International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volu...
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Exploring novel method of using ict for rural agriculture development

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Exploring novel method of using ict for rural agriculture development

  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME430EXPLORING NOVEL METHOD OF USING ICT FOR RURALAGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENTFaimida M. Sayyad##Abdul Razzak Kalsekar Polytechnic ,Panvel-410206 , Maharashra-India.*JJT University, Jhunjhunu, IndiaABSTRACTAgro sensing has been around for some time but as of date has not given the desiredresults as far as increase in crop production and proper utilization and management ofresources is concerned. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to formulate anarchitecture aimed at converging existing and future technologies which include the domainsof sensing, telecommunications and agro related governance, education and research sectors.Standards have been introduced for the various communications between theelements. Telecom architecture and standards have not been changed in any manner. Newdata collection, analysis and application elements have been introduced so as to provide acommon platform for all sectors to get all necessary information in a proper manner. The aimis to extract all necessary data from the different geological factors, formulate informativeimages, collect and analyse the same to facilitate for an innovative upheaval in the wayagriculture is planned and executed.Keywords: ICT, Rural, Development, Strategy, Analysis of use of ICT.I. INTRODUCTIONThe relationships between human society and also the land are more and morereworked as a result of dramatic changes within the course of the twentieth century, notablyby increasing industry, the mechanization of agriculture, immediacy in world trade andcommunication. National, regional and international views on agriculture should examinethese and different factors so as to supply the most effective attainable basis for allocatingresources, establishing rules, making policy, creating choices and at last work with helpfulsystem. A lot of folks are getting responsive to the results on soil that years of farming andINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING& TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 430-437© IAEME:www.iaeme.com/ijcet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.9580 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME431erosive chemical fertilizers and different chemicals have caused. Therein it’s necessary tomake up a transparent system for plant food chemicals in crop production, crop method infood production and market. There exist several laws, public notices, state standards in cropproduction and post-process and so its unattainable to induce all vital info concerningspecific crop on one paper. To put this info on sites, however crop production is a smallerunit with country aspect and rural areas and other people living here have less expertise withinfo technologies than people within the cities.The Plan came out with activities associated with models to unfold systems ofprogressive farm management (System of precision farming) by using info technologies incrop production and market. This cluster of farmers and other people operating incommission and grain purchase corporations possesses a yearly expertise the way to beginwith info technologies and use IT in their work. With advent of wireless communicationtechnology and sensors theres a brand new chance for a real integration of agriculturalinformation and practical geospatial infrastructure.II. MAKING AN IMAGEThe effectiveness of decision-making in agriculture domain may be improved bygroup action current native environmental and agro monitoring with Geographic sensingelement and internet applications. Effectiveness of any system may be evaluated on the ideaof its ability to deliver relevant, accurate, and timely info. Each sensing element used foragricultural applications encompasses a location, and a sensing element location is sort ofperpetually vital. The spatial extension and close to real time convenience of sensing elementinfo layers in geospatial applications produce a good potential. Soil quality, atmosphericpressure and crop sensing element characteristics in a very specific region may bemechanically scan at frequent intervals and people readings may be collective with maplayers from various sources into spatial information representation/visualization for variousfunctions. Practical internet services and information coding models for spatial informationInfrastructures foster the combination of geo-sensors information with spatial-temporalmodels. Presently - with the utilization of intelligent approach to databases and interactiveuser support - its attainable to seek out applicable maps on the web, however additionally toform and modify these maps in keeping with specific and individual needs rather than mereutilization of maps created by somebody else beforehand, these new geo-informationtechnologies permit people to use making interactively, examine and represent spatial info inkeeping with specific desires of the actual user. The goal isnt solely to supply a lot of info tofarmers, however provide it in a very manner which might not task one’s mind.New technologies permit live connection to the self-generated inner sphere of ourspatial information via direct interaction with a brand new generation images and thereforewith probably infinite resources of the web.Map could be an illustration of geographic reality with the utilization of symbolsrepresenting selected qualities and characteristics ensuing from inventive efforts and choiceperformed by its authors. It’s created for more use; spatial relations area unit of primaryimportance. At the side of making supportive interactive internet maps, its attainable tosupply mutual interaction map-user (including map information sources).Cartography in its new type could be a distinctive self-generated multi-dimensionaltool, which might be employed in analysis, analyses, and communication of geospatialinformation. It will utilize obtainable resources on the WWW. Therefore, a map is over
