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- 1. INTERNATIONALComputer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING International Journal of JOURNAL OF COMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) IJCETVolume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 252-259© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM USING MATLAB Darshana Mistry1, Asim Banerjee2 1 Asst. Professor, Computer Engineering, Indus Institute of Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 2 Professor, Communication Technology, DAIICT, Gandhinagar, India ABSTRACT: In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. In this paper, there are given fundamental of DWT and implementation in MATLAB. Image is filtered by low pass (for smooth variation between gray level pixels) and high pass filter (for high variation between gray level pixels). Image is decomposed into multilevel which include approximation details (LL subband), horizontal detail (HL subband), vertical (LH subband) and diagonal details (HH subband). Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), MATLAB, high pass filter, low pass filter. I. INTRODUCTION The transform of a signal is just another form of representing the signal. It does not change the information content present in the signal. Fourier Transmission (FT) representations do not include local information about the original signals. Although the WFTs can provide localization information, they do not provide flexible division of the time-frequency plane that can track slow changing phenomena while providing more details for higher Frequencies. The wavelet representation was introduced to correct the drawback of the former two methods using a multi-resolution scheme. The Wavelet Transform provides a time-frequency representation of the signal. A wavelet series is representation of a square-integral (real or complex value) function by a certain orthonormal (two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if they are orthogonal (when two things can very independently or they are perpendicular) and all of unit length). 252
- 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME There are two classifications of wavelets [6]: (a) orthogonal (the low pass and high passfilters have same length) and (b) biorthogonal (the low pass and high pass filters do not havesame length). Based on the application, either of them can be used.The Wavelet transforms contribute to the desired sampling by filtering the signal with translationsand dilations of a basic function called “mother wavelet”. The mother wavelet can be used toform orthonormal bases of wavelets, which is particularly useful for data reconstruction [2]. Daniel [1] represent the wavelet transform expands a signal, or function, into the waveletdomain. As with any transform, like the Fourier or Gabor Transforms, the goal of expanding asignal is to obtain information that is not apparent, or cannot be deduced, from the signal in itsoriginal domain (usually space, time or distance). A wavelet, in the sense of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (or DWT), is an orthogonalfunction which can be applied to a finite group of data. Functionally, it is very much like theDiscrete Fourier Transform, in that the transforming function is orthogonal, a signal passed twicethrough the transformation is unchanged, and the input signal is assumed to be a set of discrete-time samples. Both transforms are convolutions.Shripathi [6] introduce as The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), which is based on sub-bandcoding is found to yield a fast computation of Wavelet Transform. It is easy to implement andreduces the computation time and resources required. In DWT, the most prominent information in the signal appears in high amplitudes and theless prominent information appears in very low amplitudes. Data compression can be achieved bydiscarding these low amplitudes. The wavelet transforms enables high compression ratios withgood quality of reconstruction. Recently, the Wavelet Transforms have been chosen for the JPEG2000 compression standard. The discrete wavelet transform uses low-pass and high-pass filters, h(n) and g(n), toexpand a digital signal. They are referred to as analysis filters. The dilation performed for eachscale is now achieved by a decimator. The coefficients ܿ and ݀ are produced by convolving thedigital signal, with each filter, and then decimating the output. The ܿ coefficients are producedby the low-pass filter, h(n), and called coarse coefficients. The ݀ coefficients are produced bythe high-pass filter and called detail coefficients. Coarse coefficients provide information aboutlow frequencies, and detail coefficients provide information about high frequencies. Coarse anddetail coefficients are produced at multiple scales by iterating the process on the coarsecoefficients of each scale. The entire process is computed using a tree-structured filter bank, asseen in Fig. 1.Fig. 1. Analysis filter bank. The high and low pass filters divide the signal into a series of coarse and detail coefficients. After analyzing, or processing, the signal in the wavelet domain it is often necessary toreturn the signal back to its original domain. This is achieved using synthesis filters andexpanders. The wavelet coefficients are applied to a synthesis filter bank to restore the originalsignal, as seen in Fig.2. 253
