Fingerprint identification technique
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    Fingerprint identification technique Fingerprint identification technique Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 308 FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE BASED ON WAVELET-BANDS SELECTION FEATURES (WBSF) Dr. Mustafa Dhiaa Al-Hassani, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq Dr. Abdulkareem A. Kadhim, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq Dr. Venus W. Samawi, Al al-Bayt University, Jordan ABSTRACT The paper is concerned with the use of fingerprint (FP)features for protection against unauthorized access. Wavelet features for both closed and open-set FP recognition are studied here to verify persons' identity. Fingerprints of 49 persons (32-authorized and 17-unauthorized) were taken as testing data. Each authorized person is asked to give 10-instances of his right forefinger print. In the closed-set FP recognition, the obtained recognition rates are below 90% due to the imperfections in the FP images that negatively affect the recognition rate. Preprocessing operations such as: noise-removal, segmentation, normalization and binarization are considered to improve the resulting recognition rates. A method that relies on a new selection process for wavelet decomposition bands is proposed, which enhance the recognition rates further to get about 100% in some favorable conditions. The results have shown that the wavelet descriptors using the proposed Wavelet-Bands Selection Features (WBSF) are efficient representation that can provide reliable recognition for large input variability. The open-set FP verification mode is also presented for 290 trials from 29 persons, where the obtained verification rates are greater than 97% for both Euclidean and city-block distance measures. Keywords: Fingerprint Recognition, Fingerprint Verification, Biometric, Feature Extraction, Wavelet Transform, Wavelet-Bands Selection Features. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June (2013), pp. 308-323 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 309 I. INTRODUCTION Due to the escalating level of security breaches and transactions frauds, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies becomes essential. The key task of an automated security system is to verify that the users are in fact those who claim to be. The use of biometric information has been used widely for both person identification and security applications. Biometric-based solutions are able to provide confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy [1]. A biometric can be described as a measurable physical and/or behavioral trait that can be captured and used to verify the identity of a person [2]. FP recognition is a rapidly evolving technology that has been widely used in forensics such as criminal recognition and prison security, and has widely adopted in a broad range of civilian applications such as national ID card, airport check-in, border control, driver’s-license authenticity, computer network logon, physical access control, electronic banking, personal authentication,… etc [3, 4, 5]. The real significance of FP is based mainly on the following principles: 1) People can't "forget" their fingerprints, 2) It is easy to authenticate, 3) Impossible to deny, 4) It is a physical characteristic instead of something to be remembered or carried around; it is less susceptible to misuse than other authentication measures like passwords or credit cards, 5) Unchangeable, 6) Unforgeable, ... etc [6, 7]. Several researches in the field of FP recognition/verification were developed and receive a great deal of attention among many researchers using of wavelet transform and other feature extraction methods: Priti and Priyadarshan [4] introduced a FP verification using Haar wavelet transform method. The system was tested on a Biolab Database of 2160 FP images. The obtained verification accuracy is 82.08% even by rotating each FP image from 00 to 3600 . Eriksson [7] illustrated that silicon FP scanners produce good quality images, this work presents two main approaches to minutia detection in FP images, binary detection and direct grayscale detection. The results are tested on 6283 fingerprints collected by the Verdicom FPS110 silicon FP scanning device and they reported about 92% classification accuracy. Saeed, Tariq, and Jawaid [8] improved a fingerprint image enhancement technique using Gabor wavelets. The system was tested on Fingerprint Verification Competition (FVC) 2004 database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm proved to be effective in enhancing the fingerprint image quality, where the achieved accuracy is 97.14%. In [9] the authors presented minutiae based approach to FP identification and verification. The technique is based on the extraction of minutiae from the thinned, binarized and segmented version of a FP image. The system was tested on the FVC2000 database using low cost capacitative FP scanners, which contains 800 fingerprints from 110 different fingers. The system was implemented using Matlab 6.5 and the time taken for processing a single FP is 12 seconds that implies accuracy 92%. II. AIM OF THE WORK This work aims to design and build a secure, fast, reliable, and accurate identification system for access control that is capable of distinguishing the authorized persons from others (i.e., impostors), and then gives only the authorized persons a privilege or an access right to the facility that need to be protected from the intrusion of unauthorized persons.
