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1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 560 CUED CLICK POINT IMAGE BASED KERBEROS AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL Pathan Mohd. Shafi1 , Dr Syed Abdul sattar2 , Dr. P. Chenna Reddy3 1 Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engineering, Pune 2 Royal Institute of Technology and Science R. R. Dist. 3 JNTU College of Engineering, Pulivendula. ABSTRACT By enforcing access control mechanisms, secure environments protect their resources against unauthorized access. When security is high priority issue, text based passwords are not sufficient. The access provided with the help of only text password is not effective and secure enough. The need for something more secure along with being user friendly is required. The integration of cued click point (CCP) with the Kerberos authentication protocol is a solution. The proposed work combines all the benefits of text based password authentication system with CCP and the Kerberos authentication protocol. Administrator will give the credential according to the need of the user. Kerberos credentials will give the proper login to the system as well as application. User can access the designed system as well as other applications.In this system a password consists of sequence of some images in which user can select one click-point per image. In addition user will be asked to select a sound signature. This sound signature will be used to help the user to signify that the login to the system is successful or not. Keywords: Authentication Server, Cued Click Point, Extensible Pre-Authentication, Key Distribution Center, Service granting ticket, Single Sign On, Network LAN Manager I. INTRODUCTION The problems of knowledge-based authentication, typically text-based passwords, are well known. Users often create memorable passwords that are easy for attackers to guess. Strong system-assigned passwords are difficult for users to remember. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June (2013), pp. 560-569 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 561 A password authentication system should encourage strong passwords while maintaining memorability. We propose that authentication schemes allow user choice while influencing users toward stronger passwords. In our system, the task of selecting weak passwords (which are easy for attackers to predict) is more tedious, discouraging users from making such choices. In effect, this approach makes choosing a more secure password, the path of least resistance. Rather than increasing the burden on users, it is easier to follow the system’s suggestions for a secure Password a feature lacking in most schemes. We applied this approach to create the click-based graphical password system, Cued Click-Points (CCP). This systematic examination provides a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of CCP covering both usability and security issues, to advance understanding as is prudent before practical deployment of new security mechanisms. Additional security in our paper is provided by Kerberos protocol which is a computer network authentication protocol which works on the basis of "tickets" to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. Its designers aimed primarily at a client–server model, and it provides mutual authentication of both client and server. Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdropping and replay attacks. II. RELATED WORK Text passwords are the most popular user authentication method, but have security and usability problems. Alternatives such as biometric systems and tokens have their own drawbacks. Graphical passwords offer another alternative. Passwords are plagued with security and usability problems. Technical solutions such as imposing minimum password requirements, and encryption and communication algorithms, for protecting passwords in transit and storage, have not resolved the human factor problems with password based authentication. While alternative authentication mechanisms such as biometrics are widely known, these have their own security, privacy, and usability problems that limit their use to special applications. AUTHENTICATION Using Renaud's model, the authentication process can be described as three phases: identification, authentication, and authorization. We classify authentication mechanisms according to the following categories, primarily based on Renaud's model: Something you know (recall): Users must recall and correctly enter their secret to authenticate themselves. Something you recognize (recognition): The system provides cues and the user must correctly recognize the secret. Something you are (static biometrics): Biometrics measure some unique physical characteristic of the user. These are more difficult to forge than the first two categories. Something you do (behavioral biometrics): Some unique behavioral characteristic of the user can also be measured. Users authenticate by repeating the required action. Something you have (tokens): Users must carry a token to be presented for authentication.