- 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Fig. 2. Synthesis Filter Bank. The high and low pass filters combine the coefficients into the original signal. The discrete wavelet transform has a huge number of applications in science, engineering,and mathematics and computer science. The wavelet domain representation of an image, or anysignal, is useful for many applications, such as compression, noise reduction, image registration,watermarking, super-resolution etc.II. TWO DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORMThe wavelet transform can be expressed by the following equation (1): ∞ Fሺa, bሻ ൌ ∞ିfሺxሻφ כሺୟ,ୠሻ ሺxሻdx ……….(1)where the * is the complex conjugate symbol and function ψ is some function. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is an implementation of the wavelet transformusing a discrete set of the wavelet scales and translations obeying some defined rules. The two dimensional discrete wavelet transform is essentially a one dimensional analysisof a two dimensional signal. It only operates on one dimension at a time, by analyzing the rowsand columns of an image in a separable fashion. The first step applies the analysis filters to therows of an image. This produces two new images, where one image is set or coarse rowcoefficients, and the other a set of detail row coefficients. Next analysis filters are applied to thecolumns of each new image, to produce four different images called sub bands. Rows andcolumns analyzed with a high pass filter are designated with an H. Likewise, rows and columnsanalyzed with a low pass filter are designated with an L. For example, if a subband image wasproduced using a high pass filter on the rows and a low pass filter on the columns, it is called theHL subband. Figure 3 shows this process in its entirety. Fig. 3. Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform. The high and low pass filters operate separable on the rows and columns to create four different subbands. An 8x8 image is used for example purposes only. 254
- 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Each subband provides different information about the image. The LL subband is acoarse approximation of the image and removes all high frequency information. The LHsubband removes high frequency information along the rows and emphasizes high frequencyinformation along the columns. The result is an image in which vertical edges areemphasized. The HL subband emphasizes horizontal edges, and the HH subband emphasizesdiagonal edges. To compute the DWT of the image at the next scale the process is appliedagain to the LL subband (see fig. 4). Each level of the wavelet decomposition, four new images are created from theoriginal N x N-pixel image. The size of these new images is reduced to ¼ of the original size,i.e., the new size is N/2 x N/2. The new images are named according to the filter (low-pass orhigh-pass) which is applied to the original image in horizontal and vertical directions. Forexample, the LH image is a result of applying the low-pass filter in horizontal direction andhigh-pass filter in vertical direction [2]. Thus, the four images produced from eachdecomposition level are LL, LH, HL, and HH. The LL image is considered a reduced versionof the original as it retains most details. The LH image contains horizontal edge features,while the HL contains vertical edge features. The HH contains high frequency informationonly and is typically noisy and is, therefore, not useful for the registration. In waveletdecomposition, only the LL image is used to produce the next level of decomposition (seefig.5). Fig.4. DWT image is based on approximate image detail (LL), horizontal details(HL), vertical details(LH) and diagonal details(HH). Fig. 5. Decomposed of and image level vise. 255
- 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME When we apply high frequency (use high pass filter) on an image, there arehigh variations in the gray level between the two adjacent pixels. So edges areoccurred in image. When we apply low frequency (use low pass filter) on an image,there are smooth variations between the adjacent pixels. So edges are not generated orvery few edges are generated. All information of image is remaining same as realimage information (it display as approximation image).From fig. 6 and fig. 7 represent approximate details, horizontal details, vertical detailsand diagonal details of and different images. Approximate details are same as originalimage details. Horizontal details construct only horizontal information (edges).Vertical details construct only vertical information (edges). Diagonal details constructvery few information of input image. So approximation image is applied into nextlevel for deformation. (a) (b) Fig. 6. (a) Original image, (b) DWT image based on approximate image detail (LL), horizontal details(HL), vertical details(LH) and diagonal details(HH) in one level. 256