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 310 In this paper, a novel Wavelet feature-set (WBSF) is proposed for representing FP pattern. FP recognition and verification is also to be investigated for open and closed-set models. III. THE PROPOSED FP RECOGNITION SYSTEM MODEL In general, the function of FP systems can be separated into several distinct phases, which include sensing or reading FP, preprocessing operations, FP registration, feature extraction followed by a classification search and decision rule [1, 10]. The block diagram for the proposed FP recognition system model, shown in Fig. (1), illustrates that the input FP image is passed through four preprocessing operations (noise-removal, segmentation, normalization and binarization) prior to feature extraction phase [1]. Fig. (1): Block-Diagram of the proposed FP Recognition System Model Features are extracted from wavelet domain, using the classical pyramidal Wavelet transform decomposition followed by the features extracted from the proposed Wavelet-Bands Selection Features (WBSF), as shown in the design of the proposed system to recognize a query FP image by comparing it with a training database of F Preferences during a pattern matching phase. Finally, the distance measures (Euclidean and City-block) are used to calculate the difference between the feature vector of the query FP with the feature vector of the potential FP in the database. The next subsections will cover the details of each stage [1]. A. Input FP Image Figure (2) illustrates some examples of input FP images used for training or testing modes to our system model from the right forefinger of different persons (P1, P2, …, P6) [1].
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 311 Fig.(2):Example of 6–FP images from different Persons B. Preprocessing of the FP Images FP images are rarely of perfect quality. They may be degraded and corrupted with elements of noise due to many factors including variations in skin and impression conditions. It must also overcome fingers pressed too hard or too gently to get an acceptable image. Getting an acceptable image is probably the most important factor in determining fingerprints genuineness. Bad quality prints can result in unsuccessful recognition attempts or even worse, erroneous logins. Thus, image enhancement techniques are employed prior to feature extraction to reduce the noise and enhance the definition of ridges against valleys. A number of processing techniques adopted in this system model are applied in the following sequence [1]: Noise-Removal (using Mean or Gaussian filter), Segmentation (foreground/background separation), Normalization (to reduce the effect of non-uniform intensities and improving image quality by stretching its histogram), and Binarization (using local mean). Figure (3) illustrates the effects on a sample FP image [1]. Fig. (3): The sequence of preprocessing steps for FP image sample P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 312 C. Database Construction FP identification system (both FP recognition and FP verification) depends on FP samples as input data. In this work, database samples were collected in two modes of operation: • Closed-set FP recognition mode • Open-set FP verification mode In order to evaluate the recognition performance of the proposed system model, each user of the system (to be considered as authorized one) has been asked to provide his forefinger print for a maximum of 10 prints from the same forefinger (i.e., 10 instances), as shown in Fig. (4). The number of repetition R ( 1≤ R ≤ 10 )can be considered as training set during an enrollment phase to train the fingerprints model of authorized persons, and the other ( 10 – R ) repetitions are considered for testing during a matching phase to classify them with those training references in the database [1]. Fig. (4): Demonstrates 6-FP instances from the same Person P2 The data were collected from 32 different persons, 18 males and 14 females, in a closed set FP recognition mode (i.e. 320 samples). As a result, the total database size of FP samples for this mode is [1]: …… (1) …… (2) …… (3) In the open-set FP verification mode, up to 290 trials from different persons (i.e., authorized and unauthorized) are taken. This is performed in order to study the system behavior and to select the optimal threshold for user verification. D. Feature Extraction The process of extracting some numerical measurements from raw input patterns by constructing a new "smaller" set of features from the original feature set of patterns (i.e. rsonsNo. of PeizeTotal DB S ×= 10 PersonsTrainingofNo of.NoRReferences. ×= PersonsSamplesTestofNo of.NoR)(10. ×−= P2,1P2,2 P2,3 P2,4 P2,5 P2,6
