Gis spatial analysis for digital elevation model  dem  application
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Gis spatial analysis for digital elevation model dem application

on

  • 483 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
483
Views on SlideShare
483
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Gis spatial analysis for digital elevation model dem application Document Transcript

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 96-103 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) © IAEMEwww.jifactor.com GIS SPATIAL ANALYSIS FOR DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM) APPLICATION Dr. Tarek A.E., El-Damaty Faculty of Engineering – Banha University ABSTRACT The study area of this paper is Alsukhna city; which located along the Cairo – Hurgada highway. The problem arraised when the Egyptian authority needed to know the actual amount of cutting and filling in the mountains exist in the city during the project of city construction for environmental assessment purposes. Two digital terrain models (DEM) have been careated; one was before the city project construction and the other one was after the city project construction by using extensive studies, satellite images, field visits, field mesurements and topographic maps. GIS spatial analysis was applayed to compare and analysis the two DEMs results. By analyzing the two DEMs; it was found that: the total amount volume of cutting from mountain is 116 405 841 m3 and the the total amount volume of filling is 113 612 511 m3 with percentage of 98% of using the cut material in filling process. It could be concluded that the cut and fill process that had been done were very important in order to protect the project area from the rainfall risks and mountain collapse. INTRODUCTION Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system that provides the following four sets of capabilities to handle geo-referenced data: input, data management (data storage, maintenance and retrieval), manipulation and analysis, and output. GIS allow interpreting and visualizing data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns and trends in form of maps, globes, reports and charts. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the actual situation of Alsukhna city project and to get the amount and places of cutting and filling that had been done in the mountain at the project area. This paper will based on extensive studies using satellite images and field visits and topographic maps that contain the geographic features produced by Surveying in the ground prior to the commencement of the project and the existing topography of the project in addition to a series of scientific reports. 96
  • 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME MATERIALS AND METHODS The collected data consist of topographic maps that contain the geographic features produced by Survey Authority and Military Survey scale 1:2500 (1990), field survey using Total station (XYZ), satellite images, and statistical data. AutoCAD, Arc-GIS, and Erdas Imagine software are used in data entry and analysis, in addition to land-use/land-cover data are checked in the field by using GPS and Total station to update and upgrade the topographic map. These data are collected from different sources for verification. The procedures followed to build a GIS for the project (Porto El-Sokhna) and make it ready for analysis are: (1) data capture, (2) data preparation, (3) data extraction, (4) data integration. These steps are followed to develop the required GIS based on various types of data available from multiple sources. A vector - based GIS was developed by digitizing the available maps, construct topology of various layers, editing errors, reconstruct topology, and adding attributes. The GIS includes layers of land uses, roads, elevations, census tracts and population characteristics. A LANDSAT- MSS satellite images are used to obtain data on the extent of urban areas in. The satellite image is rectified to the same projection system of the base map and classified using maximum likelihood technique. The classified images are integrated within the multi-layered GIS. METHODOLOGY The technique used in this study is based on building up and analysis of a geographical information system layers. The main steps involved in building a geographical information system include; data collection, input spatial data, edit & create topology, input attribute data and data analysis.• A first step includes the technical measuring of the ground levels and borders by using different surveying instruments, such as total station and GPS.• A second step includes the data processing of the measurements by using different surveying software.• A third step includes the technical conversion from file format DXF and/or DWG to GIS software to prepare a georeferenced geodatabase and classify it as layers.• From the digital data it could be build up a model of 3D topography which is called Digital Elevation Model (DEM); that gives more easier realization and interpretation after and before construction. The data file of DEM before construction was as following: Vector data information; ESRI description; Vertical; Minimumelevation:0.000000; Maximum elevation: 286.000000; Node Geometry Node; Topology: TRUE; Feature count: 45766; Spatial Index:TRUE; Linear referencing: FALSE. Geometry type: Edge; Topology: TRUE; Feature count: 274299; Spatial Index: TRUE; Linear referencing: FALSE; SDTS description; Feature class: SDTS feature type, feature count; Triangle: Ring composed of chains, 91433; Node: Node, planar graph, 45766;Edge: Link, 274299. The data file of DEM before construction was as following: Vector data information; ESRI description; Vertical; Minimum elevation: 0.000000; Maximum elevation: 286.000000; Triangle; Geometry type: Triangle; Topology: TRUE; Feature count: 571074; Spatial Index: TRUE; Linear referencing: FALSE; Geometry type: Node; Topology: TRUE; Feature count: 285556; Spatial Index: TRUE; Linear referencing: FALSE; Geometry type: Edge; Topology: TRUE; Feature count: 1713222; Spatial Index: TRUE; Linear referencing: FALSE; SDTS description; Feature class: SDTS; feature type; feature count; Triangle: Ring composed of chains, 571074; Node: Node, planar graph, 285556; Edge: Link, 1713222. 97
