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Evolution of green ict implementation in education sector a study of developed Evolution of green ict implementation in education sector a study of developed Document Transcript

  • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013), pp. 91-98 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com EVOLUTION OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN EDUCATION SECTOR: A STUDY OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRY Kavita Suryawanshi , Dr. Sameer Narkhede North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon. ABSTRACT Today, our world is facing environmental challenges particularly with global warming. It has become necessary to address the environmental consequences of the rapid increase in information and communication technology (ICT) users. This paper outlines an analysis of the Green ICT implementation at educational institutes. The study identifies the need of eco sustainable or green ICT implementation in education sector. In this paper, we provide a short survey of the development of Green ICT implementation at various developed and developing countries and followed by the benefits of Green ICT. Keywords: Green ICT (GICT), Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Education Institutions, Need of GICT I. INTRODUCTION Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a part of everyday life in this modern era. It is impossible to imagine life without information and technology. Due to tremendous growth of information and technology activities throughout the globe, the climate of the earth is changing [1]. In education, use of ICT has become imperative to improve the efficiency and effectiveness at all levels. ICT is playing vital role in education.UNESCO aims to ensure that all countries, both developed and developing, have access to the best educational facilities necessary to prepare young people to play full roles in modern society and to contribute to a knowledge nation [2]. The government has a significant role to play in promoting green and cool ICT policies and initiatives against environmental concerns including Green house gas (GHG) emissions reductions. 91
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) Based on these observations, following questions arise: • What is the environmental impact of ICT and need of Green ICT in Education sector? • How has the Green ICT implementation in education sector developed in various countries? • What are the benefits of Green ICT implementation to education institutions? Today ICT infrastructure generates 2 per cent of the world green house gas emissions.Gartner Group reported that the ICT industry was responsible for more than two percent ofglobal CO2 emissions [3]. The purpose of this paper is to study environmental impact ofICT and to analysis the development of Green ICT among academic institutions. It is alsonecessary to change the mindset of academic professionals and forced them to adopt GreenICT in their day-to-day life through emphasizing on Green ICT implementation benefits interms of economical, social, environmental and technical. The paper will provide a brief review of the development of green ICT at variousdeveloped and developing countries. The paper will contribute by providing number ofbenefits of green ICT lead by discussion and the analysis. This paper presents an analysis of the Green ICT implementation at educationinstitutes. The structure of paper is as follows. We first review environmental impact of ICTuse and Green ICT concepts. This is followed by an analysis of need of Green ICT practicesat education institutions. Then we present the development of Green ICT implementation atvarious developed and developing countries. A discussion on benefits of GICT is followedby a conclusion.II. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ICT The ICT use is wide spreading around the world, especially in Asia region. Theemerging economy and technological advances will imply environmental problems due tothe sudden increment on the power request from ICT systems [4].ICT have improved the quality of teaching and learning by providing access to a greatvariety of educational resources.ICT equipment’s power consumptions and greenhouseemissions are becoming major concerns among ICT professionals [5]. If the ICT sector continues growing at the current rate, emissions are expected toincrease by another 60 % by the year 2020[3]. Due to huge amount of carbon emissions theozone layer getting thinner and which is dangerous for human body. The local effects ofICT on human health and environment are Electronic waste, Health risk (disease), Airpollution, Water pollution, and Land Pollution. The global impacts of ICT on human healthand environment are Global warming, Climate change, Level of ocean raising,Temperature increase and Ice Cap to shrink [6]. The revolution coming is Innovativeeconomy. We have to find Innovative ways to minimize above mentioned impact.Advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) over the past few yearsshown an exponential growth in technology and global presence. Hence, there is need forsolutions to optimize energy consumption in the ICT sector. Such solutions are collectivelyreferred to as Green ICT. 92