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME432simply area for manipulating and making images; it may be a graphic window with unlimitedprospects. There’s need to worry, that during this that means “cartography” isnt operatingand influencing simply the “map window”, however its half is additionally the structure ofdata and interface – along they create formidable tool of wide usability.This new visual-mental atmosphere uses benefits of our psychological feature, self-generated mapping, which might be even more practical if its performed with the utilizationof geo-visual dialogue with making mental image systems.III. SENSING ELEMENT NETWORKS AND SWEA sensing element network could be a laptop accessible network of the many,spatially distributed devices identification sensors to observe conditions at completelydifferent locations, like temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Asensing element internet refers to internet accessible sensing element networks and archivedsensing element information that may be discovered and accessed victimizationcommonplace protocols and computer program interfaces (APIs).SWE ( Sensor WebEnablement ) presents several opportunities for adding a period sensing element dimension tothe web and also the internet.The initial focus of has been to analyse standardized interfaces for live sensorsoperational in near-real-time, instead of the traditional static information stores. It addressesoperation from distributed, heterogeneous, dynamic info sensors and sources of variousstructure, supported internet services. It’s the goal to develop common access, planning, andmanagement interfaces and a descriptive language (SensorML) for managing sensing elementinfo and information in common regular manners, open source of any application. Theindividual elements were designed to fulfill the subsequent desires:•Describe sensors in a very standardized manner•Standardize the access to determined information•Standardize the method of whats ordinarily referred to as sensing element designing,however actually is consisting of the various stages designing, scheduling, tasking,collection, and process•Building a framework and coding for measurements and observationsSome sensors area units already online are ready to return their location info asobservations and measurements. The ultimate missing part - a universal commonplaceframework for describing and tasking sensors in XML - has already been designed andprototyped.The specifications include:Sensor Model Language (SensorML) – the overall models and XML coding language forsensors.Observations & Measurements (O&M) – the overall models associated an XMLcoding for what a sensing element observes or measures.
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME433Sensor Collection Service (SCS) – A service by that a shopper will get observations fromone or a lot of sensors/platforms (can be mixed types). Purchasers may also get info thatdescribes the associated sensors and platforms.Sensor Planning Service (SPS) – A service by that a shopper will verify assortmentfeasibleness for a desired set of assortment requests for one or a lot of mobilesensors/platforms, or the shopper could submit assortment requests on to thesesensors/platforms.Web Notification Service (WNS) – A service by that a shopper could conduct a dialog withone or a lot of different services. This service is beneficial once several collaborating servicesarea unit needed to satisfy a shopper request, and/or once important delays area unitconcerned is satisfying the request.The said specifications area units are not comfortable conditions for a completelyoperable SWE atmosphere. The step is that the development of a true framework of sensorstotally compliant with these specifications. Sensor Net could be a seller neutral abilityframework for Web-based intelligent discovery, access, control, analysis, and mental imageof on-line sensors, for the sensing element derived information repositories, and sensingelement connected process capabilities. In different words, Sensor Net tries to form a wide-area system to gather and analyse information from sensors everywhere the country toobserve and observe threats, then alert agencies, emergency responders as necessary.Developing associate open standards framework for practical sensing elementnetworks needs additionally finding a universal manner of connecting 2 basic interface sorts– electrical device interfaces and application interfaces. This downside is solved by IEEE1451 commonplace for transducers interfaces.IV. AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF SENSINGELEMENT NETWORKS