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 562 Where you are (location-based authentication): Location information can be used to determine if a user is attempting to authenticate from an approved location. This is typically used as a secondary check to identify suspicious login activities. TEXT PASSWORDS AND PASSWORD PROBLEM Despite the large number of options for authentication, text passwords remain the most common choice for several reasons. Text passwords are easy and inexpensive to implement, and are familiar to most users. However, text passwords also have a number of the inadequacies from both security and usability viewpoints, such as being difficult to remember and being predictable if user-choice is allowed. Furthermore, phishing and other social engineering attacks on passwords have increased dramatically over the past few years since text passwords are easy for users to unintentionally reveal to attackers, complicating matters further. CLICK-BASED GRAPHICAL PASSWORDS Graphical password systems are a type of knowledge-based authentication that attempts to leverage the human memory for visual information. A comprehensive review of graphical passwords is available elsewhere. Of interest herein are cued-recall click-based graphical passwords (also known as locimetric). In such systems, users identify and target previously selected locations within one or more images. The images act as memory cues to aid recall. Example systems include Pass Points and Cued Click- Points (CCP). The claimed advantages are that password entry becomes a true cued-recall scenario, wherein each image triggers the memory of a corresponding click-point. III. KERBEROS PROCESS DETAILS Kerberos gets its name from Greek mythology. Cerberus, also known as Kerberos, was a three headed beast that guarded the Underworld and kept the living from entering the world of the dead Kerberos protocol design began in the late 1980s at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as part of project Athena. It is a secure authentication mechanism designed for distributed systems, which assumes the network is unsafe. It enables a client and a server to mutually authenticate before establishing a connection. The first public release was Kerberos version 4, which leads to the actual version (v5) in 1993 after a wide public review. It followed the IETF standard process and its specifications are defined in Internet RFC 1510. Originally designed for UNIX, it is now available for all major operating systems, freely from MIT and also through commercial versions. Kerberos is a network authentication protocol based on conventional cryptography that relies on symmetrical cryptographic algorithms that use the same key for encryption and decryption..
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 563 Fig1: Steps involved in Kerberos authentication protocol It basically involves three primary phases when a client wishes to authenticate to an application server. Phase 1: LOGIN / Requesting Ticket Granting ticket (TGT): In the first phase, the client sends a request to the Kerberos Authentication Server (AS) requesting a ticket granting ticket (tgs) and this tgs can be used in the second phase with the Ticket Granting Server (TGS). The AS replies with a message consisting of a ticket granting ticket ticket(tgs) of lifetime lifetime2 and an encrypted component containing a fresh session key Kc,tgs to be shared between the client and the TGS. Another copy of this session key is contained in the Ticket granting ticket and is encrypted using the long-term secret key of the TGS Ktgs which is shared between TGS and Kerberos infrastructure (the AS can access the database of Kerberos infrastructure). The information directed to the client is encrypted under the client's long-term secret key KC. Phase 2: Requesting Service Granting Ticket (SGT): In the second phase, the client forwards the ticket granting ticket, along with an authenticator Authenticator C1 which is encrypted with the session key Kc,tgs obtained in the first phase to the TGS. TGS replies a service ticket to be used in the third phase with the application server. The TGS is expected to reply with a message consisting of an application server ticket ticketV of lifetime lifetime4 and an encrypted component containing a fresh session key Kc,v to be shared between the client and the application server. Another copy of this session key is contained in the application server ticket ticketV and is encrypted using the long-term secret key of the application server KV which is shared between the application server and the Kerberos infrastructure (the TGS can access the database of the Kerberos infrastructure). The information sent to the client is encrypted with the session key of the first stage Kc,tgs. Phase 3: Requesting application server / specific service: In the third phase, the client sends the application server ticket ticketV, along with a new authenticator AuthenticatorC2 encrypted with the session key obtained in the second phase Kc,v, to the application server, requesting certain service. The application server ticket plus the secret session key are the client's credentials to be authenticated to a specific application server. If all credentials are correct, the application server will authenticate the client and provide the service. The acknowledgement message from the application server is optional and is used only when the system requires mutual authentication by the application server.