Design hybrid micropower system in mistah village using homer model

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 218 DESIGN HYBRID MICROPOWER SYSTEM IN MISTAH VILLAGE USING HOMER MODEL Sameer S. Al-Juboori Electronic and Control Engineering Dept., Kirkuk Technical College, Iraq ABSTRACT This paper presents a case study of a remote village dependent on agriculture currently grid connected. The remote village consists of 10 houses. The latitude and longitude of the study area are 35° 20´ N and 43° 15´ E respectively. The proposed model consists of photovoltaic (PV) array, wind energy subsystem, micro hydro, diesel generator and battery storage sub-system. The aim of this paper is to present optimization of distributed energy resources DERs includes distribution generation with battery backup and to provide a reliable, continuous, sustainable, and good-quality electricity service to the users in the village using HOMER model. Among 1104 simulations, 3 cases was designated and analysed. It was found that the optimal case is wind, hydro, diesel generator, convertor and batteries. Economical Distance Limit (EDL) for optimal case was calculated and found equal to 3.55km. Emissions were calculated and compared. Keywords: Renewable Energy, Hybrid, Micropower, Homer. GLOSSARY Annualized cost: the hypothetical annual cost value that if it occurred each year of the project lifetime would yield a net present cost equivalent to the actual net present cost. Autonomous: not connected to a larger power transmission grid. Autonomous power systems are often called off-grid systems. Clearness index: the fraction of the solar radiation striking the top of the atmosphere that makes it though the atmosphere to strike the surface of the Earth Levelized cost of energy: the average cost per kilowatthour of electricity produced by the system. Micropower system: a system that produces electrical and possibly thermal power to serve a nearby load. Net load: the load minus the renewable power available to serve the load. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August 2013, pp. 218-230 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 219 Replacement cost: the cost of replacing a component at the end of its useful lifetime. Residual flow: the minimum stream flow that must bypass the hydro turbine for ecological purposes. Unmet load: electrical load that the power system is unable to serve. Unmet load occurs when the electrical demand exceeds the supply. I. INTRODUCTION Hybrid systems give the opportunity for expanding the generating capacity in order to cope with the increasing demand in the future. Remote areas provide a big challenge to electric power utilities[1-7]. Hybrid power systems provide an excellent solution to this problem as one can use the natural sources available in the area e.g. the wind and/or solar energy and thereby combine multiple sources of energy to generate electricity. The advantages of using renewable energy sources for generating power in remote areas are obvious. The cost of transported fuel is usually expensive for such locations. Further, using fossil fuel has many concerns on the issue of climate change and global warming. The main disadvantage of a standalone power system using renewable energy is that the availability of renewable energy has daily and seasonal fluctuations which results in difficulties in regulating the output power to cope with the varying the load demand[8]. In order to design a mini-grid hybrid power system, one has to be provided with information for the selected location. Typical information’s required are; the load profile that should be met by the system, solar radiation for PV generation, wind speed for the wind power generation, initial cost for each component (diesel, renewable energy generators, battery, converter), cost of diesel fuel, annual interest rate, project lifetime, etc. Then using these data one can perform the simulation to obtain the best hybrid power system configuration. One of the available tools for this purpose is the HOMER software from NREL [6]. The HOMER Micropower Optimization Model is a computer model developed by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in the design of micropower systems and to facilitate the comparison of power generation technologies across a wide range of applications. HOMER models a power system’s physical behavior and its life-cycle cost, which is the total cost of installing and operating the system over its life span[9-10]. HOMER allows the modeler to compare many different design options based on their technical and economic merits. A micropower system is a system that generates electricity, and possibly heat, to serve a nearby load. Such a system may employ any combination of electrical generation and storage technologies and may be grid-connected or autonomous, meaning separate from any transmission grid. HOMER can model grid-connected and off-grid micropower systems serving electric and thermal loads, and comprising any combination of photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, small hydro, biomass power, reciprocating engine generators, microturbines, fuel cells, batteries, and hydrogen storage[11-14]. The analysis and design of micropower systems can be challenging, due to the large number of design options and the uncertainty in key parameters, such as load size and future fuel price. Renewable power sources add further complexity because their power output may be intermittent, seasonal, and nondispatchable, and the availability of renewable resources may be uncertain. HOMER was designed to overcome these challenges[15-19]. II. PROPOSED SYSTEM Mistah is a 10 houses village on the Little Zab river, 5km to the west of Al-Abbasy town in Kirkuk city in Iraq. The latitude and longitude of the village are 35° 20´ N and 43° 15´ E respectively as shown in Fig.1.