Design and estimation of rural road in vaddeswaram


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Design and estimation of rural road in vaddeswaram

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME306DESIGN AND ESTIMATION OF RURAL ROAD IN VADDESWARAMD.Satish Chandra1, Arjun Chhetri2, Sonam Wangchen3, Sri.Harsha Yadagani41(Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India)2(Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India)3(Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India)4(Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India)ABSTRACTRural road is basically defined as the road connecting rural areas with population lessthan 500 or population between 500 to 1000 or between 1000 to 1500.In India ‘PradhanMantra Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) provides rural connectivity to all habitations under theMinistry of Rural Development. The objective of this project is to design and estimate thetotal cost of construction of the rural road in vaddesearam. For which we have conducted soilsurvey in the study area (vaddeswaram).The experiments conducted on soil are dry sieveanalysis, CBR test, plastic limit, liquid limit and standard Procter test.Designing the roadbased on IRC SP 20.Design include designing thickness of layers, camber design, designspeed, roadway width and carriage way width selection. After the completion of design wehave selected appropriate materials and layers (base course-WMM, surfacing-Single coatsurface dressing with bitumen). Finally we projected the estimated quantities of materialsrequired, cost of materials, labour charges and cost of hiring for the construction.Keywords: rural road, soil survey, design, design speed, camber design, roadway width,WMM, surface dressing, estimation, cost of material.1. INTRODUCTIONRural roads play very important role in social economic development and povertyreduction in rural areas. Rural road construction helps in increasing agricultural output,economic growth and poverty reduction. [2] It brings development by creating opportunitiesINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 306-315© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME307to access goods and services located in nearby villages (or) major towns. Rural road providesalternative sources of income to the poor people and help them to increase their income,improve their living standards.The rural roads in India are in poor condition therefore Indian government haslunched pradhan mantra gram sadak yojana, December 2000 for the development of the ruralroads[1]. It provides connectivity to rural areas have population between 500 to 1000 andbetween 1000 to 1500.Public private partnership is another option for construction of ruralroads, in this type of construction private and government invest together for roadconstruction. Here the privates sector is attracted by giving some long term profit oninvestment. [3]For this paper designing of rural road is done following IRC-SP-20 code. We haveprovided an estimation of the cost of construction the rates could vary for different places.2. STUDY AREAVaddeswaramFig 1 study areaRoad detailsExisting road - earth road of length -1.5 km, No proper maintenance provided .The road is 6yrs old per the villagers.The common type of soil found in this area is black cotton. Average annual rainfall -1030mmHighest summer temperature-47 °C, lowest summer temperature-28 °, winter temperature-30°CLowest winter temperature-15°C.Locally available low grade materials which can be used forroad construction are: River gravels,Pit gravel, Laterite, Moorum and Soft stone/sand stone.Rocks available for road construction in the area are: Lime stone, Sand stone, quartzite andgranite.
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3083. OBJECTIVEThe objective of our project is to design the rural road following IRC-SP-20 codebook, selecting appropriate layers and materials. Estimating the materials required, estimatingthe total cost of construction of the road including labour charges and machinery hiringcharges.4. METHODOLOGYThe design of rural roads is done based on the rural road code book which is IRC SP20. The sequence for designing the rural road is first we have to conduct the soil survey underwhich experiments are conducted on the soil sample of the area where the road is to beconstructed. After the soil survey is done we get CBR values of the soil using which we candesign the road layer thickness requirement. Camber design, design speed, roadway widthand carriage way width is also design as per the recommendation in the code book.5. RESULTS OF THE TEST CONDUCTED ON THE SOIL5.1 Standard Procter compaction testFig 2 graph showing the optimum moisture contentResults: 1.optimum moisture content: 10%2. Maximum dry density of soil: 2.169
