Geothermal energy the eco friendly alternative source of energy


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Geothermal energy the eco friendly alternative source of energy

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME81GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; THE ECO-FRIENDLY ALTERNATIVESOURCE OF ENERGYChandrashekhar R. SuryawanshiAssociate professor in BharatiVidyapeeth Deemed University, PuneABSTRACTTo develop energy one can have renewable and non-renewable resources. One of therenewable resource is Geothermal which is plentiful, eco-friendly, clean, reliable andrenewable energy alternative resources available at beneath of our feet. Only It needs toextract and convert it in to clean energy. In global scenario ,developed countries have adoptedgeothermal energy as major source of energy. In India there is wide scope for utilizations ofgeothermal resource but India needs to strategically evaluate its supply options to meet itsenergy requirement. Coal would continue to be the dominant energy source .Coal-basedpower plants give rise to heavy carbon emission. With global efforts to control this menacetaking a final shape guided by Kyoto Protocol, India should focus its attention on developingother cleaner sources of energy. India has vast reserves of the nuclear fuel thorium but thetechnology is not yet developed for its commercial use. Renewable energy could alsocontribute usefully to India’s energy requirement.Keywords: Geothermal, Renewable, Bio-Diesel, binary cycle, solar power, biomass, windpowerARTICLE CLASSIFICATION: GENERAL REVIEWINTRODUCTIONThe word energy is all about resources of the world which can be used to do usefulactivities. Energy resources are essential to human beings because almost everything we dorequires the use of energy. Any development in the nation demands energy. So energy is thebasic driver of a nation’s economy. Rapid urbanization, industrialization, rising incomes, andthe growing use of energy intensive products are driving nations demand for energy. Todevelop energy one can have renewable and non-renewable resources. One of the renewableresource is Geothermal which is plentiful, eco-friendly, clean, reliable and renewable energyalternative resources available at beneath of our feet. Only It needs to extract and convert it into clean energy.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 81-84© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME82CASE:Considering five to eight percent economy growth in developing countries hasdevelop strong thrust for energy. However, with a targeted GDP growth rate of 7 to 8 percent,and an estimated energy elasticity of 0.80, the energy requirements of the developingcountries are expected to grow at five to six percent per annum over the next few years. Thisimplies a four-fold increase in energy requirement over the next 25 years. Survey conductedby BP Statistical review of world energy 2011 Share of renewable energy resources inprimary energy is continuously increasing as compare to bio-fuels and other resources.According to IEA Energy technology prospective 2010 ,strength of geothermal powergeneration of various leading countries in TWK are as Africa 6.12%,China 5.62%,OECDPacific 5.47%, OECD Europe 7.21%,OECD North America23.82% , Other Developing Asia31.82% ,Central & South America 6.47%, Economies in Transaction 12.34% , and India1.13%. Today India is fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become thirdlargest overtaking Japan and Russia. According to statistical data available by energyplanning commission govt. of India.India’s Primary commercial energy consumption in 2004 stood 375.8 mtoe(milliontones oil equivalent); and it would be become double to 812 mtoe within ten to twenty yearsthat does not include 66% hike in traditional household consumptions. This demands that weseriously plan and execute energy-producing projects without any further delay. If we fail onthis front then our economy will be hit badly and all our calculations about our growth ratecould go haywire. For developing energy one can have renewable and non-renewableresources. India is producing electricity from primary non-renewable resources such asfossil fuels; i.e 56% from coal, 10% from gas 1%from oil the rest comes from hydro electricplants 25% and 3% from nuclear power station and 5% is contributed from renewableresources such as bio-fuel, biomass, solar, tidal, and wind .Production of energy frequentlycontains an element of conflict between ecological and economic concern. With the usage offusil fuels, pollution in large urban metros has resulted in great demand for alternative withlow emission as per internationally accepted norms.RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCESA renewable energy source is an important element of India’s power policy, to meetthe need of an environmentally friendly power to remote areas. India has vast potential forrenewable energy ,especially in areas such as solar power, biomass, wind power andgeothermal power .The current installed capacity of renewable energy is around 7100MWconstituting 6% of India’s total generation capacity. As ministry of non-conventional energysources has set an objective of achieving an installed renewable capacity of 10000MW by2012.Certain form of renewable energy sources viz-wind energy, small hydro and biomasshave established a strong presence in India in the energy landscape. With an installedcapacity of around 4400MW of wind base power generation, India is fourth largest windpower generator in the world. India ranks second in the world with an installation base of 3.8million biogas plants. Some state governments have provided lot of encouragement forrenewable, such as Bio-Diesel for which cultivation of crops such as Jatropha has beenencouraged on large scale. In all these exercise, we have overlooked the utilization of anothervery important source of clean and renewable source of energy that our planet is gifted with.This is geothermal energy. India should focus on the characteristics of those energy sourceand ways and means of tapping it for commercial purpose.
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME83GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal energy is the use of steam and hot water generated by heat from the Earthto perform work. Some geothermal power plants use steam or hot water from a naturalunderground reservoir to power a generator. The heat of the earths interior generatesdamaging and polluting the environment. Earth’s temperature increases gradually with depth,at the center reaching more than 42000C (76000F) .As heat naturally moves from hotter tocooler regions, so earth’s heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the surface, where anestimated 42 trillion thermal watts are continually radiated into space. The Bulk of thisimmense heat supply cannot be particularly captured, because it arrives at the surface at a lowtemperature. Fortunately, the fundamental geological process known as plate tectonicsensures that some of this heat is concentrated at temperature and depths favorable for itscommercial extraction.INITIATIVE BY INDIAN GOVERNMENTThe National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, has conductedmagneto-telluric investigations in Tattapani Geothermal fields in Chhatisgarh to identify sub-surface geological structures to evaluate its energy and thermal potential. Based on thepromising results obtained during the investigations, it is planned to develop the site forpower generation. A similar study has been carried out through NGRI in Puga GeothermalFields in Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir and the site is planned to be developed forpower generation. There are other organizations working on those development.ORGANIZATIONS WORKING ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY• Central Electricity Authority• Geological Survey of India• Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai• Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu• National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad• Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Dehradun• National Hydro-electric Power CorporationCONCLUSIONIndia has high scope in utilizing its geothermal resources . India’s ministry of nonconventional energy and other geo research centers may pay their attentions towards theserenewable resources of clean energy. They can plan for allocating sufficient funds fordevelopment and research of technology for usage of those resources effectively. Geothermalenergy is plentiful, eco-friendly, clean, reliable and renewable energy alternative resourcesavailable at beneath of our feet. Only it needs to extract and convert it in to clean energy.India has tapped only few percent of these resources, it needs to put efforts and allocate fundfor development of the technology to avoid future energy crises.
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME84REFERENCES[1] IEA Energy technology prospective 2010[2] BP Statistical Review of World Energy ©BP 2011[3] Planning Commission Report Government of India 2006[4] Indian energy out- look , Energy and Natural Resources[5] Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000, by D.Chandrashekharan,[6] IIT,Mumbai .Geothermal resources of India.[7] The Brooking ,Foreign Policy Studies ,Energy Security Series India by-Tanvi Madan[8] U.S.Dept.Of Energy ,Washington