  • 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMERESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSUsing the above data files; two digital eleation models have been created. Figures (1; 2)illustrate the DEM results. Figure (1): Digital Elevation Model before construction Figure (2): Digital Elevation Model after construction 98
  • 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME A Slope map is important in identifying constraints and evaluating potentialenvironmental impacts related to landform alteration. Major constraints can be tied togrades/inclinations that are either too steep (to reasonably construct structures, roads, etc.) ortoo gentle (for playfields, etc.) Major impacts related to inclination include erosion/loss ofsoil/non-point source pollution and slope failure (linked to weak rock, soils with low bearingcapacity, steep slopes, etc.) Coupled with aerial photographs, slope maps are excellent toolsto look for potential erosion areas, drainage patterns, landform and soil patterns, land usesuitability, etc. Figures (3; 4) illustrate the slope map before and after construction. Figure (3): Slope map before construction Figure (4): Slope map after construction Contour maps are a useful way to visualize the spatial relationships among data andthe spatial distribution of data values, which represent the locations that have the samealtitude Fig.(5; 6) show the contour map before and after construction. 99
  • 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Figure (5): Contour map before construction Figure (6): Contour map after construction 100
  • 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEThe volumes of work that had been done in the project could be determined and comparedwith the current situation from the two surfaces of land before and after the project; also weidentified the zones of cut and fill into GIS Analysis to produce the TIN- Difference andprofiles. Figure (7) illustrates the TIN differences. Figure (7): TIN- Difference between the two surfaces (before and after the proect)Eight profiles have been selected randomly to cover the all site to display the differencebetween the two surfaces (before and after construction). Figure (8) shows the eight profilesand Figures (9; 10) show the profile number five. Figure (8): The 8 profiles that distributed in the all site 101
  • 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME Figure (9): Profile number 5 before construction Figure (10): Profile number 5 after constructionCONCLUSIONS The project is located on the area of El-Galala mountain; which its height is reaching1200 m, with a total area of 1 303 324 m2. The height in the project area is ranging between 0and 286 m. A number of 109 points are chosen as observation points to cover the all projectarea for height comparison. By analyzing the satellite image and comparing the heights before construction (usingthe topographic contour map) and after construction (using actual field measurements);through the creation of two digital elevation models; we found that: the total amount volumeof cutting from mountain is 116 405 841 m3 and the total amount volume of filling is 113612 511 m3 with percentage of 98% of using the cut material in filling. The average height of the project area after finshing the proect is remaining 82 m asthe same height before starting the project. The cut and fill process that had been done were very important in order to protect theproject area from the rainfall risks and mountain collapse. 102
  • 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEMEREFERENCES 1. Egyptian Military Survey (1985): Topographic Sheets, scale 1:100,000, Cairo Egypt, 34 sheets. 2. El-Shazly, E. M; M. A. Abdel-Hady and M.L.El-Rakaiby (1991): Drainage megabasins in Egypt. Bull. Soc. Georg. d`Egypt, Tome LXIV, pp 45-58. 3. Fairhead, J. D. and Girdler, R. W. (1970): The seismicity of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar triangle. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 267 (A), pp 49-74. 4. Garfunkel, Z. and Bartov, Y. (1977): The tectonics of the Suez rift. Bull. Geol. Surv. Isr. 71, pp1-48. 5. Linsley, R. K, J. B. Franzini, D. L. Freyberg and G. Tchobanoglous, (1992): Water resources engineering. McGraw Hill, New York, 4th edition, 841 p. 6. McKenzie, D. P, Davies, D. and Molnar, P. (1970): Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and east Africa. Nature 226, pp.243-248. 7. Strahler, A. N. (1952): Hypsometric (area altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 63, pp 1117-1142. 8. ESRI. (2001).Getting to know Arc GIS. Redland, California: ESRI Inc. 9. Ian, Heywood,and other(1999), An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems New York. 10. Dr. Tarek Abd El-Hamied Hassen El-Damaty, “The Role of Kalman Filter in Improving the Accuracy of GPS Kinematic Technique” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 49 - 57, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 103