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Experimental investigation on thermal electric and dielectric characterization for polypropylene

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF Issue 2, March – April (2013), ©ISSN 0976 – International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 01-12 IJEET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ©IAEME EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THERMAL ELECTRIC AND DIELECTRIC CHARACTERIZATION FOR POLYPROPYLENE NANOCOMPOSITES USING COST-FEWER NANOPARTICLES Ahmed Thabet Nano-Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt athm@hotmail.com ABSTRACT Cost-fewer nanoparticles (clay and fumed silica) have very poor cost and high ability for changing polymer matrix characterization, therefore, an experimental investigation on thermal effects of cost-fewer nanoparticles on electric and dielectric properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites is presented in this research. This is an experimental study that has been carried out to characterize and state the effect of type’s concentration of nanoparticles on the electric and dielectric nanocomposites materials. Namely, dielectric spectroscopy has measured the relative permittivity and the loss tangent of Polypropylene with and without nano-fillers. All measurements were carried out at variant frequencies and temperatures (20°C, 40°C and 60°C). Different dielectric behavior was observed depending on nanofiller type, nanofiller concentration and nanocomposite temperature. Keywords: Polypropylene, Dielectric properties, Nano-composite, Nanoparticles, Polymers 1. INTRODUCTION Nanotechnologies are present in a lot of domain since they are a great source of innovation. They may have a powerful impact on development of advanced electrical and electronic device. In the last decade many research teams from all over the world have focused their energies toward studies on polymer nanocomposites as effective materials for electrical insulation. These materials, also called nanodielectrics, are usually made of polymers uniformly filled, from 1 to 10 wt. %, with particles with at least one dimension from 1 to 100 nm. The increasing interest in the behaviour of these newly born dielectrics is 1
  • 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEmainly due to the fact that these materials possess huge filler – polymer matrix interfacewhich has a major influence on the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties [1-6].Dielectric materials of nanoscale dimensions have aroused considerable interest. It has beenmentioned two examples. First, in the semiconductor industry, in order to keep pace withMoore’s law scaling, the thickness of the gate oxide dielectric material is reaching nanoscaledimensions. Second, the high energy density capacitor industry is currently consideringdielectric composites with a polymer host matrix filled with inorganic dielectric nanoparticlesor polarizable organic molecules. The driving force for the former application is highdielectric constants (or high-k), and those for the latter are high-k and/or high dielectricbreakdown strengths. [7-10].Recently, preliminary work has been already done to investigatethe capability of nanocomposite polymeric materials for electrical insulation to showimproved electrical performances with respect to the corresponding conventional materials,possibly filled by micrograins or chemical additives. Very interesting properties, such asreduction of space charge, variation of conductivity and increase of electric strength havebeen detected in polyethylene-based materials and epoxy resin, doped with nano ormicrofillers. It has been clarified already that nanomaterials, which have an averagecrystalline size at least in one dimension between 1 and 100 nm, can interact with thepolymeric structure of an insulating material so as to achieve significant modifications withrespect to unfilled material properties. Such modifications are attributed, besides to thepresence of filler, to the much higher surface area to volume ratio associated with thepresence of nanoparticles with respect to micrometric-size fillers. However, there is somepublished literature available on the use of nano-sized in insulating composites for dielectricapplications. Thus an investigation on the nanometric dielectric materials would findusefulness in electrical insulation, electronics, MEMS, batteries etc. Electrical diagnosticinsulation testing is important from the point of low frequency applications. Severalinvestigations done by others on the nanocomposites for dielectric