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 220 HOMER software, has been used to find out the best energy efficient renewable based hybrid system options for Mistah village. The proposed design is shown in Fig.2. The total electrical load consumption is 395kWh/d. The load profile is shown in Fig.3. Figure 1: Mistah Village on the Little Zab river Figure 2: The proposed system
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 221 Figure 3: Village daily and seasonal load profile III. SOLAR POWER PROFILE Solar radiation for this study area was obtained from the NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy website [20]. An average solar radiation of 5.24kWh/m2 /day and a clearness index of 0.632 were identified for the village. The installation cost of PV array is taken $7000/kW and replacement cost is $6000/kW. Operation and maintenance (O&M) cost is $1000/year and lifetime is 25 years[21]. A derating factor of 80% is applied to each panel to account for the degrading factors caused by temperature, soiling, tilt, shading etc. The Global horizontal radiations are shown in Fig 4. Figure 4: Global horizontal radiation of study area IV. MICRO HYDRO TURBINE In the study area, the stream has a monthly average flow of 890 L/s, Fig.5. With design flow of 1500L/s (1.5 m3/s), 1.3m head and 75% efficiency, it is determined that a run-of-river type micro hydro plant of 15 kW rated capacity can be installed. The capital cost for the installation of micro hydro is taken as $20,000 with replacement cost of $18,000 and operation and maintenance (O&M)
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 222 cost of $300 per year Some useful calculation tools are available at the website of VA Tech Hydro, www.compact-hydro.com. The nominal electrical power generated by micro hydropower generator is 14.3 kW. Figure 5: Monthly average stream flow V. DIESEL GENERATOR The diesel generator size used in our case study is 25kW. The capital and replacement costs are $18 and $16 respectively. The life time is 15000 operating hours[4]. Fig.6 shows the diesel generator fuel and efficiency curve by Homer. Figure 6: Fuel and Efficiency curve for the diesel generator
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 223 VI. WIND TURBINE Wind resources are determined using the NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy database considering the wind direction at 15 meters above the surface of the earth. The database provides average wind speed is 4.19 m/s. Fig.7 shows the Technical information of the proposed wind turbine [15 ]. Monthly average wind speed is presented in Fig.8. Figure 7: Technical information of the proposed wind turbine Figure 8: Monthly average wind speed VII. BATTERY Homer uses DC battery to store the energy and retain the energy when peak load appears. It is assumed that battery property of battery remain constant throughout its lifetime and are not affected by external factors. Surrette 4kS25P is a deep cycle, high capacity, lead acid battery and is most suitable for renewable energy application [2].
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 224 VIII. CONVERTER The bidirectional converter costs $500/kW, has replacement cost of $400/kW and O&M cost of $500/yr for a lifetime of 15 years. The inverter and rectifier efficiencies are assumed to be 90% and 85% respectively [2]. The converter specifications were shown in Fig.9. Figure 9: The converter specifications IX. RESULTS To present optimization of distributed energy resources DERs includes distribution generation (solar PV array, wind energy, hydro and diesel generator) with battery backup and to provide a reliable, continuous, sustainable, and good-quality electricity service to the users in the village, we got 1104 simulation results when all the above components data were uploaded using HOMER model as shown in Fig. 10. Figure 10: Power system HOMER simulation results
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 225 CASE1: Diesel Generator The load is supplied by only diesel generator with 1% capacity shortage. Total NPC and cost of energy COE are $1,331,862 and 0.802$/kWh respectively. Cost summary is shown in Fig.11. Grid extension total cost NPC is lower than diesel generator supply NPC for distances below 65.9km as shown in Fig.12. In our case study load supply from the grid is cheaper because the distance to main power station is 5km. Figure 11: Cost summary (by cost type) for diesel generator Figure 12: Case1 Breakeven Grid Extension Distance= 65.9km diesel generator CASE 2: Wind, Hydro, Diesel Generator, Converter and Batteries. The hybrid power system consists of: Wind, Hydro, Diesel Generator, Converter and Batteries. As shown in Fig.13, total NPC and cost of energy COE are $705,643 and 0.422$/kWh. respectively.
