Delineation of irrigation infrastructural, potential and land use
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Delineation of irrigation infrastructural, potential and land use Delineation of irrigation infrastructural, potential and land use Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME1DELINEATION OF IRRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURAL, POTENTIALAND LAND USE/ LAND COVER OF MUZAFFARNAGAR BY USINGREMOTE SENSING AND GISMohammed Hashim AmeenM. Tech. ScholarDepartment of Civil EngineeringShepherd School of Engineering & TechnologySHIATS-DUNaini, Allahabad, U. P. - 211007, IndiaDr. R. K. PandeyProfessor, Department of Civil EngineeringShepherd School of Engineering & TechnologySHIATS-DUNaini, Allahabad, U.P.-211007, IndiaABSTRACTThe present study has been conducted with an aim of assessing irrigationinfrastructure created in Muzaffarnagar district of Utter Pradesh state of India using cartosatsatellite data. This study deals with results of satellite data analysis of Muzaffarnagar canalinfrastructure. Orthorectified Cartosat data was utilized to extract irrigation infrastructure(canal network). Based on the satellite derived information in terms of number of canals, theirphysical status, irrigation potential created was assessed by comparing with canal wiseirrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in asystematic geo-database using a schema developed for the project. The main canal irrigationsystem are Tikri Branch , Nirpura Branch, Kurthal Branch, Sujti minor, Doghat minor,Bhagwanpur minor, Bhadal minor, Gaidbra minor and Milana minor. Satellite derivedirrigation infrastructure assessment indicates that the most of the canals are matching with thedesign length. But Gadidbra minor has shortage of length. Official length was 5.55 kmwhereas satellite derived length was observed to be only 3.33 km. Therefore potential wasalso observed to be less in case of Gadidbra minor. Satellite derived irrigation potential is 285INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 01-11© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME2ha where as official was 570 ha. Based on the satellite derived irrigation infrastructure status,the irrigation potential of the entire canal is estimated is 11355 ha against the official data of11600 ha.Land cove of the study area has also been calculated to find out area statistics.Supervised classification techniques were used to show the total geographical area ofMuzaffarnagar that is 19481.34 ha out of which 9474.91 ha is Agricultural land. It has alsobeen found that about 243.61 ha area covered by water body. The barren land comprises of7313.06 ha and settlement is 2449.74ha.1. INTRODUCTIONIrrigation in a tropical, developing country like India has been practiced overcenturies. Here it needs to be noted that irrigation does not just means large scale storage andtransfer of water over long distances, as it has come to mean for engineer dominated visionand works of our times. A storage and transfer dominated perspective also neglects thecrucial parts of irrigation, namely actual users and dynamics of society, soil characteristicsand cropping practices. The issue is provision of required water to required crops at optimumtimes in cropped areas. This does not necessarily mean transferring water over largedistances. The process of irrigation is not only the transfer of water, but also the constructionof structures, which store, harvest or hinder the natural flow of water. Any humanintervention in the natural hydrological flow for the purpose of providing water to the soil orthe plan for crop production has to be included in the definition of irrigation.Developing irrigation resources requires a lot of financial and environmental cost tothe society, and therefore, non-utilization of irrigation leads to wastage of precariousresources on the one hand, and loss of opportunity to increase the agricultural production, andsubsequently the income of the rural producers, on the other. Accordingly, necessary stepsare required immediately to minimize the gap between irrigation potential creation andutilization from the existing irrigation resources, before rolling out the investment in thecreation of new irrigation resources.Remote sensing has enabled mapping, studying, monitoring and management ofvarious resources like agriculture, forestry, geology, water, ocean etc. It has further enabledin monitoring of environment and thereby helping in conservation. In the last four decades ithas grown as a major tool for collecting information on almost every aspect on the earth.With the availability of very high spatial resolution satellites in the recent years, theapplications have multiplied. In India remote sensing has been used for various applicationsduring the last four decades and has contributed significantly towards development.Geographic Information System (GIS) can integrate Remote Sensing and different data setsto create a broad overview of potential irrigable area. While the remotely sensed image of anarea gives a true representation of an area based on land cover / used, grid interpolatedclimate data serves many purposes and used as climatic data base where meteorological datafrom gauging networks are not adequate. The topographic and hydrologic attributes of landand landscape such as slope, aspect and watershed modeling can be derived directly from theDEM. They are point elevation data stored in digital computer files.However, these factors should be assessed in an integrated manner, geo-referencedand mapped for surface irrigation development possibilities. With an adequate database,Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can serve as a powerful analytic and decision-makingtool for irrigation development.