properties have reportedvaried responses of frequency[11-16]. The use of polymers as electrical insulating materialshas been growing rapidly in recent decades. The base polymer properties have beendeveloped by adding small amounts of different fillers but they are expensive to the polymermaterial. Recently, great expectations have focused on cost-less nanofillers, however, thereare few papers concerning the effect of types of cost-less nanofillers on electrical propertiesof polymeric nanocomposite. With a continual progress in polymer nanocomposites, thisresearch depicts the effects of types and concentration of costless nanoparticles in electricalproperties of industrial polymer material [13-17]. Thisresearch is an experimental studythathas been investigated the effects ofnanofiller types (clay, and fumed silica), nanofillerconcentration (1%wt, 5%wt, and 10%wt) and nanocomposite temperature(20oC, 40oC, and60oC) on the dielectric properties of nanocomposite materials.2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PREPARATION NANOCOMPOSITEINDUSTRIAL MATERIALSNanoparticles: Nanoclay is nanomer 1.30E, clay surface modified with 25-30wt. %octadecylamine. Spherical particle shape is the most important characteristic of nanoclay forpolymer applications. Nano fumed silica is a fluffy white powder with an extremely lowdensity, marketed under trade names. Fumed silica powders used in paints and coatings,silicone rubber and silicone sealants, adhesives, cable compounds and gels, printing inks andtoner, and plant protection. 2
  • 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEPolypropylene Materials: Polypropylene is one of the most common and versatilethermoplastics in the plastics industry. Filling polypropylene with a certain nanoparticlesgreatly increases electrical, dielectrically, and mechanical properties, tensile strength, impactstrength, flexural modulus, and deflection temperature under load with a correspondingreduction in elongation according to type and percentages of nanofillers. The industrialmaterials studied here is Polypropylene which has been formulated utilizing variantpercentages of nano-particulates of clay and fumed silica.Measurement Setup: HIOKI 3522-50 LCR Hi-tester device has been measured electricalparameters of nano-metric solid dielectric insulation specimens at various frequencies.Specification of LCR is Power supply: 100, 120, 220 or 240 V (±10%) AC (selectable), 50/60Hz, and Frequency: DC, 1 mHz to 100 kHz, Display Screen: LCD with backlight / 99999(full 5 digits), Basic Accuracy: Z: ± 0.08% rdg. θ: ± 0.05˚, and External DC bias ± 40 Vmax.(option) (3522-50 used alone ± 10 V max./ using 9268 ± 40 V max.). It can be measuredall dielectric properties for pure and nanocomposite industrial materials by using HIOKI3522-50 LCR Hi-tester device.Figure (1) shows HIOKI 3522-50 LCR Hi-tester device formeasuring characterization of nanocomposite insulation industrial materials. Fig. 1 HIOKI 3522-50 LCR Hi-tester deviceThe base of all these polymer materials is a commercially available material already in use inthe manufacturing of high-voltage (HV) industrial products and their properties detailed intable (1). 3
  • 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Table (1) Electric and Dielectric Properties of Pure and Nano-Composite Materials Materials Dielectric Resistivity Constantat ( .m) 1kHz Pure PP 2.28 108 PP + 1%wt Clay 2.21 109 PP + 5%wt Clay 1.97 109-1010 PP + 10%wt Clay 1.75 1010-1012 PP + 1%wt Fumed Silica 2.29 107 PP + 5%wt Fumed Silica 2.37 107-105 PP + 10%wt Fumed Silica 2.47 105-104Preparation Nanocomposite: Preparation of studied Polypropylene nanocomposites havebeen used SOL-GEL method by Additives of clay nanoparticles to the base industrialpolymers that has been fabricated by using mixing, ultrasonic, and heating processes. Thesol-gel processing of the nanoparticles inside the polymer dissolved in non-aqueous oraqueous solution is the ideal procedure for the formation of interpenetrating networksbetween inorganic and organic moieties at the milder temperature in improving goodcompatibility and building strong interfacial interaction between two phases. This process hasbeen used successfully to prepare nanocomposites with nanoparticles in a range of polymermatrices. Several strategies for the sol-gel process are applied for formation of the hybridmaterials. One method involves the polymerization of organic functional groups from apreformed sol–gel network. The sol- gel process is a rich chemistry which has been reviewedelsewhere on the processing of materials from glass to polymers. The