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 226 Figure 13: Case 2 summary cost by type Grid extension total cost NPC is higher than case2 hybrid system supply NPC for distances more than 3.55km as shown in Fig.14. in our case study the distance is 5km to the main power station. Figure 14: Case2 Breakeven Grid Extension Distance= 3.55km CASE 3: PV, Wind, Hydro, Diesel Generator, Converter and Batteries The hybrid power system consists of: Wind, Hydro, Diesel Generator, Converter and Batteries. As shown in Fig.15, total NPC and cost of energy COE are $716,539 and 0.428$/kWh. respectively.
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 227 Figure 15: Case 3 summary cost by type Grid extension total cost NPC is higher than case3 hybrid system supply NPC for distances more than 4.63km as shown in Fig.16. in our case study the distance is 5km to the main power station. Figure 16: Case3 Breakeven Grid Extension Distance= 4.63km.
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 228 X. EMISSIONS HOMER calculates the emissions of the following six pollutants: Carbon dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Unburned Hydrocarbons, Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides. Table1 shows emissions of these pollutants result from: • the production of electricity by the generator(s) • the production of thermal energy by the boiler • the consumption of grid electricity Table 1: Pollutants emissions results Emissions Description Case1 [kg/yr] Case2 [kg/yr] Case3 [kg/yr] Carbon Dioxide Nontoxic greenhouse gas. 41,627 24,735 22,188 Carbon Monoxide Poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon in fuels. Prevents delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues, causing headaches, dizziness, and impairment of visual perception, manual dexterity, and learning ability. 127 75.2 67.5 Unburned Hydrocarbons Products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuel, including formaldehyde and alkenes. Lead to atmospheric reactions causing photochemical smog. 11.4 6.77 6.07 Particulate Matter A mixture of smoke, soot, and liquid droplets that can cause respiratory problems and form atmospheric haze. 7.75 4.61 4.13 Sulfur Dioxide A corrosive gas released by the burning of fuels containing sulfur (like coal, oil and diesel fuel). Cause respiratory problems, acid rain, and atmospheric haze. 83.7 49.7 44.6 Nitrogen Oxides Various nitrogen compounds like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) formed when any fuel is burned at high temperature. These compounds lead to respiratory problems, smog, and acid rain. 918 545 489 XI. CONCLUSIONS • Whenever the breakeven grid extension distance is less than 5km, the total NPC is cheaper than village grid alone connected power system. • Since the price of fossil fuel increases with the distance of the location, hybrid energy systems could be an appropriate technology to reduce fuel consumption and environmental hazards. • It was found that wind, hydro, diesel generator, converter and batteries hybrid system is the most economical solution for the given location.