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 313 )( 1 (t) ψψ , j kt jkj − = reducing dimensionality) is referred to as feature extraction[11].In this work, features are extracted from the spectral properties of the wavelet transform. Wavelet transform breaks an image down into four sub-sampled images, and then analyze each component with a resolution matched to its scale. The forward and inverse continuous wavelet transform ofx(t) with respect to the basis function or wavelet (t)ψ k,j at scale j (j>0) and time delay k is written as follows [4, 12 –14]: ..…(4) ..…(5) where ..…(6) and (t)ψ is the mother wavelet. After converting the input FP image from its lowest-level of pixel data into higher-level representation of wavelet coefficients, [1],a set of wavelet features that represent the input FP image can be extracted by recursively decomposing sub images in the low frequency channels using Algorithm-1 as shown below: Algorithm-1:The Classical Pyramidal Wavelet Transform Decomposition [1, 15] Step1: Decompose a given textured image with 2-D wavelet transform into 4 sub images, as indicated in Fig. (5) (the image is divided into four sub bands after wavelet transform: horizontal, vertical, diagonal subimages and low resolution subimage). Fig. (5): Three-level Wavelet Decomposition LL3 LH3 LH2 HL3 HH3 LH1 HL2 HH2 HL1 HH1 ∫= dt)t()t(x)(W ψ k,jk,j:CWTForward ∫∫= k j djdk)t()k,j(W)t(x ψ k,j:CWTInverse
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 314 Step2: 1) Calculate the Mean Absolute Value (M.A.V.) feature for each decomposed image, as follows [15]: …… (7) where j)x(i, is the decomposed image, with Mi ≤≤1 and Nj ≤≤1 . M is the subimage height and N is the subimage width. 2) Calculate the Standard Deviation (S.D.) feature for j)x(i, , as shown below [15, 16]: …… (8) The size of the smallest subimages should be used as a stopping condition for the iterative decomposition process. It is also worthwhile to point out that the above pyramidal wavelet transform decomposition takes no more space to store the wavelet coefficients than it does to store the original image. E. Pattern Matching The resulting test template, which is an N-dimensional feature vector, is compared against the stored reference templates to find the closest match. The process is to find which unknown class matches a predefined class or classes. For the FP recognition task, the unknown FP is compared to all references in the database. This comparison can be done through Euclidean (E.D.) or city-block (C.D.) distance measures [17], shown below: …… (9) ….. (10) where A and B are two vectors, such that A = [a1 a2 … aN]and B = [b1 b2 … bN]. The primary methods for the discrimination process are either to measure the difference between the two feature vectors or to measure the similarity. In our approach the minimum distance classifier, by measuring the difference between the two patterns, is used for FP recognition. This classifier assigns the unknown pattern to the nearest predefined pattern. The bigger distance between the two vectors, is the greater difference. On the other hand, the identity of the unknown FP was verified by considering the best matched reference in the database where their distance is lower than a certain threshold [17, 18]. IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The recognition rate (R.R.) is defined as the ratio of correct identified fingerprints to the total number of test samples which corresponds to a nearest neighbor decision rule. ∑ = −= N i ii 1 2 )ba(.D.E ∑ = −= N ii 1i ba.D.C ∑ ∑ = =× = M 1i N 1j )j,i(xM.A.V. NM 1 ∑ ∑= = −= × M i N j M.A.V.jix NM S.D. 1 1 2 )( ),( 1
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 315 ..… (11) Many experiments and test conditions were accomplished to measure the performance of the proposed system with different criterions concerning: wavelet decomposition level selection, FP noise-removal, segmentation, normalization, binarization, the effect of the proposed WBSF on the overall recognition/verification rates when compared with the classical pyramidal wavelet transform decomposition method. A. The Selection of Wavelet Level In order to select the best level of wavelet decomposition for the system, this test is performed. Different Daubechies wavelet functions are considered as shown in Table-1. Table-1: Recognition rates for different levels of wavelet decomposition using (M.A.V.) feature The wavelet levels considered for each function is varied from 1 to 5. The number of wavelet features for the first level is 4, and each progressing in wavelet level by iteratively decomposing the low resolution sub image will correspond increasing