organic–inorganichybrid nanocomposites comprising of polymer, and nanoparticles were synthesized throughsol–gel technique at ambient temperature. The inorganic phase was generated in situ byhydrolysis–condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in different concentrations, under acidcatalysis, in presence of the organic phase, polymer, dissolved in formic acid [17].3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Dielectric Spectroscopy is a powerful experimental method to investigate the dynamicalbehavior of a sample through the analysis of its frequency dependent dielectric response. Thistechnique is based on the measurement of the capacitance as a function of frequency for asample sandwiched between two electrodes. The tan δ, and capacitance (C) were measured asa function of frequency in the range 10 Hz to 50 kHz at 25°C for all the test samples. Themeasurements were made using high resolution dielectric spectroscopy.3.1 Effect of Cost-fewer Nanoparticles on Nanocomposite Polypropylene Characterization at Room Temperature (25oC)Figure 2.a shows loss tangent as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylenenanocomposites at room temperature (25oC). The loss tangent of polypropylene decreaseswith increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 1%wt, specially, at low frequencies but, itincreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt, specially, at highfrequencies.Whatever, Figure 2.b shows the measured loss tangent with rising percentage of 4
  • 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEfumed silica nanofillers in the nanocomposite at room temperature (25oC). It is cleared that, the losstangent of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite increases with increasing fumed silicapercentage nanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. 0.005 0.005 PP+0%wt clay 0.004 PP+1%wt clay 0.004 PP+5%wt clay 0.003 0.003 PP+10%wt clay Tan Delta Tan Delta 0.002 0.002 PP+0%wt Fumed Silica 0.001 0.001 PP+1%wt Fumed Silica PP+5%wt Fumed Silica 1E-17 1E-17 PP+10%wt Fumed Silica 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 -0.001 -0.001 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 2 Measured loss tangent of Polypropylene nanocompositesat room temperature (25oC) 1.2E-09 6E-09 PP+0%wt Fumed Silica 1E-09 PP+0%wt clay 5E-09 PP+1%wt Fumed Silica PP+5%wt Fumed Silica 8E-10 PP+1%wt clay PP+10%wt Fumed Silica Capacitance (F) 4E-09 Capacitance (F) 6E-10 3E-09 4E-10 2E-09 2E-10 1E-09 0 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 3Measured capacitance of Polypropylene nanocompositesat room temperature (25oC) Figure 3.a shows capacitance as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites atroom temperature (25oC). The capacitance of Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposite increases withincreasing clay percentage nanofillers up to 1%wt but it falls down with increasing nanofillerpercentage up to 10%wt. Figure 3.b contrasts on capacitance of fumed silica/Polypropylenenanocomposites at room temperature (25oC). The measured capacitance of Fumedsilica/Polypropylene increases with increasing fumed silica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt. 5
  • 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME 3.2 Effect of Cost-Fewer Nanoparticles on Nanocomposite Polypropylene Characterization at Temperature (40oc) Figure 4.a shows loss tangent as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (40oC). The loss tangent of Clay/Polypropylene increases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 1%wt, specially, at low frequenciesthen, the loss tangent decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. Figure 4.b shows loss tangent as a function of frequency for Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (40oC). The loss tangent of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite decreases with increasing Fumed silica nanofillerspercentage up to 1%wt, specially, at low frequencies but, it increases with increasing Fumed silica nanofillers percentage (1%wt -10%wt). 0.005 0.005 PP+0%wt clay PP+0%wt Fumed Silica 0.0045 PP+1%wt clay 0.004 PP+1%wt Fumed Silica 0.004 PP+5%wt Fumed Silica PP+5%wt clay 0.0035 PP+10%wt Fumed Silica 0.003 PP+10%wt clay 0.003 Tan DeltaTan Delta 0.0025 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.0015 0.001 1E-17 0.0005 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 0 -0.001 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 4 Measured loss tangent of Polypropylene nanocompositesat a certain temperature (T=40oC) Figure 5.a shows capacitance as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (40oC). The measuredcapacitance of Clay/Polypropylenenanocomposites increases with increasing clay nanofillerspercentage up to 1wt%, then, it decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt. Figure 5.b shows capacitance as a function of frequency for Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (40oC). The measured capacitance of Fumed silica /Polypropylene nanocompositesincreases with increasing Fumed silica nanofillerspercentage up to 10%wt. 6
