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Effective energy conservation techniques in industries

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  • 1. INTERNATIONALMechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – International Journal of JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - February (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 74-78 IJMET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ©IAEME EFFECTIVE ENERGY CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN INDUSTRIES Dr. A. G. Matani Associate Professor –Mech. Engg , Government College of Engineering, Amravati –444604[M.S.] India. Email: ashokgm333@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The rising oil import bill has been the focus of serious concerns due to the pressure it has placed on scarce foreign exchange resources and is also largely responsible for energy supply shortages. The sub-optimal consumption of commercial energy adversely affects the productive sectors, which in turn hampers economic growth. This paper highlights the impact of energy conservation techniques in minimizing the energy losses in industries. This paper is the part of work of Ph.D. and deals with SSI units in Amravati region. INTRODUCTION Indian industry has not paid much attention to energy savings. The high-energy consumption in the Indian industries is due to three main reasons: - Most of the manufacturing units still depend on old machinery - The relatively high cost of capital as compared to European / U.S. Standards - Uncertainty about the long-term growth of the particular industrial sector. Energy conservation and efficiency improvement in the Indian power sector requires special attention since the sector has been suffering from a chronic supply shortage, lack of capital investment for new capacity addition and environmental problems associated with coal-based power plants. High auxiliary consumption and transmission and distribution loss further aggravate the problem. Key words: Energy efficiency, T&D losses, renewable energy sources 74
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - February (2013) © IAEMESIGNIFICANCE OF THE TOPIC The United States Energy Association (USEA), with funding from the United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID) is forging strong relationships in the IndianPower Sector. USEA has established a system of matching the Indian utilities, StateElectricity Boards (SEB) and State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC) with variousU.S. utilities and regulatory commissions. The primary goal of these partnerships is to assistIndian utilities, SEBs and SERCs in promoting more efficient, environmentally sound supplyand utilization of energy by introducing commercially viable, market-oriented approaches. India is currently the fourth largest oil consumer in the Asian-Pacific region afterJapan, China and South Korea. The total demand of oil is expected to reach about 368 millionmetric tons (MMT) by the year 2025, assuming the base case with GDP projected to grow at6.5 percent per annum until 2025. Further in line with international trends, it is estimated thatthe share of middle distillates would increase from a current level of 59-60 percent to about65 percent by 2025. Therefore the estimated refining capacity and crude requirement by theyear 2025 shall have to be in the range of 355-360 MMT.SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY** Optimum utilization of existing assets** Improving efficiency in production systems & reduction in distribution losses** Promoting R&D, transfer and use of technologies and practices for environmentally sound energy systems, including new and renewable energy sources** Improving energy infrastructure** Promoting of energy efficiency and emission standardsSCOPE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH The future choice of technology for power generation crucially depends on currentand future trends of environmental regulations, availability of low-cost fuel on a long-termbasis, plant efficiency and costs of the technology. 71% of India’s power generation comesfrom coal and it is expected that coal will continue to dominate in the future of powergeneration. However, the burning of coal creates a host of serious environmental problemsrequiring emissions control and waste disposal. Since India cannot live without coal, one of the solutions is to adopt clean coaltechnologies for power generation, which would not only reduce pollution, but also achievehigher thermodynamic efficiencies. Technologies for coal gasification, IGCC, CO2 capture.Quality of power supply requires special attention in India. In the United States, losses due topoor quality energy supply are estimated at $150 million. Anti-theft legislation with stringentprovisions and support of government in tackling law and order problems for curbing thewidespread theft of electricity would be helpful in India. The industries implementing cost control initiatives in other areas of their enterprisecan successfully extend that business intelligence to electricity utilization and conservation 75
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - February (2013) © IAEMEactivities. Within the new framework of volatile electricity supply conditions; industries canexert greater control over their electricity expenditures by evaluating and deployingconservation strategies within a control of cost opportunities & business cycle realities.Reducing T & D losses from 34% to 17-18% as compared to 7% in China is another focus ofthe present study for implementation.LITERATURE REVIEW Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of amodern economy. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability ofenergy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. India rankssixth in the world in total energy consumption and needs to accelerate the development of thesector to meet its growth aspirations. The country, though rich in coal and abundantlyendowed with renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, hydro and bio-energy has verysmall hydrocarbon reserves (0.4% of the world’s reserve). India, like many other developingcountries, is a net importer of energy, more than 25 % of primary energy needs being metthrough imports mainly in the form of crude oil and natural gas. In the power generation front, nearly 62 % of power generation is from coal firedthermal power plants and 70 % of the coal produced every year in India has been used forthermal generation. About 70% of the total hydro potential is located in the Northern andNortheastern regions, whereas the Eastern region accounts for nearly 70% of the total coalreserves in the country. The Southern region, which has only 6 % of the total coal reservesand 10% of the total hydro potential, has most of the lignite deposits occurring in the country. On the consumption front, the industrial sector in India is a major energy useraccounting for about 52 % of commercial energy consumption. Per capita energyconsumption in India is one of the lowest in the world. But, energy intensity, which is energyconsumption per unit of GDP, is one of the highest in comparison to other developed anddeveloping countries. For example, it is 3.7 times that of Japan, 1.55 times that of the UnitedStates, 1.47 times that of Asia and 1.5 times that of the world average. Thus, there is a hugescope for energy conservation in the country.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Various types of questionnaire have been supplied to different task groupsnamely industrialists, MIDC officials, MSEB officials and their feedback is obtained. InAmravati city area more than 100 respondents have been contacted and their feedback relatedto study is analyzed. To have proper picture of the problem, the data is collected in a mannerthat almost all types of industries are approached and their relationship with differentmathematical and statistical models is analyzed.EXPECTED OUTCOMES It has been estimated that nearly 30,000 MW could be saved through theimplementation of energy conservation programs. Studies and experience have indicated thatmost of Indias megawatt potential can be captured at substantially lower costs compared to 76
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - February (2013) © IAEMEthe cost of capacity additions, which currently stands at over US$1 million per MW.However, in spite of good returns and short payback periods for energy efficiencyinvestments, most of Indias end-use energy efficiency potential remains largelyuntapped. For successful implementation of energy conservation opportunities, followingstrategies and techniques can be adopted:- - Top management commitment towards energy conservation - Well defined programs and responsibilities of every stakeholder - Availability of sufficient resources for planning and implementation of policies and strategies - Utilization of latest techniques for operation and maintenance of machines and motors - Pay back calculations and return on investment savings calculations - Close interaction between top management, operating staff and maintenance staff The proposed work is specialty selected considering the acute power shortage inIndia. Moreover, there is no any professional approach to energy conservation and energysaving opportunities in small and medium scale industries. Hence, this research work is toexplore the potential losses in energy motors in industries and provide them consultancyand other professional services so that these industries can save a marginal amount ofenergy. Organizing specialized training for efficient use of energy and its conservationinitiatives and strengthening consultancy services in the field of energy conservation arethe novelty contribution to the research area.CONCLUSIONS The per capita energy consumption is too low for India as compared to developedcountries. It is just 4% of USA and 20% of the world average. The per capitaconsumption is likely to grow in India with growth in economy thus increasing the energydemand. Energy intensity is energy consumption per unit of GDP. Energy intensityindicates the development stage of the country. Indias energy intensity is 3.7 times ofJapan, 1.55 times of USA, 1.47 times of Asia and 1.5 times of World average. The energy sector holds the key in accelerating the economic growth of India. Thechallenge is especially significant given the Honorable Prime Minister’s cherished goal ofreaching 8% growth rates from the current threshold of around 5 to 6%. However, thedevelopment of the Indian energy sector has been constrained by capital, technology,environment and security issues. The power sector needs special attention to fosterdevelopment aspirations. Despite significant growth in terms of technologicalsophistication and capacity addition, the power sector suffers from financial weaknessand supply constraints. Bringing the availability of energy up to the global average willrequire huge additions to the energy infrastructure in India. 77
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - February (2013) © IAEMEREFERENCES[1] Duan Liping (2011), Analysis of the relationship between international cooperation andscientific publications in energy R&D in China, Applied Energy , 88(12), 4229-4238.[2] M. E. Douglas , Timothy C. Wagner , Michael K. Sahm , William J. Wepfer : EconomicOptimization of a Combined Heating and Power System for an Office Building , Proceedingsof Energy Sustainability 2007 , June 2007, Long Beach, California USA[3] Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair , Garimella Niraj (2010), Battery energy storage systems:Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration, Energy and Buildings, 42(11), 21-27.[4] Noam Lior (2008) , Energy resources and use: The present situation and possible paths tothe future, Energy , 33(6), 842-857[5] Subhadra Bobban G. (2011) ,Macro-level integrated renewable energy productionschemes for sustainable development, Energy Policy, 39(4), 2193-2196[6] Ramachandra, T.S., Shruthi B.V.(2007), Spatial mapping of renewable ,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, , 11(7) 1460-1480.[7] Saidur R., Islam M.R. , Rahim N.A., Solang K.H. (2010), , A review on global windenergy policy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ,9(1) 1744-1762[8] Mr. Laith O. Maheemed, Prof. D.S. Bankar and Dr. D.B. Talange, “Power QualityImprovement Of Wind Energy Conversion System Using Unified Power QualityConditioner” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 288 - 302, Published by IAEME.[9] Preethi Thekkath and Dr. G. Gurusamy, “Effect Of Power Quality On Stand By PowerSystems” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 1,Issue 1, 2010, pp. 118 - 126, Published by IAEME.[10] R.Saravanan and K.K.Padmanabhan, Design And Techno- Economic Evaluation OfSmall Wind Turbine Usage In Indian Power Systems” International Journal of MechanicalEngineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 127 - 141, Published byIAEME. 78