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME31.2 Case Study of Muzaffarpur NagarMuzaffarnagar district is rectangular in shape, lying between 29°11′30″N and29°45′15″N and between 77°3′45″E and 78°7′E. Its total area is 4049 km2. The greatestlength of district, from east to west is 97.6 km and its greatest breadth from north to south57.6 km the average length and breadth are about 85 km and 50 km respectively. It has anaverage elevation of 232 metres. The district is covered by two major holy rivers from twosides; in the east there is the Ganges and in the west there is the Yamuna. The neighboringdistricts, Shamli district to its west and Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh to the east, respectively;Saharanpur and Meerut districts are to its north and south. It is located 125 kilometers N-Wof the national capital, Delhi and roughly 200 kilometers S-E of Chandigarh.1.3 MethodologyThe basic approach for the assessment of irrigation potential creation in a project isthrough identification and mapping of irrigation canal network and providing the status (w.r.t.the completion/ incompletion/ pending) of the entire conveyance and distribution system,various irrigation & drainage structures etc.Project command area maps and relevant ground/field information was used for preciseboundary delineation of study area. This area mask was then used for Cartosat satellite dataacquisition planning and procurement.Fig. 1 Flowchart of Methodology followed in this work1.4 Satellite DataThe satellite data was used in the study. Cartosat PAN Sensor data was used whichhas a spatial resolution of 2.5m. Since the study area was covered in many paths of Cartosatsatellite data acquisition (each path is covered separately in a different day as per orbital
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME4calendar), cloud free data was acquired in different time windows depending upon theoverpass of satellite. Each scene is ortho corrected; geo-referenced and suitable Imageenhancements are applied to facilitate the delineation and interpretation of different thematicinformation.Table 1 Information of Cartosat satellite dataSatellite CartosatSensor PanDatum WGS84Spatial Resolution 2.5 mTemporal Resolution 5 daysRadiometric resolution 10 bitSwath 30 m (PAN)2. RESULTSThe main distributaries in tons pump canal irrigation system are Jari, Akodha,Bhunda, Jogani, Karchana and Naini. The satellite based assessment of irrigationinfrastructure & irrigation potential is discussed in this report separately for eachDistributary.2.1 Irrigation InfrastructureThe summary of the irrigation infrastructure assessment in different branches of Tonspump canal is provided below:2.1.1 Tikri Branch: It has been found during our field visit that off take of Tikri Branch is40.230 km from the main canal. It has also been observed that Sujti minor, Doghat minor,Bhagwanpur minor direct off taking from Tikri branch at the distance of 2.040, 9.50 and12.00 km respectively. Official report for length of Tikri branch is 16.600 km which is muchcloser to satellite derived length. Interpretation of satellite images indicates that the Sujtiminor and Doghat minor is 11.923 km and 8.514 km respectively. But, Bhagwanpur minor isincomplete and appear to be under construction. Official length of Bhagwanpur minor is4.710 km whereas satellite derived length is observed to be 4.619 km.2.1.2 Nirpura Branch: Off take of Nirpura branch is 40.230 km from main canal. It has beenobserved that official length of Nirpura Branch is 16.640 km whereas satellite derived lengthis observed to be 16.400 km. It has been seen that Gadidbra minor has shortage of length.Official length was 5.55 km whereas satellite derived length was observed to be only 3.33km. Off take of Gadidbra minor is from Nirpura branch which is at the distance of 7.200 km.2.1.3 Kurthal Branch: Official length of Kurthal branch is 13.550 km whereas satellitederived length is 13.972 km. There are two minors, namely; Bhadal and Milana minor isderived from Kurthal branch. Official length of Bhadal minor is 7.200 km whereas satellitederived distance is 7.330 km. On the other hand official length of Milana minor is 13.700 kmwhereas satellite derived length is 13.706 km.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME5Table 2 Delineation of Irrigation Canal InfrastructureLevelOfficialProposed Canallength (Km )Satellite Derivedcanal length(Km)Tikri Branch 16.6 16.822Sujti Minor 11.8 11.923Doghat Minor 8.2 8.514Bhagwanpur Minor 4.71 4.419Nirpura Branch 16.64 16.4Gadidbra Minor 5.55 3.333Kurthal Branch 13.55 13.972Bhadal Minor 7.2 7.33Milana Minor 13.7 13.706Fig 2 Official Proposed Canal length (Km)/ Satellite Derived canal length (Km)2.2 Irrigation PotentialBased on the satellite derived irrigation infrastructure status, the irrigation potentialestimated is 11040 Ha against the target potential of 11600 Ha. Hence there is 560Ha balanceirrigation potential which is yet to be created in the canal area. The information about thecanal wise irrigation potential created is provided in Table 2.2.2.1 Tikri Branch: Irrigation Potential of Tikri branch have three (Doghat, Bhagwanpur,Sujti) minors. Satellite based assessment of Tikri branch have shortage of length, thereforeirrigation potential was observed to be less than the official observation. Irrigation Potentialof official data is 1590 ha but Irrigation Potential was observed to be only 1585 ha, withusing satellite data.