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Corner truncated rectangular slot loaded monopole microstrip antennas for Document Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 165-171 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com CORNER TRUNCATED RECTANGULAR SLOT LOADED MONOPOLE MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS FOR QUAD-BAND OPERATION M. Veereshappa1, and S. N. Mulgi2 1 Department 0f Electronics, L.V.D.College, Raichur -584 103, Karnataka, India 2 Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga – 585 106, Karnataka, India. ABSTRACT This paper presents the design and development of corner truncated slot loaded rectangular monopole microstrip antennas for quad-band operation. The antenna operates in the frequency range of 4 to 16 GHz and gives maximum gain of 9.90 dB in its operating band. If the vertical rectangular slots on the patch are placed with a gap of 0.2 cm from non radiating edges of the patch the antenna operates for three bands of frequencies with a notch band from 2.45 to 10.13 GHz and gives the maximum virtual size reduction of 57.66 % and gain of 16 dB. In both the cases the antenna shows ominidirectional radiation characteristics. Experimental results are in close agreement with the simulated results. The proposed antenna may find application for microwave communication systems. Key words: monopole, virtual size, ominidirectional, notch-band 1. INTRODUCTION The rapid developments in microwave communication systems often demand novel design of microstrip antennas with compact size, simple in design, low cost and capable of operating more than one band of frequencies. Owing to its thin profile, light weight, low cost, planar configuration and easy fabrication, the microstrip antenna is the better choice for these requirements. Number of investigations have been reported in the literature for dual, triple, and multiband operation [3-8]. Designs of single feed equilateral triangular microstrip antennas are obtained with a virtual size reduction up to about 22 % by embedding cross slots on radiating patch [9], a square-ring microstrip antenna with truncated corners shows 19 % virtual size reduction [10], double C-slot microstrip antenna is designed and simulated to 165
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEhave a gain of 6.46 dBi and gives a virtual size reduction of 37 % [11], slotted rectangularmicrostrip antenna has been designed to achieve maximum virtual size reduction around 50 %[12], monopole antennas are designed to improve the notch band operation [13-14], etc. Furthermost of the antennas presented in the literature are either complex structure or bigger in size andalso require careful manufacturing procedure than that of the regular microstrip antenna forpractical applications. In this paper a simple method has been demonstrated for the design anddevelopment of corner truncated monopole antenna for quad-band and triple band operation withvirtual size reduction and notch band operation all together is found to be rare in the literature.2. DESIGN OF ANTENNA GEOMETRY The art work of the proposed antennas is sketched by using computer software Auto-CAD to achieve better accuracy and are fabricated on low cost FR4-epoxy substrate material ofthickness of h = 0.16 cm and permittivity εr = 4.4. Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of corner truncated slots loaded rectangularmonopole microstrip antenna (CTSLRMA-I). The selected area of the substrate is A = L × Wcm. On the top surface of the substrate a ground plane of height which is equal to the length ofmicrostripline feed Lf is used on either sides of the microstripline with a gap of 0.1 cm. On thebottom of the substrate a continuous ground copper layer of height Lf is used below themicrostripline. The antenna is designed for 3 GHz of frequency using the equations available forthe design of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna in the literature [2]. The length andwidth of the rectangular patch are Lp and Wp respectively. The feed arrangement consists ofquarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt which is connected as a matching networkbetween the patch and the microstripline feed of length Lf and width Wf. A semi miniature-A(SMA) connector is used at the tip of the microstripline feed for feeding the microwave power. InFig.1 four corners of the patch is truncated with the vertical and horizontal lengths of X and Yrespectively. Further rectangular slots are loaded on the patch at a distance d = 0.6 cm from thevertical sides of the patch. The length and width of rectangular slots are Ls and Ws respectively Figure 1 Top view geometry of CTSLRMA-I 166
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Figure 2 shows the geometry CTSLRMA-II. In this figure only positions of rectangular slotsare changed. The slots are placed at a distance of 0.2 cm from vertical sides of the patch. Thefeed arrangement of Fig. 2 remains same as that of Fig.1. The design parameters of theproposed antennas is as shown in Table 1 Figure 2 Top view geometry of CTSLRMA-II TABLE 1 Design parameters of proposed antennas Antenna Dimension in cm Antenna Dimension in cm Parameters Parameters L 8.0 Lt 1.24 W 5.0 Wt 0.05 Lp 2.34 Ls 1.54 Wp 3.04 Ws 0.41 Lf 2.48 X 0.4 Wf 0.30 Y 0.23. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The antenna bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is simulated using HFSSsimulating software and then tested experimentally on Vector Network Analyzer (Rohde &Schwarz, Germany make ZVK model 1127.8651). The variation of return loss versesfrequency of CTSLRMA-I is as shown in Fig. 3. From this graph the experimental bandwidth(BW) is calculated by using the equations, 167