- 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME (a) (b) Fig. 7. (a) original image, (b) DWT image based on approximate image detail (LL), horizontal details(HL), vertical details(LH) and diagonal details(HH) in one level.III. STEPS AND IMPLEMENTATION IN MATLABBasic steps are used to apply DWT in MATLAB (Matlab 2007b or later version). 1. Read an image. 2. Convert an input image into a gray scale image. 3. Perform a single-level wavelet decomposition(we get for information approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details of an image) 4. Construct and display approximations and details from the coefficients. 5. To display the results of the level 1 decomposition. 6. Regenerate an image by zero-level inverse Wavelet Transform. 7. Perform multilevel wavelet decomposition. 8. Extract approximation and detail coefficients. To extract the level 2 approximation coefficients from step 5. 9. Reconstruct the Level 2 approximation and the Level 1 and 2 details. 10. Display the results of a multilevel decomposition. 11. Reconstruct the original image from the multilevel decomposition. Fig. 8 (a) and 8(b) displayed images are decomposed into level 2 using DWT algorithm. 257
- 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEIV. CONCLUSION Using DWT, images are decomposing into four parts: Approximate image, Horizontaldetails, Vertical details and diagonal details. When we apply high frequency on an image,there are high variations in the gray level between the two adjacent pixels. So edges areoccurred in image. When we apply low frequency on an image, there are smooth variationsbetween the adjacent pixels. So edges are not generated or very few edges are generated. Allinformation of image is remaining same as real image information (it display asapproximation image). (a) (b) Fig 8.(a) and (b) different images are decomposed up to second levelACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very thankful to Dr Asim Banerjee who inspired and helped me to do this work. 258
- 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEREFERENCES[1] Daniel L. Ward, “Redudant Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Super-Resolution Using Sub-Pixel Image Registration”, thesis, March 2003.[2] Prachya C., “High Performance Automatic Image Registration for Remote Sensing”, PhD thesis, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, 1999.[3] Richa S., Mayank V., Afzel N., “Multimodal Medical Image Fusion using Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform”, International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, Feb. 2009.[4] Milad Ghantous, Somik Ghosh, Magdy Bayoumi, “A multimodal automatic image registration technique based on complex wavelets”, ICIP 2009, pp173-176.[5] Time E., “Discrete Wavelet Transforms: Theory and Implementation”, Draft 2, June 1992.[6] Shripathi D., “Discrete Wavelet Transform” , chapter -2, 2003.[7] Bowman, M., Debray, S. K., and Peterson, L. L. 1993. Reasoning about naming systems.[8] Ding, W. and Marchionini, G. 1997 A Study on Video Browsing Strategies. Technical Report. University of Maryland at College Park.[9] Fröhlich, B. and Plate, J. 2000. The cubic mouse: a new device for three-dimensional input. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.[10] Tavel, P. 2007 Modeling and Simulation Design. AK Peters Ltd.[11] Sannella, M. J. 1994 Constraint Satisfaction and Debugging for Interactive User Interfaces. Doctoral Thesis. UMI Order Number: UMI Order No. GAX95-09398., University of Washington.[12] Forman, G. 2003. An extensive empirical study of feature selection metrics for text classification. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 3 (Mar. 2003), 1289-1305.[13] Brown, L. D., Hua, H., and Gao, C. 2003. A widget framework for augmented interaction in SCAPE.[14] Y.T. Yu, M.F. Lau, "A comparison of MC/DC, MUMCUT and several other coverage criteria for logical decisions", Journal of Systems and Software, 2005, in press.[15] Spector, A. Z. 1989. Achieving application requirements. In Distributed Systems, S. Mullende.[16] B.V. Santhosh Krishna, AL.Vallikannu, Punithavathy Mohan and E.S.Karthik Kumar, “Satellite Image Classification Using Wavelet Transform”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 117 - 124, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[17] Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade and Mrs. Jyoti S.Kulkarni, “Novel Image Fusion Techniques using Global and Local Kekre Wavelet Transforms” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 89 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[18] S. S. Tamboli and Dr. V. R. Udupi, “Compression Methods Using Wavelet Transform” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 314 - 321, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 259

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