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Compatibility between the new and the current ipv4 packet headers 2 Compatibility between the new and the current ipv4 packet headers 2 Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 202 COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE NEW AND THE CURRENT IPV4 PACKET HEADERS Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem1 , Vilas M. Thakare2 1 Research Student, School of Computational Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, India. 2 Professor and Head of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering &Technology, Post Graduate Department of Computer Science, SGB, Amravati University, Amravati. ABSTRACT This paper aims to compatible between the new approach of Packets’ header and transmission with the existing one. This compatibility will give us the ability to combine and execute both approaches in one network environment and give us the flexibility to gradual migration from the existing to new approach without affecting the current network environment. KEYWORDS: TCP/IP, UDP, IPv4, Ethernet Frame. 1. INTRODUCTION The new “IPv4 Packet’s header and transmission” approach which was proposed by us previously [1] has reduced the headers of the packet and reduced the header processing time which was worthy to be implemented in network environment. Network environment has billions of devices work on current IPv4 packet scheme which makes the implementation of new approach practically not possible at all. The practical way for implementing the new approach is to find compatibility way between the new and the existing approach and start implementing the new approach gradually. 2. OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY The objective of this paper is the compatibility between the new approach of “IPv4 Packet headers and transmission” which was proposed by us in the previous paper [2] with existing OSI module. This compatibility will give us the ability to gradually migrate from the INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 202-210 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 exiting IPv4 approach to the new which are working on current IPv4 approach. reducing the cost of replacement the existing IPv4 devices to the new proposed IPv4 without extra investment. This will help organization to migrate the devices which have an expired support licenses or reach the default work years. 3. EXISTING AND NEW IPV4 PACKET’S APPROACH Before we start with compatibility, it will be helpful to have a quick review of the existing and the packet header’s approaches. 3.1 Current IPv4 Packet’s Approach ( As we have gone through existing approach in the previous paper [ section we will have a quick look through OSI model deeply in the functionality of the a. Variable Fields: fields that it is information from in each packet. b. Invariable Fields (Tagged with Inv.): to other and doesn’t have to be repeated in each packet Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model the Open Systems Interconnection It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a system in terms of abstraction. Simil layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. There are seven interconnection layers start from up to down (layer 7 to layer 1) prospectively: Application forwards user d layer. Session layer forwards data user to Transportation layer. header and sent the segment to Network Data link layer. Data link adds the header and forward the frame to Fig.1 3.1.1 TCP Packet’s Header The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core Protocol Suite provides reliable, ordered computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications such as the World Wide on. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 203 to the new approach without needing to remove all the existing devices IPv4 approach. This approach will be useful financially by reducing the cost of replacement the existing IPv4 devices to the new proposed IPv4 without l help organization to migrate the devices which have an expired support licenses or reach the default work years. EXISTING AND NEW IPV4 PACKET’S APPROACH Before we start with compatibility, it will be helpful to have a quick review of the he packet header’s approaches. IPv4 Packet’s Approach (OSI Model Layers) As we have gone through existing approach in the previous paper [3 look through OSI model packet construction without digging deeply in the functionality of the header files. There are two types of header fields: it is information from packet to packet and has to be repeated (Tagged with Inv.): field that it is information doesn’t vary have to be repeated in each packet. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model (ISO/IEC 7498-1) is a product of Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International organization for Standardization It is a prescription of characterizing and standardizing the functions of a communications in terms of abstraction. Similar communication functions are grouped into logical layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. There are seven interconnection layers start from up to down (layer 7 to layer 1) forwards user data to Presentation layer which forwards it to layer. Session layer forwards data user to Transportation layer. Transport layer Network layer which adds header and forward the packet to link adds the header and forward the frame to Physical layer. Fig.1 OSI 7 layers’ hierarchy Headers The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME without needing to remove all the existing devices This approach will be useful financially by reducing the cost of replacement the existing IPv4 devices to the new proposed IPv4 without l help organization to migrate the devices which have an expired Before we start with compatibility, it will be helpful to have a quick review of the 3], so in this packet construction without digging of header fields: to be repeated it is information doesn’t vary from packet 1) is a product of rganization for Standardization. communications ar communication functions are grouped into logical There are seven interconnection layers start from up to down (layer 7 to layer 1) ata to Presentation layer which forwards it to Session Transport layer adds the layer which adds header and forward the packet to Physical layer. of the Internet delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet file transfer rely
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 3.1.1 UDP Packet’s Header UDP is a connectionless protocol that provides an unreliable data services [ applications must generally be willing to accept some loss, errors or duplication. Some applications such as TFTP may add rudimentary reliability mechanisms into the application layer as needed [5]. UDP provides application verification (via checksum) of the header and payload [ where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application, avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level [ Fig.2 OSI TCP frame 3.2 New IPv4 Packet’s Approach New IPv4 approach consists of two 1- TCP/UDP Headers Optimization: It contains creation of master 2- TCP/UDP Packet Transmission: Packet’s processing divided into two steps a. Processing of Master packet. b. Processing of Slave packet. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 204 UDP Packet’s Header UDP is a connectionless protocol that provides an unreliable data services [ applications must generally be willing to accept some loss, errors or duplication. Some may add rudimentary reliability mechanisms into the application ]. UDP provides application multiplexing (via port numbers) and integrity the header and payload [6]. UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application, avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level [7]. frame Fig.3 OSI UDP frame New IPv4 Packet’s Approach consists of two stages: Optimization: aster and slave packet. Transmission: divided into two steps Processing of Master packet. Processing of Slave packet. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME UDP is a connectionless protocol that provides an unreliable data services [4]. UDP applications must generally be willing to accept some loss, errors or duplication. Some may add rudimentary reliability mechanisms into the application ) and integrity UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application, View slide
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 3.2.1 TCP/UDP Header Optimization TCP/UDP headers optimization divides the packet into two groups; master and slave packets. 3.2.1.1 TCP/UDP Master Packet The proposed Master packet contains all header fields (Variables, Invariable, along with ID and Tag Fields) but without user data field. are same contents of OSI TCP/UDP a. ID: 1 bit indicates the type of the packet, as value 1 indicates Master segment and value 0 indicate slave packet. b. Tag: 31 bits, is a unique ID for each session, th session. Fig.4 Proposed TCP master 3.2.1.2 TCP/UDP Slave Packet Slave packet contains only i along with user data. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 205 Header Optimization TCP/UDP headers optimization divides the packet into two groups; master and slave Master Packet Master packet contains all header fields (Variables, Invariable, along with ID and Tag Fields) but without user data field. The contents of Master TCP /UDP header with extra two fields: ID: 1 bit indicates the type of the packet, as value 1 indicates Master segment and value 0 Tag: 31 bits, is a unique ID for each session, this value will be maintained till master frame Fig.5 ProposedUDP master frame TCP/UDP Slave Packet only invariable header fields in addition to ID and International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME TCP/UDP headers optimization divides the packet into two groups; master and slave Master packet contains all header fields (Variables, Invariable, along The contents of Master TCP/UDP Packet ID: 1 bit indicates the type of the packet, as value 1 indicates Master segment and value 0 will be maintained till end of the frame and Tag fields View slide