  • 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 229 REFERENCES [1] Essam A. Al-Ammar, "Application of Using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia", Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 1, 4, 2011. [2] J. B. Fulzele, "Optimium Planning of Hybrid Renewable Energy System Using HOMER", International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol. 2, No. 1, February 2012, pp. 68-74. [3] M. Rizwan, "Renewable Energy Based Optimal Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation", Special Issue of International Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics (IJSDGE), V-2, I-1, 2, 2013. [4] Homestead Technology, 822 NW Murray Blvd. #127, Portland, Oregon 97229. URL: http://www.homesteadtechnology.com/ [5] G. Delvecchio, M. Guerra, C. Lofrumento, F. Neri, “A Study for Optimizing a Stand-Alone Hybrid Photovoltaic-Diesel System to Feed Summer Loads”, International Conference on Renewable Energy and Power Quality, ICREPQ, Spain, pp. 167-168, 2005. [6] A. A. Setiawan , C. V. Nayar, “Design of Hybrid Power System for a Remote Island in Maldives”, The Proceedings of the HOMER Webcast - NREL USA, 2006. [7] E. Mohamed, “Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for the Supply of Services in Rural Settlements of Mediterranean Partner Countries HYRESS project”, 4th European Conference PV-Hybrid and Mini-Grid 2008. [8] Zeinab Abdallah M., " Design and performance of photovoltaic power system as a renewable energy source for residential in Khartoum", International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 7(25), pp. 4036-4042, 29 June, 2012. [9] Susan W. Stewart, "Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems: Design Optimization Analysis and Tools', Applied Research Laboratory, Report for PSU,The Pennsylvania State University, 2010. [10] Rohit Sen, "Off-Grid Electricity Generation with Renewable Energy Technologies in India: An Application of Homer", University of Dundee, 2011. [11] T. Givler, "Using Homer Software to Explore the Role of Gen-Sets in Small Solar Power System in Sri Lanka", Technical Report NREL/TP-710-36774, May 2005. [12] M. J. Khan, "Pre-Feasibility Study of Stand-alone Hybrid Energy Systems for Applications in New Founded Land", Renewable Energy Journal, 30 (2005), 835–854. [13] K.R. Ajao, "Using Homer Power Optimization Software for Cost Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Solar Power Generator to Utility cost in Nigeria", www.arpapress.com /Volumes/Vol7Issue1/IJRRAS_7_1_14.pdf, 2011. [14] Abdulgadiri BeH, "Comparative Techno-Economic Analysis of Hybrid PV/ Diesel & Hybrid Wind/Diesel Energy Generation for Commercial Farm Land in Nigeria", International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), Volume-2, Issue-1, October 2012. [15] Rui Huang ," Optimal Design of Hybrid Energy System with PV/ Wind Turbine/ Storage: A Case Study", Virtual Power Plants, Distributed Generation, Microgrids, Renewable and Storage,IEEE Smart Grid Comm). [16] Gerry S., "Optimal Rural Microgrid Energy Management Using HOMER", International Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IJIET), Vol. 2 Issue 1 February 2013, pp 113-118. [17] S. Kreckelbergh, "Sizing and dynamic analyses of a micro-grid supplying a harbor industrial area", ICSTCC - System Theory, Control and Computing, Sinaia : Romania, 2012.
  • 13. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, July – August (2013), © IAEME 230 [18] Tom Lambert, "Micropowe System Modeling With Homer", Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy, by Felix A. Farret and M. Godoy Simoes Copyright # 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [19] Peter Asmus, " Microgrids, Virtual Power Plants and Our Distributed Energy Future", The Electricity Journal, Volume 23, Issue 10, December 2010, Pages 72–82. [20] NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy. http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/. Accessed May 2004. [21] Monthly average wind speed data for many cities around the world, available at www.weatherbase.com. [22] Some useful calculation tools are available at the website of VA Tech Hydro, www.compact- hydro.com. [23] For a useful website on all things microhydro, see www.microhydropower.net. [24] A.Srinivasa Rao, S.V.L.Narasimham and B.Suresh Kumar, “A Realistic Estimation of Energy Saving with Renewable Energy Sources in Domestic Sector”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 124 - 130, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. [25] Dr.S.M.Ali, Prof. K.K.Rout and Bijayini Mohanty, “Application of Renewable Energy Sources for Effective Energy Management”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 18 - 31, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. [26] M.Saisesha, V.S.N.Narasimharaju, R.Madhu Sudanarao and M.Balaji, “Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 200 - 207, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.