Design and development of  rectangular microstrip
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Design and development of rectangular microstrip

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Design and development of rectangular microstrip Document Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 132 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR QUAD AND TRIPLE BAND OPERATION P. Naveen Kumar 1* , S.K. Naveen Kumar 1 and S.N.Mulgi 2 1 Department of Electronics, University of Mysore, P.G. Center, Hemagangothri, Hassan, Karnataka, India 2 Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585106, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT A novel design and development of rectangular microstrip antenna is realized for quad band operation from conventional rectangular microstrip antenna (CRMA) by loading slits on the conducting patch. The quad bands are achieved by incorporating three slits along the width of CRMA. The magnitude of each operating bands are 3.75%, 2.52%, 7.3%, and 5.36% respectively. Further these quad bands can be converted to triple bands by placing two slits along the length and one along the width of CRMA without changing the nature of radiation characteristics. This antenna gives 11.20%, 2.22% and 19.61% of impedance bandwidth at each operating band and enhances the gain. Details of the antenna designs are presented and experimental results are discussed. The proposed antennas may find application in radar communication systems. Keywords: quad band, triple band, impedance bandwidth, gain. 1. INTRODUCTION The microstrip antennas (MSAs) are becoming popular in all types of communication systems because of their attractive features and characteristics such as small size, light weight, low profile and easy to fabrication [1]. But the main limitations of MSAs are their narrow impedance bandwidth and lower gain. The antenna operating more than one band of frequencies are quite attractive because each band can be used independently for transmit/receive applications. Many researchers have disposed so many techniques in the literature to realize dual, triple or multiband operation of CRMA by aperture coupling [2], INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 132-138 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 133 corner truncation [3], shorting pins on the patch [4], using stacked patches [5] etc. Among all slot/slit loading is very simple, easy to incorporate and design. Realization of quad bands using slit along the width and length of CRMA and conversion of quad bands to triple bands without much changing the radiation characteristic is found to be rare in the literature. 2. DESIGNING The proposed antenna are designed using low cost glass epoxy substrate materials of thickness h=1.66mm, relative permittivity εr = 4.2. Figure 1 shows the geometry of (CRMA) which is designed by using basic equations available in the literature [1]. The antenna is designed for the resonant frequency of 4 GHz. The CRMA consists of radiating patch of length L and width W. The feed arrangement consists of quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt which is used for better impedance matching between the microstripline feed of length Lf , width Wf and center point (Cp) along the width of the rectangle microstripline patch. At the tip of microstrip line feed a 50 coaxial SMA connector is used for feeding the microwave power. Fig.1 Geometry of CRMA. Figure 2 shows the geometry of vertical slits rectangular microstrip antenna (VSRMSA). Here the three vertical slits are placed along the width of the patch at an equal distance from the non radiating edges of the patch. The upper vertical slit is placed at a distance 1.1cm and lower slits are placed at 0.69 cm from the edges of the patch. The length of the slit is taken as Ls which is equal to 0.75cm and width of the slits is Ws which is equal to 0.1cm. The dimensions of slits are taken in terms of λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelengths in cm corresponding to the design frequency of 4 GHz.
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 134 Fig. 2 Geometry of VSRMSA Figure 3 shows the geometry of horizontal slits rectangular microstrip antenna (HSRMSA) which is derived from VSRMSA. In this figure, the lower vertical slits used in VSRMSA are replaced horizontally and are located at the centre of non radiating edges of the patch. The design parameters of CRMA, VSRMSA and HSRMSA are given in Table 1. Table. 1 Designed parameters of CRMSA, VSRMSA and HSRMSA Fig. 3 Geometry of HSRMSA L = 1.68 cm W = 2.32cm Lt = 0.96cm Wt = 0.05cm Lf = 0.75cm Wf = 0.32cm Ls = 0.75cm Ws = 0.1cm