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 Fig. 6 Proposed TCP slave 3.2.2 Packet Transmission Packet transmission includes the process of transmission of master and slave packets from source to destination. 3.2.2.1 Master Packet’s Transmission 3.2.2.1.1 Master TCP a. Application layer of the source station it to Session which also forward b. Transport layer buffers the received user data, creates one master TCP segment and forward it to network layer. c. Network layer adds Network layer master header packet to Ethernet layer. d. Ethernet layer adds Ethernet master layer. e. Physical layer adds it is header destination. f. Ethernet layer in layer 2 device packet or Slave packet by value of ID (1= master and 0 = slave). g. If the value ID is 1, Ethernet layer model packet based on source, destination and content etc. and h. Ethernet layer cashes the frame processing result, with frame’s Tag and send the i. If the next hop is layer 2, steps International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 206 slave frame Fig. 7 Proposed UDP slave frame Packet transmission includes the process of transmission of master and slave packets Transmission Master TCP Segment, Packet and Frame Transmission ource station forwards user data to Presentation which forwards forwards it to transport layer. the received user data, creates one master TCP segment and Network layer master header to the received segment Ethernet master header and tailor and sends the frame dds it is header sends it to another station or middle devices towards device checks the packet ID and identify whether it is Master acket by value of ID (1= master and 0 = slave). Ethernet layer processes Master packet as the processing based on source, destination and content etc. and decide the next hop frame processing result, save it in the forwarding table along and send the frame towards the destination. layer 2, steps f,g, and h will be repeated. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME frame Packet transmission includes the process of transmission of master and slave packets which forwards the received user data, creates one master TCP segment and and send the frame to physical it to another station or middle devices towards and identify whether it is Master processing of OSI decide the next hop MAC. save it in the forwarding table along
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 207 j. If the next hop is layer 3 device, layer 3 checks the packet ID and identify whether it is Master Packet or Slave Packet by value of ID (1= master and 0 = slave). k. If value ID is 1, layer 3, layer 3 processes master packet as OSI model processing based on source, destination and content etc. and decide the next hop IP. l. Layers 3 cashes the processing result, save it in the forwarding table along with packet’s Tag and forwards the packet towards the destination. m. If the next hop is layer 3, steps j, k, and l will be repeated. n. If the next hop is layer 4, layer 4 processes the segment as per layer 2 and layer 3 and forwards it to next hop or layer. o. Steps f – n will be repeated till packet reaches the destination. p. Once Transport layer of source station receives the acknowledgement about receiving Master packet from the destination, it starts creating and sending slave segments. Note: master TCP packet was sent only one time per each session. 3.2.2.1.2 Master UDP Segment, Packet and Frame Transmission Transmission of master UDP packet takes steps from a - n of TCP packet but not step o, because UDP packet doesn’t rely on acknowledgment. Note: master UDP packet being transmitted every 5 seconds in order to insure continuously delivering of packets in case there is any transmission or processing issue in the middle devices. 3.2.2.2 Slave Packet’s Transmission 3.2.2.2.1 Slave TCP Segment, Packet and Frame Transmission a. Source transport layer creates either TCP or UDP slave header and sends the segment to Network layer. b. Network layer adds it is slave header and sends the packet to Ethernet layer. c. Ethernet layer adds it is slave header and tailor and sends it to physical layer. d. Physical layer adds it is header and forwards it towards the destination. e. Ethernet layer of the destination station or middle devices checks the packet ID and identify whether it is Master Frame or Slave Frame by value ID (1= master and 0 = slave). f. If the value ID is 0, layer 2 matches the Tag with forwarding table information and forwards it to the next hope without any extra processing. g. If there is no information about the Tag in the forwarding table, layer 2 simply drops the packet. h. If the next hope is layer 2, step e and f will be repeated. i. If the next hope is layer 3 device of the destination station, layer 3 will check the packet ID and identify whether it is Master Frame or Slave Frame by value ID (1= master and 0 = slave). j. If the value ID is 0, layer 3 matches packet Tag with forwarding table information and forwards it to the next hope without any extra processing. k. If there is no information about the Tag in the forwarding table, layer 3 simply drops the packet. l. If the next hope is layer 3, step i and j will be repeated. m. If the next hop is layer 4, layer 4 processes the segment like layer 2 and layer 3 and forwards it to next layer. n. Steps etom was repeated till packet reaches the destination. o. Packet acknowledgment was sent as OSI model.