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME f −f  BW =  2 1  ×100 % (1)  fc Were, f1 and f2 are the lower and upper cut of frequencies of the band respectively when itsreturn loss reaches – 10 dB and fc is the center frequency between f1 and f2. From this figure,it is found that, the antenna operates between 1 to 16 GHz and gives four resonant modes at f1to f4, i.e. at 4.74, 7.71, 8.89, and 15.41 GHz respectively. The magnitude of experimental -10dB bandwidth measured for BW1 to BW4 by using the equation (1) is found to be 50 MHz(1.05 %), 650 MHz (8.53 %), 1.44 GHz (15.78 %) and 5.45 GHz (41.14 %) respectively. Figure 3 Variations of return loss versus frequency of CTSLRMA-I The resonant mode at 4.74 GHz is due to the fundamental resonant frequency of thepatch which is shifted from designed frequency 3 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The shift in the mode f1 offundamental frequency and other multimode’s are due to the novel geometry of CTSLRMA-I. The quad band response of antenna is due to existence of different surface currents on thepatch. The proposed antenna gives maximum gain of 9.90 dB measured at 4.74 GHz. Figure 4 Variations of return loss versus frequency of CTSLRMA-II 168
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss verses frequency of CTSLRMA-II. It is seenthat, the antenna operates for three bands of frequencies. The magnitude of these operating bandsmeasured at BW5 to BW7 is found to be 100 MHz (8.77 %), 200 MHz (8.51 %), and 5.82 GHz(38.65 %) respectively. Hence by comparing Fig.4 and 5 it is clear that, the each operating bandof Fig.5 is enhanced by shifting the position of vertical slot on the patch with a gap of 0.2 cminstead of 0.6 cm from its vertical sides of the patch. In this case the fundamental resonantfrequency of CTSLRMA-II shifts from 4.74 GHz to 1.27 GHz. This shift of frequency gives amaximum virtual size reduction of 57.66 % and also gives maximum gain of 16 dB measured at2.34 GHz. Further it is clear from Fig. 4 that, a notch band appears from 2.45 GHz to 10.13 GHzbetween the bands BW6 and BW7.Hence it is clear that, the change of position of rectangular slots in CTSLRMA-II is quiteefficient the widening the operating bands, enhances the virtual size reduction and exhibits thenotch-band operation. The co-polar and cross-polar radiation pattern of CTSLRMA-I and CTSLRMA-II ismeasured in their operating bands. The typical radiation patterns measured at 4.74 GHz and 2.34GHz are shown in Fig 5 and 6 respectively. The obtained patterns are ominidirectional in nature. Figure5 Typical radiation pattern of CTSLRMA-I measured at 4.74 GHz Figure 6 Typical radiation pattern of CTSLRMA-II measured at 2.34 GHz 169
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4. CONCLUSION From the detailed experimental study, it is concluded that, the CTSLRMA-I feed bymicrostripline is capable to producing quad-band operation. The antenna operates for fourbands of frequencies in the frequency range of 1 to 16 GHz and gives maximum gain of9.90 dB. If the vertical rectangular slots on the patch are placed with a gap of 0.2 cm from thenon-radiating edges of the patch the antenna operates for three bands of frequencies andgives notch band from 2.45 to 10.13 GHz and shows the maximum virtual size reduction of57.66 % and enhances the gain to 16 dB. In both the cases antenna gives ominidirectionalradiation characteristics. The proposed antennas may find application in microwavecommunication systems.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Dept. of Sc. & Tech. (DST), Govt. of India. NewDelhi, for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer to this Department under FIST project. Theauthors also would like to thank the authorities of Aeronautical Development Establishment(ADE), DRDO Bangalore for providing their laboratory facility to make antennameasurements on Vector Network Analyzer.REFERENCES1 Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory: analysis and design, John Wiley, New York, 1997.2 I. J. Bahl and P. Bharatia, Microstrip antennas, Dedham, MA: Artech House, New Delhi, 1981.3 Waterhouse, R.B, and Shuley, N.V: “Dual frequency microstip rectangular patches”, Electron lett, 28(7), 1992, pp. 606-607.4 W. –C. Liu and H.-J. Liu, “Compact triple-band slotted monopole antenna with asymmetrical CPW grounds” Electron lett, 42(15), 2006, pp.840-842.5 K. G. Thomas and M. Sreenivasan, ”Compact triple band antenna for WLAN, WiMAX applications,” Electron lett. Vol. 45(16), 2009, pp.811-813.6 C. W. Jung, I. Kim, Y. Kim and Y. E. Kim. “Multiband and multifeed antenna for concurrent operation mode”. Electron lett, 43(11), 2007, pp.600-602.7 K. Song, Y. Z. Yin, S. T Fan, Y. Z Wang and L. Zhang, Open L-slot antenna with rotated rectangular patch for bandwidth enhancement, Electron Lett 45 (2009), 1286 – 1288.8 Jia- Yi Size, Kin-lu Wong, Slotted rectangular microstip antenna for bandwidth enhancement, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat 48 (2000), 1149-1152.9 Gui-Han Lu; Kin-Lu Wong, “Single-feed circularly polarized equilateral- triangular microstip antenna with a tuning stub” IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagat 48(12), 2000, pp.1869-1872.10 Gautam, A.K; Negi,R; Kanaujia,B.K, “Square-ring microstip for CP operation” Antennas and Propagation (APCAP),2012 IEEE Asia-Pacific conference proceedings, pp.263-264.11 Tlili,B. “Design of double C-slot microstip patch antenna for WiMax application” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 2010 IEEE conference proceedings, pp.1 - 4. 170
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME12 Kumar, R.; Malathi, P.; Ganesh, G. “On the miniaturization of printed rectangular microstip antenna for wireless application.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, 2007, pp.334 – 336.13 Shi-Wei Qu Jia-Lin Li and Quan Xue, “A Band Notched UltraWide Band Printed Monopole Antenna”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propag Lett., 5 (2006), pp. 495-498.14 L.-H. Ye and Q. –X. Chu, “Improved Band-notched UWB Slot Antenna”, Electron Lett., Vol. 45, No. 25, 2009.15 M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Design and Development of Triple Band Ominidirectional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.16 P.A Ambresh and P.M.Hadalgi, “Slotted Inverted Patch - Rectangular Microstrip Antenna For S And L - Band Frequency”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 44 - 52, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.17 M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Triple-Band Operation and Virtual Size Reduction”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 176 - 182, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 171