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May ANALYSIS OF KERBEROS WEAKNESSES Vulnerability to password guessing attacks attacks. The Kerberos message includes material encrypted with a key password. An opponent can capture passwords. Dependency on system clock involved in the protocol should be synchronized. The tickets have a time the host clock is not synchronized with the Kerberos server clock, the Continuous availability of the KDC KDC. When the KDC is down, the system will suffer from the single point of failure problem. Lack of standards to explain administration of the Kerberos protocol. This will differ between server implementations IV. PROPOSED MODEL OF CUED CLICK POINT IMAGE BASED KERBEROS (CCPIBK) This system is designed to curb above mentioned deficiencies in setting graphical password by providing the user with cued click points in graphical password. Sound signature has been added to help user in remembering the graphical passwords. Kerberos authentication provides solution to network related security issues. In image based graphical password system user will select five images from database and selects a click point in each image. Those click points, collectively, will be the password for user and they will be saved along with other information. Fig 2: When user tries to login the application, he must click on the selected click points. System will proceed if and only if all the click points are selected correctly will be protected in the backend by Kerberos protocol which will the process. Steps: 1) GIVING USER CREDENTIALS Administrator will give the credential types: 1. Kerberos credentials: These credentials will give proper login to access the designed system as well as other applications. 2. Guest credentials: These credentials will not give access to the designed system but can access the other applications of the system. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 564 ANALYSIS OF KERBEROS WEAKNESSES Vulnerability to password guessing attacks - Kerberos is vulnerable to password guessing Kerberos message includes material encrypted with a key based on the client's password. An opponent can capture this message and attempt to decrypt it by trying various Dependency on system clock synchronization – The system clock of the hosts that are should be synchronized. The tickets have a time availability period and if synchronized with the Kerberos server clock, the authentication will fail. ontinuous availability of the KDC – Kerberos requires continuous availability of the KDC. When the KDC is down, the system will suffer from the single point of failure problem. Lack of standards to explain administration – There are no standards to explain the administration of the Kerberos protocol. This will differ between server implementations. PROPOSED MODEL OF CUED CLICK POINT IMAGE BASED KERBEROS This system is designed to curb above mentioned deficiencies in setting graphical by providing the user with cued click points in graphical password. Sound signature has been added to help user in remembering the graphical passwords. Kerberos authentication provides solution to network related security issues. password system user will select five images from database and selects a click point in each image. Those click points, collectively, will be the password for user and they will be saved along with other information. 2: System architecture of CCPIBK to login the application, he must click on the selected click points. System will proceed if and only if all the click points are selected correctly and this entire process will be protected in the backend by Kerberos protocol which will generate a ticket to authenticate GIVING USER CREDENTIALS Administrator will give the credentials according to the need of the user. The credentials are of 2 Kerberos credentials: These credentials will give proper login to the system. User can access the designed system as well as other applications. Guest credentials: These credentials will not give access to the designed system but can access the other applications of the system. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- June (2013), © IAEME vulnerable to password guessing based on the client's this message and attempt to decrypt it by trying various of the hosts that are availability period and if authentication will fail. Kerberos requires continuous availability of the KDC. When the KDC is down, the system will suffer from the single point of failure problem. the administration PROPOSED MODEL OF CUED CLICK POINT IMAGE BASED KERBEROS This system is designed to curb above mentioned deficiencies in setting graphical by providing the user with cued click points in graphical password. Sound signature has been added to help user in remembering the graphical passwords. Kerberos authentication password system user will select five images from database and selects a click point in each image. Those click points, collectively, will be the password for user to login the application, he must click on the selected click points. and this entire process generate a ticket to authenticate according to the need of the user. The credentials are of 2 the system. User can Guest credentials: These credentials will not give access to the designed system but can
