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1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 287 ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN INDUSTRIES BY REDUCING MECHANICAL LOSSES OF ELECTRIC MOTORS 1 Dr. A. G. Matani, 2 Dr. Padmaja A. Gulhane, 3 Prof. A. A. Gulhane 1 Associate Professor- Mechanical Engg, Government College of Engineering, Amravati - 444604 [M.S.]- India 2 Assistant Professor – Department of Mathematics, Government College of Engineering, Amravati - 444604 [M.S.]- India 3 Principal, Government Polytechnic, Arvi- Wardha –444303 (M.S.)India ABSTRACT The biggest problem faced by the energy managers and end users in implementing latest energy efficiency technologies include lack of awareness and inability to justify financial requirements associated with the procurement of the latest technologies. Energy companies to stay ahead of the developments have to pay constant attention to building and maintaining their networks and are constantly looking for cost-saving possibilities. Information and communications technology is helping for responding to these challenges. This paper discusses the latest developments in eliminating losses in energy utilities and highlights various areas of applications of energy efficiency enhancement by reducing mechanical losses. Key words: Energy resources, generation capacity, primary energy consumption, improper installation. INTRODUCTION India is the fourth largest consumer of energy in the world after USA, China and Russia. However, it is not endowed with abundant energy resources. Therefore, India must meet energy needs by using all available domestic resources of coal, uranium, oil, hydro and other renewable resources, and supplementing domestic production by imports. Meeting the energy needs for achieving 8 to 9 percent economic growth while also meeting energy requirements of the population at affordable prices is a major challenge. Understanding business trends is a crucial requirement for energy and utility organizations to create a successful IT strategy in this market. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 287-291 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 288 ELECTRICITY GENERATION CAPACITY IN INDIA Installed Generation Capacity as on 31 May, 2013 Mode Capacity (MW) Share (%) of Total Thermal 153187.99 68.0 Nuclear 4780.00 2.1 Hydro 39623.40 17.6 Renewable energy sources 27541.71 12.2 Total 225133.10 Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi T&D AND AT&C LOSSES IN INDIA Year T & D Losses AT & C Losses 2003-04 32.53% 34.78% 2004-05 31.25% 34.33% 2005-06 30.42% 33.02% 2006-07 28.65% 30.62% 2007-08 27.20% 29.45% 2008-09 25.47% 27.37% 2009-10 25.39% 26.58% 2010-11 23.97% 26.15% Source: Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi GLOBAL PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION The primary energy consumption for few of the developed and developing countries indicates that India’s absolute primary energy is only 1/29th of the world, 1/7th of USA, 1/1.6th of Japan but 1.1, 2.9, 1.3, 1.5 times of Canada, Australia, France and U. K. respectively. Primary Energy Consumption by fuel (2002) in million tonnes oil equivalent ( MTOE) is shown in table Table: Primary Energy Consumption by fuel ( MTOE) Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro Total Share USA 894.3 600.7 553.8 185.8 58.2 2293.0 24.4% Canada 89.7 72.6 30.7 17.0 78.6 288.7 3.1% France 92.8 38.5 12.7 98.9 15.0 258.0 2.7% Russia 122.9 349.6 98.5 32.0 37.2 640.2 6.8% U.K. 77.2 85.1 36.5 19.9 1.7 220.3 2.3% China 245.7 27.0 663.4 5.9 55.8 997.8 10.6% India 97.7 25.4 180.8 4.4 16.9 325.1 3.5% Japan 242.6 69.7 105.3 71.3 20.5 509.4 5.4% Malaysia 22.5 24.3 3.3 - 1.7 51.8 0.6% Pakistan 17.9 18.8 2.1 0.4 4.6 43.8 0.5% Singapore 35.5 1.6 - - - 37.1 0.4% Total 3522.5 2282.0 2397.9 610.6 592.1 9405.0 60.3%
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 289 ENERGY LOSSES IN INDUSTRIES At the industrial end user premises plant network elements like transformers motors causes losses which affect the input received energy. However losses in such systems are unavoidable. When the power reaches the industry it meets the transformer. The energy efficiency of the transformer is very high. Next it goes to the motor through internal plan distribution network. A typical distribution network efficiency of motor 70-90%. Another 30% lost in the mechanical system which includes coupling, gear box, driven equipments such as pump and valves. Thus the overall efficiency becomes 50%. Hence one unit saved in the industry is equivalent to two units generated in the power plant. ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRIC MOTORS Efficiency of motor is determined by intrinsic losses. These losses are of two types: 1. Fixed losses independent of motor load 2. Variable losses dependent on the load. Fixed losses consist of magnetic core losses and friction losses. Magnetic core losses consist of eddy current and hysterias losses in the stator. Variable losses consist of resistance losses in the stator and in the rotor and stray losses. Measures adopted for energy efficiency address each loss specifically as under: Stator and Rotor I2R Losses These losses are major losses and typically account for 55-60% of total losses. These losses are heating losses resulting from current passing through stator and rotor conductors. These losses are functions of a conductor resistance, square of current. Resistance of conductor is a function of conductor material, length and cross sectional area. Suitable selection of copper conductorsize will reduce the resistance. Core Losses Core losses are found in the stator rotor magnetic field and are due to hysteresis effect and eddy current effect during magnetization of the core material. These losses are independent of load and account for 20-25% of the total losses. Mechanical Losses These losses results from bearing friction, wind-age and circulating air through the motor and account for 8-20% of total losses. These losses are independent of load. Stray Losses These losses are vary according to square of the load current and are caused by leakage flux induced by load current in the lamination and accounts for 4-5% of total losses. These losses are reduced by careful selection of slot number, tooth/slot geometry and air gap. MECHANICAL LOSSES IN MOTORS An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used for, for example, rotating a pump impeller, fan or blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc. Electric motors are used at home (mixer, drill, and fan) and in industry. Electric motors are sometimes called the “work horses” of industry because it is estimated that motors use about 70% of the total electrical load in industry. In the future, the cost of energy will increase due to main driven system in the modern industrial environmental problems and limited resources. The electric motors consume a major part of the electric energy in the