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)III. WHAT IS GREEN ICT (GICT) Green Information and Communication Technology is broadly understood as aninitiative to encourage individuals, groups, and organization engaged in the use of ICT toconsider environmental problems and find solutions to them [7].At the international level, in2005, the G8 requested the International Energy Agency (IEA) to play a strong role inimplementing the G8 ‘Gleneagles Plan of Action’ on climate change, clean energy andsustainable development [8].Environmental sustainability is not an option- it is necessity, wehave a compelling and ever more urgent duty of stewardship to take care of the naturalenvironment and resources on which our economic activity and social fabric depends [9].Green ICT has an aspect of innovation in managing ICT related to the environment. Green ICTis broadly understood as an initiative to encourage individuals, groups and organizationengaged in the use of ICT to consider environmental problems and find solutions to them.Green ICT is understood as an initiative to encourage stakeholders engaged in ICT activities toaddress environmental problems and find solutions to them [7].A. Definitions Green or eco-sustainability is “the ability of one or more entities, either individually orcollectively, to exist and thrive (either unchanged or in evolved forms) for lengthy time frames,in such manner that the existence and flourishing of other collectivities of entities is permittedat related levels and in related systems” [10].Keiichi Nakata extends the existing definitions as a coordination and convergence of strategy,practice and measurement of Green ICT which addresses environmentally sustainability. GreenICT aims to minimize carbon footprint, minimize hazardous ICT waste, reduce energy cost,achieve corporate social responsibility (CSR), and finally comply with regulations.IV. GREEN ICT AT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS There is increasing pressure on universities and colleges to adopt more sustainableapproaches to ICT use .This pressure need to come from government, from externalstakeholders and the public who are increasingly aware of the environmental cost. Recentlybiggest challenge facing the environment is global warming caused by carbon emission. It isvery much necessary to save the environment and ultimately the earth .Use of ICT in educationis a cause of carbon dioxide emission, high energy consumption and hazardous wasteproduction. These pressure led education institutions to adopt Green ICT so as to minimizeenergy consumption, carbon footprint, ICT waste, to maximize recycling & reuse and to reduceenergy cost. Moreover savings can be achieved by minimizing the wastage of computationalfacility. With the increase in the number of institutions offering professional education, greenICT implementation at institutions has become key ingredient to achieve cost effectivesolutions. All educational institutes need to satisfy AICTE norms as well as need to apply forNBA (National Board of Accreditations) in India when establishing new course or runningexisting course. The institutions where computer and IT related courses are conducted,consider an Institute with yearly intake of 60 students of MCA Course. According to AICTEnorms Institute requires a Computer Lab of 30 Computers with latest configuration. These 93
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)computers become outdated after three years because at that time “Latest Configuration” willbe different [12]. Green ICT has an aspect of innovation in managing ICT related to the environment,We(researcher) will further elaborate some of these motivations to understand why educationinstitutions need to pay attention to green ICT by examining three kinds of demands :environmental, social and economic. B. Green ICT and Environmental Demands Generally, Green ICT issues are spoken in environmental terms due to the impact ofICT on the environment. ICT is cause of carbon dioxide emissions, high energy consumption,and hazardous e-waste produced toxic in nature and pose severe risks to humans and theenvironment. Regarding India’s higher education systems, students and staff have increased thenumber of ICT used in their day to day life. Accordingly, these pressures based on theseassessments direct institutions to adopt Green ICT so as to minimize energy consumption,carbon footprint, ICT waste, and to maximize recycling, refurbishing and reuse. Everyoneshould become Green ICT trendsetter for cultural change and savings mankind fromenvironmental pollution. C. Green ICT and Social Demands ICT has social impacts which are both affirmative and pessimistic. Even if Green ICT isgenerally approached from scientific, technical and environmental points of view, aconsideration of social challenge should be addressed .In terms of education institutions; GreenICT operates to achieve social aspects which are related to Corporate Social Responsibility.Thus Green ICT helps education institutions to achieve social benefits like enhanced image,higher reputation and credibility. D. Green ICT and Economic Demands ICT has directly affected financial cost including utilities and maintenance & operationcost, which increase every year. The energy consumption of India ICT infrastructure is forecastto grow by 30% to over 31 trillion-watt hours by 2014, a study of Global research firm Gartner.Green IZCT proposes to use energy efficient equipment and reduce energy cost. As such, GreenICT in education institutions can also address economic demands through cost effectivenessand optimum resource utilization.V. DEVELOPMENT OF GICT IMPLEMENTATION AT DEVELOPED & DEVELOPINGCOUNTRIES Internationally, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCC), which came into force in 1994, established the first intergovernmental frameworkaiming to tackle climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, enforced in 2005, imposed on MemberStates to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. The commitment period for the KyotoProtocol ends in 2012. With many current scientific studies pointing to global warming andclimate changes caused by greenhouse gases, there is an ever increasing societal push forrenewable environmentally friendly green technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 94