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME434Falling producer costs and rising prices of production area unit progressively forcingagricultural businesses to optimize production prices. Therefore, the request for the selectiveuse of inputs like water, fertilizers or chemicals, is currently indispensable in trendyagriculture. The growing environmental awareness of customers more accelerates thismethod. Disease initiation and development could interact with many discernible factors likesoil temperature, air temperature, ratio, and different soil and part variables.The farmer will for example outline wet temperature low limits (calculated astemperature and relative humidity). Then, once the temperature drops below the predefinedthresholds, the code sends associate alarm via email or SMS. The farmer will activate frostprotection instrumentality and scale back crop loss to a minimum. Identical perspective isapplicable in observation of growth and development of plants, insects, and lots of differentinvertebrate organisms’ endangerment.New strategies of observation for agriculture area unit introduced with new generationof sensors. New generation of therefore referred to as “Smart Dust”, that is associate risingsensing element technology created up from little, wireless sensors or “motes.” These devicesarea unit can speak with different sensors nonetheless sufficiently small to suit on the top of apin. Every element could be a little laptop with data provider and collector for one or a lot ofsensors, and a communication system.An agriculture observation may use good dirt to observe weather information, waterbalance and supply phonologic observation of crops, etc.V. EFFORTS REQUIREDThe main efforts required to style and develop an integrated framework of dynamicvisual image and modelling tools for agricultural applications supported by wireless sensingelement networks info. The terms “dynamic visualization” describes in the main thelikelihood to scale, interactive inventive communication of users and map authors over theweb, and additionally presence of straightforward modelling tools for spatial still as temporalanalysis. Usability of the planned resolution is going to be evaluated in a very scope of datasystems acting within the agricultural domain.The target of the project could be a framework developed for agile accessingheterogeneous sensing element information and services, that area unit necessary for effectivehigher cognitive process within the space of agricultural management. The advisedframework relies on following components:(1) Heterogeneous distributed network of graded agricultural sensors.(2) Communication network and standard interfaces between sensors and also the web.VI. EXPECTED RESULT & DISSEMINATIONThe main expected results of the this project work is that the development ofintegrated portal for making mental image of sensing element primarily based agriculturalinformation as well as pilot implementation on selected areas. Portal creating practicality isgoing to be developed and refined in keeping with the known needs. Besides that more partialresults are achieved including:•An analysis of current technological level for sensing element Internet Enablementsystems standardization.•A style of communication and mental image interface (an open architecture) and services.
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME435•A style of an integrated sensing element and geo-information portal design in keepingwith expected needs to practicality and content.•The development of portal model and relevant services. Associate an application of opendesign to allow full portal extensibility.•Modeling tools for a good mental image of sensing element network information.•Contextual mental image rules and climbable geo information style for observationmodels;•Basic sets of alternate kinds of signs colour and pattern libraries.•Pilot analysis of the ready model in selected space.VII. CONCLUSIONThere exists a powerful concern that data will be overtly shared. Whereas itsrecognized that a lot of analysis addressing unreciprocated queries, theres a lot of info thatmay be disseminated wide currently. The goal of the this project is to develop nextgeneration of easy, dependable, cost-effective and practical general-interest image service,meeting user demands for versatile access to info, for everyone, from anyplace, at any time.This development are going to be compatible with soon-to come extremely capable digitaldevices and expected multimedia-based services responding quickly, accurately and flexiblyto the users desires. This can be establish and outline standards and formats reassuringlikeness, compatibility and ability for the info flow in and out of information. What is more,itll make sure the security, confidentiality, responsibility and accessibility of commoninformation, period translation capability, strength and user friendliness.REFERENCES[1] Akakpo, J. and Fontaine, M. (2001) ‘Ghana’s Community Learning Centres.’ InLatchem, C. and Walker, D. (eds) (2001) Perspectives on Distance Education. CaseStudies and Key Issues. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.[2] Ashley, C. and Carney, D. (1999) Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from EarlyExperience. London: Department for International Development.[3] Ashley, C. and S. Maxwell (2001) (eds) Rethinking Rural Development. DevelopmentPolicy Review 19 (4) 395–573.[4] Baumann, P. (1999) ‘Information and Power: Implications for Process Monitoring. AReview of the Literature.’ ODI Working Paper 120. London: Overseas DevelopmentInstitute.[5] Bridges.org (2001) Spanning the Digital Divide: Understanding and Tackling the Issues.www.bridges.org/spanning/report.html[6] Chambers, R. (1997) Whose Reality Counts? Putting the Last First. London:Intermediate Technology.[7] Report of the Expert Committee for Improving Agricultural Statistics,Govt of India , 2011.[8] Chapman, R., Slaymaker, T., and Young. J. (forthcoming) The Role of Information inSupport of Sustainable Livelihoods. Report prepared for FAO, Rome. Christoplos, I.,Farrington, J. and Kidd, A. (2001) ‘Extension, Poverty and Vulnerability.[9] DFID (2000) ‘DFID Target Strategy Paper: Halving World Poverty by 2015.’ London:Department for International Development.