in features length by 3. For each training or testing, five repetitions for each FP are considered which resulted in 160 samples. It is clear from Table-1 and its corresponding chart Fig. (6), that Level-4 is the most appropriate level for feature vector construction where all the recognition ratesare the highest among almost all Daubechies functions. % TestedSamplesNo. ofTotal FPIdentifiedCorrectlyofNo. R.R. 100×= Wavelet Function Level-1 Level-2 Level-3 Level-4 Level-5 D2 41.875 55.000 75.000 76.875 76.875 D4 49.375 60.625 79.375 84.375 77.500 D6 46.250 65.000 82.500 84.375 83.750 D8 41.875 64.375 84.375 86.250 83.125 D10 43.125 65.000 84.375 87.500 86.875 D12 45.625 65.000 84.375 89.375 85.000 D14 44.375 63.750 84.375 87.500 85.000 D16 43.750 65.000 82.500 83.750 85.625 D18 44.375 65.000 85.000 86.875 86.250 D20 41.875 66.875 84.375 87.500 82.500
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 316 Fig. (6): Recognition rates for different levels of wavelet decomposition using (M.A.V.) feature B. Segmentation of Low-pass Filtered FP images After determining the appropriate wavelet decomposition level, a number of preprocessing steps were performed to enhance image quality. The first step is to remove the noise from the input FP images using the Gaussian-filter, and then separating the foreground regions from the background regions in a FP image. Figure(7) shows the resulting recognition rates when Euclidean distance measure and M.A.V. were used. Fig.(7): Effects of Segmentation on recognition rates for the Gaussian-filtered FP It is clear from Fig. (7), that the segmentation process enhances all the recognition rates for the Gaussian-filtered FP images; where about (96%) recognition rate is achieved using D8. On the other hand, when segmentation is not used, all recognition rates are below 90%. 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 D2 D4 D6 D8 D10 D12 D14 D16 D18 D20 Daubechies Wavelet functions RecognitionRate% Gaussian Filter with Segmentation 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 D2 D4 D6 D8 D10 D12 D14 D16 D18 D20 Daubechies Wavelet functions RecognitionRate% Level1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 317 C. Binarization of Normalized FP images Further improvements in recognition rates can be achieved when converting the normalized FP images (using histogram stretching) from gray-scale to binary as shown in Table-2. This increases the contrast among the ridges and valleys of FP. Table-2: Recognition rates after Binarization of the Normalized FP images using (M.A.V. and S.D.) features Wavelet Function E. D. C. D. M.A.V. S.D. M.A.V. S.D. D2 90.000 96.250 87.500 94.375 D4 95.625 97.500 95.625 97.500 D6 96.250 99.375 96.875 98.750 D8 98.750 100.00 98.750 99.375 D10 95.625 100.00 96.875 98.750 D12 99.375 99.375 97.500 99.375 D14 96.250 99.375 96.875 100.00 D16 98.125 100.00 98.125 100.00 D18 98.750 100.00 98.750 99.375 D20 98.125 99.375 100.00 99.375 The results of Table-2 obviously indicate the highly enhancements in all recognition rates after applying the binarization step to the normalized FP images for both distance measures when compared to previous test. Furthermore, one can deduce that the (S.D.) wavelet feature present better results than (M.A.V.) feature using both distance measures. Figure (8) display part of this comparison by taking only the (S.D.) wavelet feature using Euclidean distance measure. Fig. (8): Recognition rates for wavelet feature (S.D.) after Binarization of Normalized FP images 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 D2 D4 D6 D8 D10 D12 D14 D16 D18 D20 Daubechies Wavelet functions RecognitionRate% Normalization With Binarization
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 318 D. The Proposed Wavelet–Bands Selection Features (WBSF) This section reviews a novel selection method for the set of wavelet features that are well suited for recognition of FP images with the aim to improve the recognition rates. In this method, the wavelet features extracted by means of four wavelet decomposition levels (i.e. 13 features) are combined with another (18 features) extracted from five decomposition levels wavelet bands as shown in Fig. (9). These provide information about FP image in both horizontal and vertical directions [1].The added features are the shaded cells shown in Fig. (10).The final calculated 31 features are arranged in a single vector that will represent the FP feature pattern. Fig.(9): Demonstrates 5–decomposition levels of the 2-D wavelet transform for a FP sample Fig.(10): The proposed wavelet channels decomposition (5-levels) by indicating the number of each newly selected band
