International Journal of Electronicsand Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013,pp. 43 - 54, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[22] Mahmoud Abdipour, Gholamreza Moradi and Reza Sarraf Shirazi, “A Design Procedurefor Active Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics andCommunication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012,pp. 123 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.AUTHORSSupriya Jana pursuing M.Tech degree in Electronics & CommunicationEngineering (Communication Specialization) under West Bengal University ofTechnology (WBUT) in 2011 to 2013 and received B.Tech degree inElectronics & Communication Engineering (E.C.E) under West BengalUniversity of Technology (WBUT) in 2007 to 2011.