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 565 2) FIXING TOLERANCE LEVEL Tolerance level will be selected by the user himself. Basically, tolerance level signifies the precision of the selected cued click point. Tolerance level is the distance from the coordinates along X and Y axis forming a square around the coordinate. Every point inside the area of the square will be taken as correct coordinate. Greater the tolerance level, bigger will be the square and easier will be the password. User with impaired vision or in general, users who want lesser accuracy can select bigger tolerance level. 3) SELECTING PIXEL COORDINATES In registration process, user selects five images and click on any coordinate of his/her choice in each image. Selected coordinates are stored in the database for that particular user. While accessing system, tolerance level will be added to the selected coordinates and user must select the cued click points i.e. click points in all five images, within the tolerance square. System will not proceed if any of the click point is outside the tolerance square. 4) PROFILE GENERATION The proposed system creates two profile vectors. One is master vector which contains user ID(text password), sound signature and tolerance value. Other type of profile is detailed vector consisting of images and click points. 5) SECURITY QUESTION During registration phase, user will be asked a personal security question which will be used to identify user in case he/she forgets text or graphical password. ALGORITHMS Algorithm 1. : CUED CLICK POINT AUTHENTICATION (SETTING PASSWORD) In this module, user selects cued images as the password. i. Authorized user signs up and get in to the system. ii. Uploads an image from the system hard drive. iii. Selects a point in the image as the password and presses done if he doesnot want more images. Else iv. user clicks on next image and repeat process 1 to 3 Algorithm 2.: CUED CLICK POINT AUTHENTICATION (LOG IN) i. enter userID and submit. ii. user clicks on the image. If click point is correct then proceed to next image. iii. Else system does not proceed. If all click points are correct ,system log in to the application Algorithm 3.: TOLERANCE LEVEL 1) New x=user given x click point New y=user given y click point Old x= system defined x click point including tolerance Level Old y= system defined y click point including tolerance level Ans = user given click point(New x,New y) including tolerance level 2) Ans = sqrt(New x—Old x)*( New x—Old x)+ (New y—Old y)*( New y—Old y) 3) If (Ans == user given click point) then the user given click point will get accepted and the new image will get loaded. Else The error message will get displayed after the complete click point selection. Algorithm 4.: KERBEROS AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL i. Add a new user to the Active Directory. ii. Administrator will give the credential according to the need of the user. iii. The new user will now be successfully created. The authentication will be done with help of username. Kerberos will do the username registration not the computer registration.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 566 V. ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED SYSTEM The claimed advantages are that password entry becomes a true cued-recall scenario, wherein each image triggers the memory of a corresponding click-point. Remembering the order of the click-points is no longer a requirement on users, as the system presents the images one at a time. CCP also provides implicit feedback claimed to be useful only to legitimate users. When logging on, seeing an image they do not recognize alerts users that their previous click-point was incorrect and users may restart password entry. Explicit indication of authentication failure is only provided after the final click-point, to protect against incremental guessing attacks. COMPARISON WITH UFL-IBA AND JUIT-IBA Images are highlighted when mouse moves on them and this makes it to prone the shoulder attack In CCPIBK images are not highlighted and moreover clickpoint is not generated. Each subsequent image is determined by the user’s previous location. So system requires more efforts which is not true in our case. In CCP it is found that users are less likely to select password in predictable pattern. We tested CCPIBK with 25 users, repeated the study on UFL-IBA and JUIT-IBA Table 5.1: Performance comparisons between UFL-IBA and JUIT-IBA and CCPPIBK System UFL-IBA JITIBA CCPIBK Participant 25 25 25 Trials 165 165 165 Successful login on first trial 50 % 58 % 73 % Mean login error per trial 2.95 2.08 0.51 Mean create time 42.2 43.1 44.2 Mean login time 47.9 48.66 36.7 Above table shows that CCPIBK implementation resulted in higher success rate and fewer errors without lengthening login times. User testing and analysis showed no evidence of patterns in CCP, so pattern-based attacks seem ineffective. Although attackers must perform proportionally more work to exploit hotspots, results showed that hotspots remained a problem. Many strategies exist for attacking authentication systems. No system offers perfect security; therefore schemes must be evaluated according to their vulnerabilities. For a particular attack strategy, it is possible to compare the susceptibility of different schemes. In practice, the likelihood of such attacks cannot be accurately predicted since it is unknown what attackers may target next. We now identify several possible attack models for password systems. Dictionary attack: we are using image as password. Dictionary attack is not possible as there are no image dictionaries. Exhaustive (brute-force) Attack: Exhaustive attacks can be executed in a similar manner to dictionary attacks, except that every possible password permutation is generated and used to attack the real passwords. In a more sophisticated attack, these permutations may also be prioritized in order of decreasing probability of being selected by users. Images are identified by one more viewport and viewport are selected and stored by system.