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 319 The experimental results for the proposed WBSF system are shown in Table-3with its corresponding Figures (11) and (12), which gives better recognition rates when compared to those in Table-2.This is due to the fact that the proposed WBSF method for feature extraction provides extra information to assist further in recognition. Table-3: Recognition rates for WBSF system with different wavelet functions and distance measures Wavelet Function E. D. C. D. M.A.V. S.D. M.A.V. S.D. D2 95.000 98.125 93.125 97.500 D4 97.500 99.375 96.250 98.125 D6 98.125 100.00 98.125 99.375 D8 98.750 100.00 97.500 100.00 D10 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.375 D12 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 D14 100.00 100.00 99.375 100.00 D16 98.125 100.00 98.750 100.00 D18 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 D20 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.375 Fig. (11): Recognition rates for wavelet feature (M.A.V.) before and after the addition of the proposed WBSF 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 D2 D 4 D6 D 8 D10 D12 D14 D 16 D18 D20 With Binarization WBSF Daubechies Wavelet functions RecognitionRate%
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 320 Fig. (12): Recognition rates for wavelet feature (S.D.) before and after the addition of the proposed WBSF In WBSF, the decomposition bands involved are not only the LL bands but also the LH and HL bands that correspond to horizontal and vertical FP image details, respectively. E. Fingerprint Verification The final step requires the verification of user’s identity. This is relies on the best results obtained from the previous experiments. It is undoubtedly illustrated that (S.D.) based feature, extracted from different wavelet bands, exhibits better results when compared to(M.A.V.). Therefore, (S.D.) is selected to be the feature for wavelet extraction method of the FP verification mode using WBSF features set. Since different wavelet functions can provide recognition rates close to 100% as illustrated in Table-3, therefore we select D20 as the wavelet function for the verification tests. A total of 290 query FP samples from 29 persons (authorized and unauthorized) are considered for open- set FP verification mode. Different threshold values were considered, as shown in Table-4 and 5. The successful decision corresponds to the rate of accepting registered persons and rejecting non-registered ones for all trials. Table-4: FP verification rates for D20 using Euclidean distance Threshold )(θ Successful Decision FAR FRR 2.60 73.4482 0.0 26.5517 2.85 78.2758 0.0 21.7241 3.10 83.1034 0.0 16.8965 3.35 91.7241 0.0 8.2758 3.60 94.1379 0.0 5.8620 3.85 97.2413 0.6896 2.0689 4.10 96.5517 2.4137 1.0344 4.35 95.1724 3.7931 1.0344 4.60 92.4138 6.8965 0.6896 4.85 89.3103 10.0000 0.6896 5.10 86.5517 12.7586 0.6896 5.35 82.4138 16.8965 0.6896 5.60 78.6206 21.0344 0.3448 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 D2 D4 D6 D8 D10 D12 D14 D16 D18 D20 Daubechies Wavelet functions RecognitionRate% With Binarization WBSF
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 321 Table-5: FP verification rates for D20 using city-block distance Threshold )(θ Successful Decision FAR FRR 12.00 80.6896 0.0 19.3103 12.50 85.1724 0.0 14.8275 13.00 88.2758 0.0 11.7241 13.50 91.7241 0.0 8.2758 14.00 94.1379 0.0 5.8620 14.50 96.5517 0.0 3.4482 15.00 97.9310 0.0 2.0689 15.50 97.9310 0.0 2.0689 16.00 97.5862 0.3448 2.0689 16.50 97.5862 1.3793 1.0344 17.00 95.8620 3.1034 1.0344 17.50 95.1724 4.1379 0.6896 18.00 93.4482 5.8620 0.6896 18.50 92.0689 7.2413 0.6896 19.00 89.6551 9.6551 0.6896 The optimum threshold of Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point where the False Rejection Rate (FRR) and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) curves meet in verifying user's identity. The variation of FAR and FRR with different threshold values are also shown in Fig. (13) and (14),where the obtained CER are approximately 4.03 and 16.45 for Euclidean and city-block distances respectively. Fig. (13): FAR and FRR Performance Curve for different threshold levels using Euclidean distance 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 2.6 2.85 3.1 3.35 3.6 3.85 4.1 4.35 4.6 4.85 5.1 5.35 5.6 Threshold values for Euclidean distance ErrorRate% F A R F R R