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME436[10]DOTForce (2001) Global Bridges, Digital Opportunities. Draft report of the G8’s DigitalOpportunities Taskforce (DOTForce) Consultations, April 2001.[11]Ellis, F. and Biggs, S. (2001) ‘Evolving Themes in Rural Development 1950s–2000s.’Development Policy Review, 19 (4): 437–449.[12]FAO (1998) Communication for Development Report 1996–1997. Communication forDevelopment Group. Extension, Education and Communication Service. Research,Extension and Training Division. Sustainable Development Department. Rome: FAO.[13]FAO/World Bank (2000) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: StrategicVision and Principles. Rome: FAO/World Bank.[14]FAO/WAICENT/SDR (2000a) FarmNet Farmer Information Network for Agriculturaland Rural Development. Research, Extension and Training Division (SDR), WAICENT.Rome: FAO. FAO/WAICENT/SDR (2000b) VERCON Virtual Extension, Research andCommunication Network. Research, Extension and Training Division (SDR),WAICENT. Rome: FAO.[15]IFAD (2001) Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty.International Fund for Agricultural Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[16]Irz, X., Lin, L. Thirtle, C. and Wiggins, S. (2001), ‘Agricultural Productivity Growth andPoverty[17]Alleviation’, Development Policy Review, 19 (4): 449–67.[18]ISG and TDG (2000) Internet Use and Diagnostic Study – East Africa (supportinginnovation in the[19]provision of agricultural support services through Linked Local Learning). Acollaborative[20]project of the International Support Group, Netherlands and TeleCommons DevelopmentGroup, Canada.[21]Jafri, A., Dongre, A., Tripathi, V., Aggrawal, A., Shrivastava, S. (2002) ‘InformationCommunication Technologies and Governance: The Gyandoot Experiment in DharDistrict of Madhya Pradesh, India.’ ODI Working Paper 160. London: ODI.[22]Ramirez, R. (1998) ‘Communication: A Meeting Ground for Sustainable Development’in Richardson, D. and Paisley, L. (1998) The First Mile of Connectivity. Advancing[23]Telecommunications for Rural Development Through a Participatory CommunicationApproach. Rome: FAO.[24]Rivera, W. (2001) ‘Agricultural and Rural Extension: Options for Reform.’ Incollaboration with Extension, Education and communication Service, SDRE, FAO,Rome.[25]Richardson, D. and Paisley, L. (1998) The First Mile of Connectivity. AdvancingTelecommunications for Rural Development Through a Participatory CommunicationApproach. Rome: FAO.[26]Richardson, D. (1997) The Internet and Rural and Agricultural Development: AnIntegrated Approach. Paper prepared for the FAO. TeleCommons Development Group,Ontario, Canada.[27]Roling, N. (1988) Extension Science: Information Systems in Agricultural Development.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[28]Roling, N (1995) What to Think of Extension? A Comparison of Three Models ofExtension Practice. AERDD Bulletin.
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME437[29]Skuse, A. (2001) ‘Information Communication Technologies, Poverty andEmpowerment.’ Dissemination Note 3, Social Development Department, Department forInternational Development, London, UK.[30]M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, “High resolution fiberdistributed measurements with coherent OFDR,” in Proc. ECOC’00, 2000, paper 11.3.4,p. 109.[31]R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF converter,”U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997.[32] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/[33]M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available:http://www.ctan.org/tex- archive/macros/latex/contrib/supported/IEEEtran/[34]FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996.[35]“PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland.[36]A. Karnik, “Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback: TCP/ABR andrate adaptive TCP/IP,” M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Jan.1999.[37]Mr. Shrinivas R. Zanwar and Prof R. D. Kokate, “Advanced Agriculture System”,International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET),Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp.111 - 118, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.[38]Manisha Shinde-Pawar and Chandrashekhar Suryawanshi, “Integrating GIS andKnowledge Management Resources in Indian Agriculture: Social and National Concernfor Information Sharing”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 1,2013, pp. 258 - 265, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

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