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3095.2 Dry sieve analysisFig 3.grain size distribution chart for road soilResults:• The soil is coarse grain soil as the percentage of fine is less the 50%• Coarse grain sand - 43.6 %• Medium grain sand -30.1%• Fine grained sand -23.9 %• Clay and slit -2.4%D60 =2.7 D30 =0.78 D10=0.25Coefficient of uniformity Cu =D60/D10 =10.8, Coefficient of curvature Cc= (D30)2/D60*D10=0.9Criteria for well graded soil: Cu > 4 & 1 < Cc < 3 (sand)As Cc is less than 1 it is not a well graded soil, it is poorly graded soil5.3 Liquid limitFig 4.graph for water content Vs no. of blows
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME310Results: Graph= (IF) = (W1-W2)/ (logN2/N1)(11.11-33)/ (log 9/36)= (-4.89/-0.60)=36%Liquid limit=17%5.4 Plastic limitLL=17 %Plastic limit =14.5%Plasticity index=LL-PL=2.5%Now from plasticity chart we found out that the soil is OL (organic low plasticity) or ML (slitlow plasticity).5.6 CBR Test on soil samplesCBR value for 2.5mm compression:(Calculated load at 2.5mm compression)/ (design load at 2.5mm compression)*100CBR value for 5mm compression:(Calculated load at 5mm compression)/ (design load at 5mm compression)*100Road soil for 2.5 mm=5.5*5*6.1=167.75, (167.75/1344)*100=12.48%Road soil for 5mm=12*5*6.1=366, (366/2016)*100=18.15%CBR = 18.15%6. DESIGN FOR THE STUDY AREA BASED ON IRC-SP-20Design for the study area based on IRC-SP-20Details of the study area.1. Average annual rainfall -1030 mm2. Number of commercial vehicle per day-203. Temperature of the area maximum-470C minimum-150C6.1 Calculating the thickness of layers to be provided for the roadCBR value of soil is 18.5%,Which is more then 15 % there is no need to provide subbase base layer can be directly layed.For our study area the number of commercial vehiclesper day is 20.As per the IRC SP 20:• A base layer thickness of 150 mm and single coat surface dressing.Fig 5 showing the thickness required as per IRC-SP-20
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME311• Base layer of -150mm and surfacing is required.• Road width - 6m as the number of vehicle per day is less than 100.• Carriageway width -3m.• Camber- 3.5 %.• Design speed of -40 km/hrFig. 6 showing the road cross section.7. SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE LAYERS FOR THE ROAD CONSTRUCTION1. Base layer – wet mix macadam (150mm)2. Surface coating-single coat surface dressing using bitumen7.1 Base layer –wet mix macadam layerWMM layer is a layer made out of crushed aggregates and water premixed at a wet mixplant.. Thickness of single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer shall not be less than 75 mm.Composition of aggregates -40MM -35%, 20MM -20%, 10MM 20% and Stone dust 25%.7.2 Surface dressing – Single coat surface dressing using bitumenIt is a layer consisting of thin layer of bitumen sprayed on top of base layer, on whichstone chips are spread and are roller compacted.Advantages of using surface dressing:Provides good sealing coat to the road surface, Provideshigh resistance to skidding hence accident hazards reduces, Less expensive and durablepavement.7.3 MaterialsBitumen which is less viscous is used such as 80/100. For easy and uniform spraying.This ensures proper coating and embedment of aggregate sprayed on it.Type of construction Nominal size of stone chips SpecificationSingle coat surface dressing 13.2 mm 100% passing through 22.4mmSieve and retaining on 11.2mm sieve.Table 1 showing the aggregate specification for single coat surface dressing
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3128. ESTIMATION AND COSTING FOR LAYING THE ROADQuantity estimationS.N DESCRIPTION L B D QTY UNITS1 WET MIX MACADAM 1500 3 0.15 675 Cum2SINGLE COAT SURFACEDRESSING USING BITUMEN 1500 3 4500 SQM3 SITE CLEARANCE 1500 6 9000 SQM8.1 Detailed estimationS.N DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY RATE AMOUNT1Preparation of the area for baselayer includes watering , rolling withvibrator roller and clearance ofvegetations if any presentSQM 9000 4 360002Providing stone aggregate to WETMIX Macadam specificationincluding cost, of all materials andpremixing the material with water atOMC in mechanical mix plantcarriage of mixed material by tipperto site as directed by the Engineer-in-charge. Cum 675 728.6 4918053Laying, spreading and compactinggraded crushed stone aggregate toWET MIX Macadam specificationlaying in uniform layers with paverin base courses on well preparedsurface and compacting withvibratory roller to achieve thedesired density etc. as directed by theEngineer in-charge Cum 1350 170 2295004Single coat surface dressing usingbitumen (13 mm nominal size chips) SQM 4500 27 121500total amount Rs.878805