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 290 industry. The electric motor is the society. Minimizing mechanical losses could save a significant amount of electricity. There are some mechanical losses which should be taken into conservation while determining the efficiency of electric motor. The greatest enemies of efficient motor operation are improper installation or adjustments, low-quality electrical power, adverse environmental condition performance of individual motors. VARIOUS METHODS OF REDUCING MECHANICAL LOSSES ** Lubrication ** Shaft Alignment ** Belts and Pulleys ** Bearing Maintenance ** Gear Drives ** Motor Temperature ** Excessive Vibration ** Excessive Noise ** Periodic Maintenance ** Cooling and Ventilation ** Variation in Load CONCLUSIONS Information technologies and automation systems plays a major role in standardization, transparency, revenue realization and reduction in transmission and distribution losses in the power sector. Innovation in the information technology can only benefit the sector and it plays a major role in empowering the power supply utilities. Power utilities have made major gains in terms of productivity, efficiency, reliability and commercial management through the use of modern IT tools. Information Technology has found applications in a wide spectrum of tools that enhance performance in planning, operational, maintenance, training and commercial activities in a power system. REFERENCES  Anand Prakash, RP Mohanty, SP Kallurkar , service quality modeling for life insurance business using neural networks , International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, Inderscience Publishers , Vol. 7, No.3 , 2011, pp. 263-286  Dr. A.G. Matani, Fly ash from TPS: Utilization & disposal techniques, Research Journal Of Chemistry & Environment , RJCE Indore , Sept 1998, pp. 71-73  Dr. A.G. Matani , Potential Utilization of Fly Ash From Thermal Power Plants: Mechanisms and Strategies Needed for Optimization , Journal Of Industrial Pollution Control, Enviro Media, Karad,Vol.3, 1999 –pp. 231-234  Dr. A.G. Matani, Information Technology Improving Retail Marketing In Agriculture International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIM Kozhikode  Dr. A.G. Matani , Effective energy conservation techniques in industries, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET) Published by International Association for Engineering & Management Education, Chennai - 600 042 (Tamil Nadu) Vol. 4, Number 1, January- February 2013 , pp. 74-78
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 291  Dr . A.G. Matani, Managing new product innovations , , Industrial Engineering Journal, Vol.4, 1999, pp.21- 23,  Dr A. G. Matani , Prof. A. A. Gulhane , Pallavi Matani IT Applications Towards Optimizing Energy Utilization at Tenth AIMS International Conference on Management, January 6-9, 2013 at Indian Institute of Management , Bangalore  Dr. A.G. Matani , V N Ahuja, Environmental entrepreneurship towards cleaner production : Environmental Science & Engineering, Enviro Publications, Pvt. Ltd., Chennai , June-Aug 2010, pp. 38-41.  Dr. A.G. Matani , A A. Gulhane , Towards promoting energy efficient motors , Electrical Monitor , Eco. Res (I) Ltd, Mumbai, Dec 2009, pp 28-28.  Dr A. G. Matani , Prof. A. A. Gulhane , Pallavi Matani , Effective energy conservation strategies & techniques in industries towards cleaner environment at Third National Research Conference on Climate Change November 3-4, 2012 organized by Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology Madras and Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi  Jerry Jackson (2008), A Risk Management Approach to Energy Purchase & Efficiency Choices, John Wiley and Sons, pp.55-87.  Masanet, Eric R., Richard E. Brown, Arman Shehabi, Jonathan G. Koomey, and Bruce Nordman (2011), "Estimating the Energy Use and Efficiency Potential of U.S. Data Centers" Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol.99, No. 8. , pp. 3-7.  K. Nagabhushan Raju (2007), Industrial Energy Conservation Techniques: Industrial Energy Conservation Techniques: Concepts, Applications and Case Studies, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, pp.21-36.  Lijun Wang (2008), Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities, CRC Press, pp.120-138.  R.S. Walawalkar (2003), Use of Information Technology in the Field of Energy Management: A report presented to the American Public Power Association.  Sthanumoorthy Rleena, Mary Eapen (2006), Energy Conservation: Concepts and Applications, ICFAI University Press, pp.15-21.  US EPA. 2007. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency, Public Law pp. 109-431.  U. N. Rai, R. D. Tripathi, N. Singh, A. Kumar, M. B. Ali, A. Pal, S. N. Si Amelioration of Fly-Ash by Selected Nitrogen Fixing Blue Green Algae , Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2000 Springer-Verlag New York Inc., pp.294-301  http://www.gartner.com  Various reports published in The Times of India, Mumbai edition.  Prof. Dr. Matani A.G, Prof. Deulgaonkar V.R and Prof. Dr. Kallurkar S.P, “An Investigation of Structural Integrity of Chassis Mounted Platform Subjected to Concentrated Load During Braking”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 115 - 122, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.  Dr. Ashok G. Matani and Mukesh K. Agrawal, “Performance Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System using R134a, Hc Mixture and R401a as Working Medium”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 112 - 126, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.  Dr. A. G. Matani and Swapnil A. Dahake, “Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Pipe using Twisted Tapes and Wire Coils”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 100 - 111, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.