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME62.2.2 Nirpura Branch: Irrigation Potential of Nirpura branch have one (Gadidbra Minor)minor. Satellite based assessment of Nirpura branch has same length of official data.Therefore irrigation potential was observed to be similar than the official observation.Irrigation Potential of official data and satellite derived Irrigation Potential was observed tobe similar i.e. 3090 ha. But Gadidbra Minor shows less irrigation potential than the officialdata because of the shortage of length. It has been observed that satellite derived irrigationpotential is 285 ha where as official was 570 ha.2.2.3 Kurthal Branch: Irrigation Potential of Kurthal branch has tow (Bhadal and Milana)minors. Satellite based assessment of Kurthal branch have shortage of length, thereforeirrigation potential was observed to be less than the official observation. Irrigation Potentialof official data is 1470 ha but Irrigation Potential was observed to be only 1280 ha, usingsatellite data.Table 3 Statistics of Irrigation PotentialLevelPlannedProposedIrrigationPotential (ha)Satellite DerivedIrrigationPotential (ha)Tikri Branch 1590 1505Sujti Minor 1390 1390Doghat Minor 520 520Bhagwanpur Minor 500 500Nirpura Branch 3090 3090Gadidbra Minor 570 285Kurthal Branch 1470 1280Bhadal Minor 640 640Milana Minor 1830 1830Fig 3 Planned Proposed Irrigation Potential (ha)/ Potential Satellite Derived IrrigationPotential
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME7Fig 4 Satellite image showing of irrigation infrastructure of study areaFig 5 Incomplete canal of Gaidbra minor shown in satellite image
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME8Fig 6 Irrigation infrastructure of study areaFig 7 Incomplete canal of Gaidbra minor3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT LAND USE /LAND COVER CLASSESOF MUZAFFARNAGAR STUDY AREA USING SUPERVISED CLASSIFICATIONThe technique using supervised classification showed the total geographical area ofMuzaffarnagar is 19481.34 ha out off 9474.92 ha is Agricultural area. In this respect theAgricultural area covered 48.64% of the area. It also been found that about 243.62 ha(1.25%) of area covered by Water body. The barren land comprises of 7313.1 ha that is37.54% of study area. The area covered by Settlement is 2449.74 ha (12.57). Statistics of
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME9study area is shown in table Land use/ land cover of study area using supervisedclassification.Table 4 Area statistics of land use / Land cover mapLand Cover Area (ha) Area (%)Agriculture 9474.9175 48.64%Water body 243.61688 1.25%Barren 7313.0688 37.54%Settlement 2449.7413 12.57%Fig 8 Area statistics of land use / Land cover mapFig 9 Land use and land cover of Mujaffarnagar
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME104. CONCLUSIONSatellite data was used for assessing the irrigation potential created, through mappingof irrigation infrastructure consisting of canal network cross drainage and other relatedirrigation structures. Also land use land cove mapping was done using cartosat data.4.1 Identification and mapping of existing irrigation network with main canal / branch canal/distributaries/ minor & sub minors was done from the satellite image through onscreendigitization using ERDAS IMAGINE image processing software and Arc GIS software bydisplaying the image at 1:4000 to 1:2000 scales. The above irrigation infrastructures wereidentified and mapped using the image interpretation key. Then random ground checks weremade for verification and confirmation of image interpretation details.4.2 In this study it has been seen that most of the distributaries and minors are complete. But,Gadidbra minor has shortage of length.Official length was 5.55 km whereas satellite derivedlength was observed to be only 3.33km. During our field visit GPS has been used and wasobserved that at the tail end of the Gadidbra minor is not complete.4.3 Gadidbra Minor shows less irrigation potential than the official data because of theshortage of length. It has been observed that satellite derived irrigation potential is 285 hawhereas official was 570 ha.4.4 Supervised classification technique were used to showed the total geographical area ofMuzaffarnagar that is 19481.34ha out off which 9474.91ha is Agricultural land. In thisrespect the Agricultural area covered 48.64% of the area. It has also been found that about243.61ha (1.25%) of area covered by Water body. The barren land comprises of 7313.06ha(37.54%). The area covered by Settlement is 2449.74 ha (12.57%).4.5 The modern geospatial techniques of Remote Sensing and GIS with high spatialresolution data are useful to check the infrastructure development of canal.4.6 Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been very effective. It consumes less time and itis the cheapest and accurate tool for mapping of canal infrastructure development.4.7 Apart from all the advantage of remote sensing and GIS for infrastructure development ofcanal it has also some limitation. In case of very minor changes in canal structure might notbe identified. To come out with these problems one has to do very extensive field visit andusing high spatial resolution data to minimize error.REFERENCES1. Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., and Ross, L. G. (1995), “Geographical information system (GIS)environmental models for aquaculture development in Sinaloa State”, AquacultureInternational, Mexico 3:103-115.2. Gupta, A. P. Harboe, R. and Tabucanon, M. T. (2000), “Fuzzy multiple-criteria decisionmaking for crop area planning in Narmada river basin”, Agricultural Systems, Vol. 63, pp1-18.3. Ayana, TenaAlamirew, (2007), “Water Resources and Irrigation Development in Ethiopia”,IWMI Working Paper 123.4. Suresh Babu, A. V. Shanker, M. Venkateshwar Rao, V., (2012), “Satellite DerivedGeospatial Irrigation Performance Indicators for Benchmarking Studies of IrrigationSystems”, National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Department of Space, Government ofIndia, Hyderabad, India.
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