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME3138.2 Labour and hire charges• for laying wet mix macadamS.N PARTICULARS QTY RATE AMOUNT1Mazdoor(beldar) for road clearanceand road preparation for laying baselayer 4 nos. 260.00 per day2Mazdoor(beldar) for laying andspreading the wet mix layer 5 nos. 260.00 per day3Mazdoor(beldar)for compaction ofthe layer ½ nos. 260.00 per dayTotal9½ nos. 260.00 per day 2470 per day4Pneumatic Road rollerPer Hour 10355Tipper-5.5Cum Transportation ofsoil,WMM etcPer Hour 629.80total amount Rs.4135• for laying Single coat surface dressing (with bitumen)S.N PARTICULARS QTY RATE AMOUNT1Mazdoor(beldar) for brushing andcleaning of the base layer 4 nos. 260.00 per day2Mazdoor(beldar) for heating andspreading of bitumen 4 nos. 260.00 per day3Mazdoor(beldar) for compaction ofthe layer ½ nos. 260.00 per dayTotal 8½ nos. 260.00 per day 2210 per day4Pneumatic Road rollerPer Hour 10355Tipper- 5.5 Cum Transportation ofbitumen and chips Per Hour 629.806Bitumen boiler oil fired BitumenSpraying Per Hour 1707Hydraulic Chip Spreader Surfacedressing Per Hour 2070total amount Rs.6115.0
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME314Total labour and hiring charges per day = Rs 10250For the total construction approximately it could take 2 days there for total labour and hiringcharges =Rs.20,500The total cost of construction including material charges labour and hiring charges is = Rs.8,99,305 ,3% for contingencies= Rs.26, 980,Net total cost of road construction =Rs.9, 26,2859. PERT CHARTFig 7 showing the pert chartActivities Duration1.Soil survey (soil tests) 5 days2.Design based on IRC-SP-20 2 days3.Checking for locally available materials 1 day4.Selection of layers for the road 1 day5. Estimating the total materials required andalso the total cost for laying the road includinglabour charges and machine hires.2 days6. Arrangements of labours and hiring ofconstruction equipments1 day7. Transporting the materials to the constructionsite1 ½ days8.Site clearance and laying the WMM layer 1 day9.Laying the surface dressing 1 dayMinimum days required for the construction 14 ½ days
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME31510. CONCLUSION• Construction of rural roads in India need attention as there are lots of villages whichare not connected and the villages which have road connection are in poor condition.• Locally available materials should be used for the construction of rural road so as tomake the construction economic.• Road layers can be constructed using certain types of municipal wastes hence makinguse of waste materials for construction.• Summary of the design for our study area road:1. Full length of road= 1.5km2. Roadway width= 6m3. Carriage way width=3m4. Base layer=WMM(wet mix macadam) 150 mm thickness5. Surface dressing=single coat surface dressing with bitumen6. Designed speed 40km/hr7. Camber =3.5%• The estimated cost for laying the above road costs Rs.9,26,285REFERENCESJournal Papers[1] Agarwal. P. K, Singh. A. P, Some strategies for sustainable maintenance of rural roadsin India, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Oct.-Dec., 2010,Vol I, Issue III.[2] Dominique.V.Walle, Choosing Rural Road Investments to Help Reduce Poverty,Elsevier Science Ltd, World Development, 2002 Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 575–589.[3] Sinha.A.B, Public private partnership in building rural infrastructure in India, JMInternational journal of management research, january,2010, Vol -1 Issue 2.[4] Bant Singh and Dr. Srijit Biswas, “Effect of E-Quality Control on Tolerance Limits inWmm & Dbm in Highway Construction - A Case Study”, International Journal ofAdvanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013,pp. 33 - 45, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.[5] T Subramani and P.K.Kumaresan, “Traffic Study on Road Network to Identify the ShortTerm Road Improvement Projects in Major Urban Centre”, International Journal ofAdvanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012,pp. 66 - 76, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.Books[6] Dr.K.R.Arora, Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering (standard publishersdistributors) ISBN: 81-8014-112-8.[7] Dutta. B.N., Estimating and costing 26 revised edition (UBS Publishers’ distributor’spvt.Ltd).[8] Kanna.S.K,Highway Engineering(Nem chand & bros,civil lines,Roorkee)2011, ISBN:978-81-85240-63-3Code Book[9] IRC-SP-20.Manual on route location design, construction and maintenance of rural road(Indian road congress).