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)Preminda Fernando, Atsuko Okuda has studied the Green ICT in multiple meltdownsconsidering Least Develop Countries (LDC) in Asia and pacific region. The study found thatapproximately 7.8 Gt CO2 (Gigatonnes of CO2) emission can be reduced by 2020 throughproper ICT deployment. The study also identified that many countries in the region may nothave taken into consideration environmental impacts in designing, implementing andevaluating ICT policies and initiatives in the region [14].A. India Government Policy Government policy plays a vital role in the development of green policy. At the last year‘s Copenhagen Summit , India has committed to reduce it emission by 20-25% as compared tothe 2005 emissions levels. Government of India ministry of Environment and Forests (2011)have developed national mission for Green India under the National Action Plan on ClimateChange (NAPCC). They have presented tentative action plan for Implementations of the GreenIndia mission during 2011-12 [15].Maharashtra IT/ITES Policy-2009 proposes path breakinginitiatives to promote ‘green’ IT and electronic hardware, as well as e-waste recycling [16].B. United Kingdom (UK) The United Kingdom (UK) is one of the first countries to focus on Green ICT policiesand strategies and UK higher education institutions are under pressure to implement green ICT.The Climate Change Act (2008) sets a legally binding target for reducing UK carbon dioxideemissions by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. It also sets up the Carbon Reduction Commitment(CRC), which requires many universities and large colleges to monitor their electricityconsumption and purchase carbon credits. There will penalties for poor performance andrewards for good performance [17]. An online survey from 49 institutions of UK universities, which gathered 183 responses,provided an overview of the environmental and social impacts of ICT in further and highereducation [9]. Supaporn Chai-Arayalert, Keiichi Nakata (2011) have reviewed the concept of GreenICT and presented a framework to analyze Green ICT strategy, practice and measurement inUK Higher Education Institutions. The study analyzed the Green ICT practices in UK HEIsbased on web based data collection in 2009 and 2011 [7].C. Korea The educational institutions in Korea seek to adopt responsible environmentalpractices. The study conducted on ICT uses to go Green in institutional education at Korea haveevaluated blended learning system, distance online learning system and learning managementsystem which effects environmental savings associated with reduced commuting costs andusage of institutional facilities [18].D. Australia RMIT Green ICT framework for RMIT University categorizes four general areas orpillars of Green ICT: Life cycle, End user, Enterprise and Enablement and breaks each of thesedown further. The study also presented Green ICT – Capability maturity model and determined 95
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)the maturity levels through administration of a survey which asks questions about each aspect ofGreen ICT [19].Tony Chan (2010) addressed the Australian Government ICT sustainability plan2010-2015 which outlines strategies and actions for its agencies to lower their emissions [20].The current administration commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the Australiacountry by 605 of 2000 levels by 2050.E. United State of America (USA) America begins a fundamental culture shift toward a truly sustainable economy anduniversities will be one of the greatest sources of ideas and innovation. Cornell University hasalready taking advantage of green building practices. Also the Harvard University’s Green campusinitiative designed to foster continuous improvement in cost effective green building design [21]. Glenn A. Cummings (2009) conducted a study on the behaviors of successful higher educationleadership in implementing sustainability within two U.S. community colleges and two U.S. publicresearch universities. The study suggested that multiple strategies that leadership can employ toovercome obstacles and create significant institutional achievement in the area of sustainability[22]. F. Canada The first article which addressed sustainability practices of Canada’s higher educationinstitutions, analyzed Canadian universities reporting on sustainability performance, how isinformation being reported, and what is being reported. The findings showed that only 7universities published sustainability reports in the period 2006-2008 [23].G. China Zuqiang Wu have presented constraints that hampered the development of green schoolsin China includes outmoded conventions of educators, shortage of equipment, finance and trainedteachers, inadequate environmental teaching methods and the limitations of Green school criteria.The paper also suggested strategies to foster Green schools in China [24].VI. BENEFITS OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN EDUCATION SECTOR The main motivation for implementing Green ICT is to reduce costs. Actions to minimizethe environmental impacts of ICT use can help the education institutions in some of the benefits -appealing to all stake holder groups: faculty, student and staff satisfaction increases, the instituteimage improves in the society. Some of the benefits which are mentioned below:E. Reduce energy cost GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and power bill which isvery essential for future sustainability. By following simple methods of reducing powerconsumption like Power-down the CPU and all peripherals during the periods of inactivity and soon, each institution can reduce energy cost and ultimately contribute towards sustainable earth. 96