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 322 Fig. (14): FAR and FRR Performance Curve for different threshold levels using city- block distance V. CONCLUSIONS A fingerprint recognition system for 490 FP samples is presented that relies on wavelet features. It is found that 4-level wavelet decomposition is appropriate for feature vector construction where all the recognition rates are the highest among almost all Daubechies functions. In the closed-set FP recognition, the obtained recognition rates are below 90% due to the imperfections in the FP images. To enhance the recognition rates further, a number of preprocessing operations are used prior to wavelet transform and more than 96% recognition rates are achieved in some Daubechies functions. The results have shown that the proposed WBSF method outperform the conventional wavelet based recognition method. It seems that, the additionally selected bands provide extra information and contribute in enhancing the recognition rates to attain 100% for D6, D8, ..., D20 according to the test conditions considered in the work. The open-set FP verification mode is also presented for 290 trials from 29 persons. The obtained verification rates, greater than 97%, using WBSF method are quite acceptable. REFERENCES [1] Mustafa D. Al-Hassani, “Identification Techniques using Speech Signals and Fingerprints”, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq, Sep. 2006. [2] R. M. Mandi, S. S. Lokhande, "Rotation –Invariant Fingerprint Identification System", International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology (IJECCT), ISSN: 2249-7838, Vol. 2 Issue 4, July 2012. [3] Rakesh Verma, Anuj Goel, "Wavelet Application in Fingerprint Recognition", International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), ISSN: 2231-2307, Vol. 1, Issue-4, Sep. 2011. [4] Priti S. Sanjekar, Priyadarshan S. Dhabe, "Fingerprint Verification using Haar Wavelet",IEEE 2nd International Conference on Computer Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, pp.361-365, 2010. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5 18 18.5 19 Threshold values for City-block distance ErrorRate% FAR FRR
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 323 [5] D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. K. Jain, S. Prabhakar, “Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition”, Springer Verlag, New York, 2003. [6] Sagem Morpho Inc.,”Fingerprint Identification Technology in civil Applications”, 1145 Broadway plaza Tacoma, Washington, 1998. [7] M. Eriksson, “Biometrics Fingerprint based identity verification”, M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, UMEÅUniversity, August 2001. [8] A. Saeed, A. Tariq, U. Jawaid, "Automated System for Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Improved Segmentation and Gabor Wavelets", Department of Software Engineering, Fatima Jinnah University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2008. [9] F. A. Afsar, M. Arif and M. Hussain, “Fingerprint Identification and Verification System using Minutiae Matching”, Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2004. [10] M. H. Ghassemian,“A Robust Structural Fingerprint Restoration”, Intelligent Signal Processing Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, 1994. [11] R. Setiono and H. Liu, ”Neural Network Feature Selector”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Network, Vol. 8, No.3, May 1997. [12] A. M. Reza, “From Fourier Transform to Wavelet Transform: Basic Concepts”, White paper, Spire Lab, UWM, October, 1999. [13] C. S. Burrus, R. A. Gopinath and H. Guo, “Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms”, Prentice-Hall, Inc., U.S.A, 1998. [14] Z. Ahmad, “A New Algorithm for Image Compression Based on Wavelet Transform”, M. Sc. Thesis, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Baghdad, Iraq, 1999. [15] T. Chang and C.-C. Jay Kuo, “Texture Analysis and Classification with Tree-Structured Wavelet Transform”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 2, No. 4, October 1993. [16] M. P. Dale, M. A. Joshi, "Fingerprint Matching Using Transform Features", MES's College of Engineering, Pune, India, 2008. [17] S. E. Umbaugh, “Computer Vision and Image Processing”, Prentice-Hall, Inc., U.S.A., 1998. [18] Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, U.S.A., 2002. [19] Mane Sameer S. and Dr. Gawade S.S., “Review on Vibration Analysis with Digital Image Processing”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 62 - 67, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [20] Soukaena H. Hashem, Abeer T. Maolod and Anmar A. Mohammad, “Proposal To Enhance Fingerprint Recognition System”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 10 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [21] Shekhar R Suralkar and Prof (Dr) Pradeep M. Patil, “Fingerprint Verification using Steerable Filters”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 264 - 268, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472