  • 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME 3E-09 3E-08 PP+0%wt clay PP+0%wt Fumed Silica 2.5E-09 PP+1%wt 2.5E-08 clay PP+1%wt Fumed Silica PP+5%wt 2E-09 clay 2E-08 PP+5%wt Fumed SilicaCapacitance (F) Capacitance (F) PP+10%wt Fumed Silica 1.5E-09 1.5E-08 1E-09 1E-08 5E-10 5E-09 0 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 5 Measured capacitance of Polypropylene nanocompositesat a certain temperature (T=40oC) 3.3 Effect of Cost-fewer Nanoparticles on Nanocomposite Polypropylene Characterization at Temperature (60oC) Figure 6.a shows loss tangent as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (60oC).The loss tangent of Caly/Polypropylene nanocomposites decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentages up to 10%wt, specially, at low frequencies. Figure 6.b shows loss tangent as a function of frequency for fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (60oC). The loss tangent of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite decreases with increasing fumed silica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at low frequencies.However, Figure 7.a shows capacitance as a function of frequency for Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (60oC). The capacitance of Clay/Polypropylene decreases with increasing clay nanofillers percentage up to 10%wt. Figure 7.b shows capacitance as a function of frequency for fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposites at temperature (60oC). The capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene decreases with increasing fumed silica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt. 7
  • 8. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME 0.005 0.005 PP+0%wt Fumed PP+0wt% clay Silica PP+1wt% clay 0.004 PP+1%wt Fumed 0.004 Silica PP+5wt% clay PP+5%wt Fumed PP+10wt% clay 0.003 Silica 0.003 Tan DeltaTan Delta 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.001 1E-17 1E-17 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 -0.001 -0.001 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 6 Measured loss tangent of Polypropylene nanocompositesat a certain temperature (T=60oC) 3.5E-09 3.5E-09 PP+0wt% clay PP+0%wt Fumed Silica 3E-09 3E-09 PP+1wt% clay PP+1%wt Fumed Silica 2.5E-09 PP+5wt% clay 2.5E-09 PP+5%wt Fumed Silica Capacitance (F) PP+10wt% clay Capacitance (F) 2E-09 2E-09 1.5E-09 1.5E-09 1E-09 1E-09 5E-10 5E-10 0 0 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a)Clay/PPnanocomposites (b)Fumed Silica/PPnanocomposites Fig. 7 Measured capacitance of Polypropylene nanocompositesat a certain temperature (T=60oC) 8
  • 9. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4. COMPARISON BETWEEN PURE AND NANOCOMPOSITEPOLYPROPYLENE CHARACTERIZATIONS With respect to all results for depicting the effect of types of nanofillers, whatever,adding fumed silica hasincreased permittivity of the new nanocomposite materialswhatever, adding clay has decreased permittivity of the new nanocomposite materials asdepicted in table (1).Thus, comparing with all results for depicting the effect of raising concentration ofnanofillersat room temperature as shown in Figures (2,3), It can be shown that the losstangent of polypropylene decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to1%wt, specially, at low frequencies but, it increases with increasing clay nanoparticlespercentage up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. Also, the loss tangent of Fumedsilica/Polypropylene nanocomposite increases with increasing fumed silica percentagenanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. Whatever, the capacitance ofClay/Polypropylene nanocomposite increases with increasing clay percentage nanofillersup to 1%wt but it falls down with increasing nanofiller percentage up to 10%wt. And so,the measured capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene increases with increasing fumedsilica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt.Also, all results for depicting the effect ofraising concentration of nanofillers at 40oC is pointed out in Figures (4,5) and cleared thatthe loss tangent of