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 135 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The impedance bandwidth over return loss less than -10dB for the proposed antennas is measured on vector network analyzer. The variation of return loss versus frequency of CRMA is shown in Fig. 4. From this figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for single band of frequency BW1. The magnitude of BW1 is found to be 3.50% which is calculated by using the equation, ( )2 1 Bandwidth 100% c f f f −  = ×    where f2 and f1 are the upper and lower cutoff frequencies respectively, when its return loss reaches -10dB and fc is the center frequency between f1 and f2. Figure 5 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of VSRMSA. From this figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for quad band of frequencies BW2, BW3, BW4 and BW5. The magnitude of each operating band is found to be 3.75%, 2.52%, 7.3% and 5.36% respectively. The quad band operation is due to the independent resonance of patch and slits inserted on the conducting patch of VSRMSA [7]. Figure 6 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of HSRMSA. From this figure it is seen that, the antenna resonates for triple band of frequencies BW6, BW7 and BW8. The magnitude of each operating band is found to be 11.20%, 2.33% and 19.6% respectively. It is clear from the figure that, BW6 is increased from 3.75% to 11.20% when it is compared with the BW2 of Fig. 4 and also BW4 and BW5 shown in Fig. 5 are merges together and gives BW8 which is 19.6%. Hence the use of slits in HSRMSA is quite effective in converting the quad bands to triple bands and enhances the bandwidth at each operating bands. -20 -15 -10 -5 0 BW1 5420 ReturnLoss(dB) Frequency(GHz) Fig. 4 Variation of return loss versus frequency of CRMSA
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 136 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 BW5 BW4 BW3BW2 161412108642 ReturnLoss(dB) Frequency(Hz) Fig. 5 Variation of return loss versus frequency of VSRMSA The gain of the proposed antennas is measured by absolute gain method. The power transmitted Pt by pyramidal horn antenna power received Pr by antenna under test (AUT) is measured independently. With the help of these experimental data, the gain (G) in dB of AUT is calculated by using the formula, ( ) ( ) 0r tdB dB dBt λP = 10 log - - 20log P 4πR G G           where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and AUT. Using the above equation the maximum gain of the VSRMSA and HSRMSA is found to be 1.5 dB and 3.62 dB respectively. Hence HSRMSA is quite effective in enhancing the gain from 1.56 to 3.62 dB. -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 161410842 6 12 BW8 BW7 BW6 ReturnLoss(dB) Frequency(GHz) Fig. 6 Variation of return loss versus frequency of HSRSMA
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 137 The radiation patterns of antenna are measured in an anechoic chamber. The co-polar and cross-polar patterns in the E- plane and H- plane of the antenna are presented in Figure 7- 9. The E and H plane radiation pattern of antennas are broadsided in nature and are nearby same with each other. Fig. 7 E and H plane radiation patterns of CRMSA measured at 3.97 GHz Fig. 8 E and H plane radiation patterns of VSRMSA measured at 7.95 GHz Fig. 9 E and H plane radiation patterns of HSRMSA measured at 7.7 GHz 0-10-20-30-40-50 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 Eco of Antenna Hco of Antenna Ecross of Antenna Hcross of Antenna 0-10-20-30-40-50 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 Eco of Antenna Hco of Antenna Ecross of Antenna Hcross of Antenna 0-10-20-30-40-50 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 Eco of Antenna Hco of Antenna Ecross of Antenna Hcross of Antenna
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 138 4. CONCLUSION From the detailed experimental study it is concluded that, by using three vertical slits in CRMSA i.e. VSRMSA makes the antenna to resonate for quad band of frequencies and gives a peak gain of 1.56 dB. Further by replacing vertical slits into horizontal slits i.e. HSRMA the antenna converts quad bands to triple bands and gives a maximum impedance bandwidth of 19.6% in triple bands. This antenna also enhances the gain to 3.62 dB when compared to the gain of VSRMSA without changing much in the radiation characteristics. The proposed antennas are simple in their design and fabrication and they use low cost substrate material. These antennas may find application in radar communication systems. REFERENCES [1] I. J. Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip antennas, MA: Artech House, 1982. [2] M.N. Jazi, Z.H. Firouzeh, H.M. Sadeghi and G. Askari, “Design and implementation of aperture coupled microstrip IFF antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, Vol.4, No.1, 1-5, 2008. [3] N. Kulkarni, S. N. Mulgi and S. K. Satnoor, “Design and development of corner truncated U and inverted U-Slot multiband tunable rectangular microstrip antenna”, Progress In Electromagnetic Research Letters, Vol. 29, 185-199, 2012. [4] S.C. Pan and K.L.Wong, “Dual frequency triangular microstrip antenna with a shorting Pin”, IEEE trans Antennas Propag., pp.1889,1997. [5] K.Oh, B. Kim and J. Choi, “Design of dual and wideband aperture stacked patch antenna with double-sided notches”, Electron Lett., (UK), 40, pp.643, 2004. [6] J. Y. Sze and K. L. Wong, (2000). “Slotted rectangular microstrip antenna for bandwidth Enhancement”, IEEE Trans. Antennas & Propagat., Vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1149-1152. [7] Q.Q. Wong, B.Z and J.He, “Wideband and dual-band design of a printed dipole antenna IEEE Antennas Wireless propag Letter, pp.1, 2008. [8] Nagraj Kulkarni and S. N. Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Inverted U - Slot Triple Band Tunable Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Wlan Applications”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 - 9, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [9] M.Veereshappa and Dr.S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Development of Triple Band Ominidirectional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.