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 567 Shoulder-surfing: Shoulder-surfing refers to attackers acquiring knowledge of a particular user's credentials through direct observation, or through external recording devices such as video cameras, while the legitimate user enters the information. Viewport is not decided by user but it is decided by system and within the viewport users are allowed to select the point. Phishing: Phishing attacks involve tricking users into entering their credentials (username, password, credit card numbers, etc.) at a fraudulent website that is masquerading as a legitimate site. Although you can get some information but image database cannot be forged. Social Engineering: Social engineering includes any technique used to trick people into divulging their credentials or private information to untrust worthy parties. Phishing is an example of social engineering using email and websites, but social engineering can also be done using other means, such through as phone calls claiming to be from the user's bank, credit card Company, or tech support. Social engineering attacks to some extent, as asking security questions user can change the login setting and can login to the system with this new password and image set. VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE A highly severe task to any computing device is to authenticate a user. The most frequent computer authentication scheme is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. But textual passwords are prone to dictionary attacks, eaves dropping, shoulder surfing and social engineering. As such, graphical passwords have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional authentication process. Though the graphical password schemes provide a way of making more user friendly passwords, while increasing the level of security, they are vulnerable to shoulder surfing. Therefore, we have not only created a strong image based cued click point(CCP) authentication system but also strengthen it with Kerberos authentication protocol. Since system can be integrated with any business or personal application, various appropriate modifications can be made in the system for future scope. Firs, Kerberos authentication used in this system is user based authentication system. Network based Kerberos authentication can be used in a large business application. Second, the limit for number of maximum images used in the system has been contained to the five images. This can be increased or decreased according to use of the application. Third, this system can be effectively integrated with a secure password retrieval system. We have only used a security question to show the behavior of the system. Fourth, this system can be integrated with persuasive technology to make an authentication system based on knowledge based authentication. In such system, system can itself persuade user to select a strong password. Fifth, integration with new technology like biometrics or facial recognition will strengthen the system. Hence it can be easily established that future scope for this paper is immense, considering the need of security for the applications in this internet era. REFERENCES  J. Saltzer and M. Schroeder., “The protection of information in computer systems”, Proceedings of the IEEE, pages:1278-1308, 1975.  L. Gong, M. Lomas, R. Needham, and J. Saltzer., “Protecting poorly chosen secrets from guessing attacks” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Page(s): 648 - 656, June 1993.
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 569 BIOGRAPHIES Pathan Mohd. Shafi is having more than 13 year of teaching experience and now currently working as a Asst. Prof. in Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engineering, Pune for 7 years. He has worked as a lecturer in MIT Engineering College, Aurangabad for 7 years. Taught the subject like Computer Organization, Computer Graphics, Operating System, Network and Information Security, Information security and audit management, Java Programming Language. He has published four research paper in International Journal and eleven research paper in national conference. Dr. Syed Abdul Sattar, Ph. D. (CSE), from USA, Ph D (ECE), From JNTU Hyderabad. A.P. India. M. Tech. (DSCE), from JNTU Hyderabad and B.E. (EC). From Marathwada University, Aurangabad. Maharashtra India. Member of Computer Society of Indian, Fellow of Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, Fellow of Institute of Engineers, Member Indian Society for Technical Education and Member of NESA. Published several papers in reputed journals and conferences. Guided Many M. Tech. and B. Tech. Projects, and presently guiding Ten Ph. D. students. Awarded “Scientist of the year 2006” award With Gold Medal. Member of Board of Studies for Computer Science Department in Central University. Worked as a Head for CSE & IT, Departments and Dean of Academics in present college i.e. Royal Institute of Technology & Science, Chevella, Hyderabad. A. P India. Dr. P. Chenna Reddy did his B.Tech from S.V. University College of Engineering, Tirupati, M.Tech & Ph.D from JNTU, Hyderabad. He has 16 years of Teaching experience. His areas of interest are Computer Networks and related fields. He is currently working on Bio inspired networking. He is currently working as Associate Professor at JNTUA College of Engineering, Pulivendula. He has published several papers in reputed journals and conferences.