Clay/Polypropylene increases with increasing clay nanoparticlespercentage up to 1%wt, specially, at low frequencies then, the loss tangent decreases withincreasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies.Also, the loss tangent of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite decreases withincreasing Fumed silica nanofillers percentage up to 1wt%, specially, at low frequenciesbut, it increases with increasing Fumed silica nanofillers percentage (1%wt-10%wt).Whatever, the measure capacitance of Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposites increases withincreasing clay nanofillers percentage up to 1%wt, then, it decreases with increasing claynanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt. And so, the measured capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposites increases with increasing Fumed silica nanofillerspercentage up to 10%wt.Finally, with respect to all results for depicting the effect of raising concentration ofnanofillers at 60oC is pointed out in Figures (6,7) wherever,the loss tangent ofCaly/Polypropylene nanocomposites decreases with increasing clay nanoparticlespercentage up to 10%wt, specially, at low frequencies. And so, the loss tangent of Fumedsilica/Polypropylene nanocomposite decreases with increasing fumed silica percentagenanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at low frequencies. Whatever, the capacitance ofClay/Polypropylene decreases with increasing clay nanofillers percentage up to 10%wt.And so, the capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene decreases with increasing fumedsilica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt. 9
  • 10. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME5. CONCLUSIONS Modified polypropylene applications by nanotechnology composites depend on types, concentration of nanoparticles and surrounded temperatures., Whatever, adding fumed silica increases permittivity of the new Polypropylene nanocomposite materials but, adding clay decreases permittivity of the new Polypropylene nanocomposite materials. Adding Clay nanoparticles, at room temperature (25oC), the loss tangent of polypropylene decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 1%wt, specially, at low frequencies but, it increases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. Whatever, the capacitance of Clay/Polypropylene nanocomposite increases with increasing clay percentage nanofillers up to 1%wt but it falls down with increasing nanofiller percentage up to 10% wt. But, at moderate and high temperatures (40oC:60oC), the loss tangent and capacitance of Clay/Polypropylene decreases with increasing clay nanoparticles percentage up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. Adding Fumed silica nanoparticles, At room and moderate temperatures (25oC:40oC), the loss tangent and capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite increase with increasing fumed silica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at high frequencies. But, at high temperatures (60oC), the loss tangent and capacitance of Fumed silica/Polypropylene nanocomposite decrease with increasing fumed silica percentage nanofillers up to 10%wt, specially, at low frequencies.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The present work was supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund(STDF), Egypt, Grant No: Project ID 505.REFERENCES[1] M. Amhid, D. Mary, G. Teyssedre, C. Laurent, G. C. Montanari, D. Kaempfer, and R. Miilhaupt, “Effect of Filler Concentration on Dielectric Behaviour and on Charge Trapping in PP/clay Nanocomposite”IEEE, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, pp.389-392, 2004.[2] G. C. Montanari, D. Fabiani, and F. Palmieri, “Modification of Electrical Properties and Performance of EVA and PP Insulation through Nanostructure by Organophilic Silicates” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 11, No. 5; pp. 754-762, 2004.[3] T. Tanaka, “Dielectric Nanocomposites with Insulating Properties” IEEE, Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 12, No. 5; pp.914-928, 2005.[4] A. S. Vaughan, C. D. Green, Y. Zhang and G. Chen, “Nanocomposites for High Voltage Applications: Effect of Sample Preparation on AC Breakdown Statistics” IEEE, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, pp732-735, 2005. 10