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)F. Minimize carbon footprint, hazardous ICT waste: The ICT generates large amount of hazardous waste. Hazardous ICT waste not only hasimpacts on people’s health but also consumes space in a landfill .Examples of reducing ICT wastesare recyclable or reusable equipment which can extend the ICT lifecycle equipment. Therefore,institutions need to minimize hazardous ICT waste, which is one of the objectives of Green ICT.GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and cost saving which is veryessential for future sustainability.G. Comply with regulation The institute can comply with the environmental laws, protocols for sustainability by wayof reducing e-waste, providing healthy environment, minimizing power bill. Environment friendlyis good for the overall geo-economic condition. There is no negative of adopting Green ICTpractices, therefore no regrets. It saves the resource of the country as a whole. It is now high timewe start saving clean air, fuel sources and energy for the future generations along with savingmoney and assets for them.H. Sustenance of ICT The Government sets targets for carbon emissions and other environmental impacts whichrequire strict regulations. Institutions should comply with the regulatory standards for ICTprocurement, procedures, ICT waste, ICT-related aspects of buildings, etc. Green ICTimplementation will ensure that Natural resources are conserved and are available for our nextgeneration to continue a way of life that is environment friendly.VII. CONCLUSION This paper examined Green ICT concepts and discussed the reasons why educationalinstitutions need to pay attention to Green ICT. The paper provides a short survey of thedevelopment of Green ICT implementation at various developed and developing countries. Thisresearch focuses Green ICT implementation at educational institutes with environmentalsustainability in mind that is, to contain the minimum amount of hazardous materials, to be energyefficient during the use period of their life cycle, and to be disposed or recycled with the minimumeffect on the environment and human health.REFERENCES[1] Shalabh Agarwal Asoke Nath “ Green Computing – a new Horizon of Energy Efficiency and Electronic waste minimization “, IEEE International Conference on CSNT ,2011, pp 688-693.[2] Prof C. Blurton,” UNESCOs World Communication and Information Report1999”,[On-Line]URL:http://www.unesco.org/education/educprog/wer/wer.html (Accessed on June 2012)[3] Mingay S. (2007), “Green IT: Dealing with the shockwave”, Gartner Symposium ITXPO, 20-23 rd Nov. 2007, Sydney Australia.[4] Simon Forge ,” Powering down : remedies for unsustainable ICT “, foresight , Journal, Volume:9 Issue: 4, page: 3-21,2007 97
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)[5] Info Tech (2007) Top 10 Energy –Savings Tips for a Greener Data Center, Info Tech Research Group, April 11, pp 1-11[6] Onkar Kendhe, “Basics of Green IT and India Perspective”, CSI communications: Green computing Vol. No. 34, issue no. 10, Jan 2011 pp 11-15[7] Supaporn Chai-Arayalert, Keiichi Nakata,”The Evolution of Green ICT Practice: UK Higher Education Institutions Case Study”, IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, 2011, United Kingdom, pp 220-225[8] International Energy Agency, Open Energy Technology Bulletin, no.27, July 13 2005,[online available] http ://www.iea.org/impagr/cip/archieved_bulletines/issue_no27.html, accessed December 2011[9] P. james and L.Hopkinson, “ Sustainable ICT in Further and Higher Education- A Report for the Joint Information Services Committee(JISC)”,SusteIt,London,UK,2009[10] Cosmio Stallo, Mauro De Sanctis, Mario Marchese , ICT applications in Green and Renewable Energy Sector , 2010 Workshops on Enabling Technologies :Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises , IEEE,2010.[11] Molla A., Vanessa C. Brain Corbitt , Hepu Deng , Say Yen Teoh , “E-Readiness to G-Readiness : Developing a Green Information Technology Readiness Framework”, 19th Australian Conference on Information Systems , 3-5 Dec 2008 , Christchuch, Australia , pp 669-678[12] AICTE manual for MCA course[13] Donald R Cooper, Pamela S Schindler, “Business Research Methods”, Tata McGraw Hill Publication, New Delhi, Ninth Edition (2006)[14] Preminda Fernando, Atsuko Okuda, “Green ICT: A cool factor in the wake of multiple meltdowns”, Xuan Zengpei, Place, ESCAP technical paper, December 2009[15] Government of India ministry of Environment and Forests, “National mission for Green India”, New Delhi, 26th March 2011, available at www.naeb.nic.in access on 12 May 2011.[16] Industries Department Government of Maharashtra IT/ITES policy 2009. Retrieved May 05 2012 from http:// www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/ITPolicy_01-12-09.pdf[17] J.Porritt, “Green IT a Global Benchmark: a Report on sustainable IT in USA, UK, Australia and India, Fujitsu, Australia 2010.[18] Robert C. Meurant, “Facing reality: Using ICT to go green in education” communications in computer and information science, 1, volume 150, Ubiquitous computing and multimedia applications, 2011, pages 211-222[19] Graeme Philipsan, “A Green ICT Framework – Understanding and measuring Green ICT”, Connection Research, Australia, April 2010.[20] Tony Chan, “Inside the Australia Govt. ICT sustainability plan 2010-2015”, posted in green telecom live newsletter, Australia, August 10, 2010.[21] Toryn Holowka, “Leed and higher education”, Sustainable facility the LEED guide, July 2009, pp 28-29[22] Glenn A. Cummings, “Turning higher education Green from the inside out: A qualitative study of four colleges and universities that made Green happen” PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 2009[23] Alberto Fonseca, Amanda Macdonald , Emily Dandy , Paul Valenti ,”The state of sustainability reporting at Canadian Universities”,International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education , Vol.12 Issue 1 ,2011, pp 22-40.[24] Zuqiang Wu, “Green schools in China”, The Journal of Environmental Education, volume 34, Issue 1, 2002, pages 21-25, 98