  • 11. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME [5] A. Saccani, A. Motori, F. Patuelli, and G.C. Montanari “Thermal Endurance Evaluation of Isotactic Poly(propylene) Based Nanocomposites by Short-term Analytical Methods” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 14, No. 3; pp.689-695, 2007. [6] P. Maity, S. V. Kasisomayajula, V. Parameswaran, S. Basu, N. Gupta, “Improvement in Surface Degradation Properties of Polymer Composites due to Pre-processed Nanometric Alumina Fillers” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 15, No. 1; pp.63-72, 2008. [7] N. Shi and R. Ramprasad, “Local Properties at Interfaces in Nanodielectrics: An ab initio Computational Study” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 15, No. 1; pp.170-177, 2008. [8] I. Ramirez, Sh. Jayaram, E. A. Cherney, M. Gauthier, and L. Simon, “Erosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Silicone Nanocomposite Insulation” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 16, No. 1; pp.52-59, 2009. [9] I. Plesa, F. Ciuprina, and P. V. Notingher, “Dielectric Spectroscopy of Epoxy Resin with and without Inorganic Nanofillers” Journal of Advanced Research in Physics 1(1), pp. 1- 5, 2010.[10] N. Fuse, Y. Ohki, and T. Tanaka, “Comparison of Nano-structuration Effects in Polypropylene among Four Typical Dielectric Properties” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 3; pp.671-677, 2010.[11] E.Tuncer, I.Sauers, D. R. James, A. R. Ellis, and K. L. More, “Nanodielectrics for Cryogenic Applications” IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.2354-2358, 2009.[12] R.Kochetov, T.Andritsch, U. Lafont, P.H.F. Morshuis, and J.J. Smit “Effects of Inorganic Nanofillers and Combinations of them on the Complex Permittivity of Epoxy-based Composites” IEEE, International Symposium on Electrical Insulation (ISEI), Conference, pp.1-5, 2010.[13] M. Takala, H. Ranta, P. Nevalainen, P. Pakonen, J. Pelto, M. Karttunen, S. Virtanen, V. Koivu, M. Pettersson, B. Sonerud, and K. Kannus, “Dielectric Properties and Partial Discharge Endurance of Polypropylene-Silica Nanocomposite” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 4; pp.1259-1267, 2010.[14] M.G. Veena, N.M. Renukappa, S. Seetharamu, and P. Sampathkumararr “Effect of Nanofiller at Low Frequency behavior of Dielectric Insulator” IEEE, 9th International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, July 19-23, China, pp.745-748, 2009.[15] E. Izci, and N. Bowler, “Dielectric properties of isotactic polypropylene and montmorillonitenanocomposites” IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics (ICSD), pp.1-4, 2010 .[16] Y. Weijun, S. Kniajanski, and B. Amm, “Dielectric properties of polydicyclopentadiene and polydicyclopentadiene-silica nanocomposite” IEEE International Symposium onElectrical Insulation (ISEI), pp.1-5, 2010.[17] L. Bois, F.Chassagneux, S.Parola, and F.Bessueille. “Growth of ordered silver nanoparticles in silica film mesostructured with a triblock copolymer PEO–PPO–PEO” Journal of Solid State Chemistry Vol. 182, pp. 1700–1707, 2009.[18] Siny Paul And Sindhu T.K, “Optimization Of Electric Energy Density In Epoxy- Aluminium Nanocomposite as Dielectric” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 36 - 45, Published by IAEME 11
  • 12. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEAUTHORS’ INFORMATION Ahmed Thabet was born in Aswan, Egypt in 1974. He received the BSc (FEE) Electrical Engineering degree in 1997 and MSc (FEE) Electrical Engineering degree in 2002 both from Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan, Egypt. PhD degree had been received in Electrical Engineering in 2006 from El-Minia University, Minia, Egypt. He joined with Electrical Power Engineering Group of Faculty of Energy Engineering in Aswan University as a Demonstrator at July 1999, until; he held AssociateProfessor Position at October 2011 up to date. His research interests lie in the areas ofanalysis and developing electrical engineering models and applications, investigating novelnano-technology materials via addition nano-scale particles and additives for usage inindustrial branch, electromagnetic materials, electroluminescence and the relationship withelectrical and thermal ageing of industrial polymers. Many of mobility’s have investigated forsupporting his research experience in UK, Finland, Italy, and USA …etc. On 2009, he hadbeen a Principle Investigator of a funded project from Science and Technology developmentFund “STDF” for developing industrial materials of ac and dc applications by nano-technology techniques. He has been established first Nano-Technology Research Centre inthe Upper Egypt (http://www.aswan.svu.edu.eg/nano/index.htm). He has many ofpublications which have been published and under published in national, internationaljournals and conferences and held in Nano-Technology Research Centre website. 12