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 208 3.2.2.2.2 Slave UDP Segment, Packet and Segment Transmission: Transmission of slave UDP segment, packet and frame takes is same as steps from a - n of TCP packet but not step o, because UDP packet doesn’t rely on acknowledgment. Note: master UDP packet is sent every 5 seconds in order to insure continuously delivering of the packets in case there is any transmission or processing issue in the middle devices. [8] 4. COMPATIBILITY APPROACH New approach headers construction and packet transmission differs than the existing header construction and transmission. In any network environment there will be new approach based devices and existing approach based devices. Transmission of data between those devices basically will not be doable unless there is compatibility between those devices. There are four scenarios for this compatibility as the following: 1- New IPv4 approach device hands over TCP data to current IPv4 approach device. 2- Current IPv4 approach device hands over TCP data to new IPv4 device. 3- New IPv4 approach device hands over UDP data to current IPv4 approach device. 4- Current IPv4 approach device hands over UDP data to new IPv4 device. In the first scenario; new IPv4 approach device will send master TCP packet to current approach device and wait for acknowledgment. If it doesn’t receive the acknowledgement within widow time, it will assume the neighbor doesn’t support new approach and will send the packets based on the current approach. In the second scenario; new IPv4 approach device will receive current IPv4 packet, cash the data for first packet, create master TCP packet and send it to its neighbor. If its neighbor supports IPv4 new approach, this device will change the headers of the packets to new IPv4 approach packet and send it to the neighbor. If its neighbor doesn’t support new IPv4 approach packet, the device will bypass the current IPv4 packet to its neighbor without any modification. For third scenario and as per UDP nature, there is no acknowledgment for UDP packet. In this scenario, the new device will send test master TCP not UDP packet to it is neighbor in order to check the ability of its neighbor whether it supports current or new IPv4 approach. If neighbor supports new IPv4 approach, the device will send new IPv4 packet approach. If it doesn’t support new IPv4 approach, the device will send current IPv4 approach. In the fourth scenario; new IPv4 approach device will receive current IPv4 packet, cash the data for first packet, create test master TCP not UDP packet and send it to its neighbor. If its neighbor supports IPv4 new approach, then the device will change the header of each received packet to new IPv4 approach packet and send it to the neighbor. If its neighbor doesn’t support new IPv4 approach packet, then the device will bypass the current IPv4 packet to its neighbor without any modification.
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 5. CONCLUSION Compatibility between new IPv4 approach and current IPv4 approach gives us the ability to gradually migrate from the current IPv4 approach devices to the new IPv4 approach devices without needing to retire the existing devices or to invest more for th This compatibility helps financially as we don’t have to create 100% new network environment, the migration will be don’t for devices which have expired support. Compatibility also enterprise companies to move forward the new IPv4 approach without extra 6. REFERENCES [1][2][3][8] Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem, Vilas M. Thakare Headers”, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10. January 2013, IJCSI-10-1-2-294- [4] Michael A. Gallo, William M. Hancock, “Computer Communications and Networking Technologies”, New Delhi, India, Cengage Learning India Private Limited [5]Forouzan, B.A. “TCP/IP: Protocol Suite, 1st Hill Publishing Company Ltd. [6] Clark, M.P., “Data Networks IP and the Internet, 1st edition”, West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [7]Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks 4th Edition” Prentice Hall PTR. [9] Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem and Vilas M. Thakare, “Optimization Over Ethernet Frame”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 209 Fig. 8 compatibility scenario 1 and 3 Fig. 9 compatibility scenario 2 and 4 between new IPv4 approach and current IPv4 approach gives us the ability to gradually migrate from the current IPv4 approach devices to the new IPv4 approach devices without needing to retire the existing devices or to invest more for this migration. compatibility helps financially as we don’t have to create 100% new network environment, the migration will be don’t for the devices which reach the end-of- devices which have expired support. Compatibility also encourages the vendors and erprise companies to move forward the new IPv4 approach without extra investments Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem, Vilas M. Thakare, “Optimization Of IPv4 Packet’s IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 10. Issue 1, No 2, -302. Michael A. Gallo, William M. Hancock, “Computer Communications and Networking Technologies”, New Delhi, India, Cengage Learning India Private Limited. Forouzan, B.A. “TCP/IP: Protocol Suite, 1st edition”, New Delhi, India, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. Clark, M.P., “Data Networks IP and the Internet, 1st edition”, West Sussex, England, Computer Networks 4th Edition”, Amsterdam, the Netherland, Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem and Vilas M. Thakare, “Optimization of Ipv6 Packet’s Headers International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 99 - 111, ISSN Print: ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME between new IPv4 approach and current IPv4 approach gives us the ability to gradually migrate from the current IPv4 approach devices to the new IPv4 approach migration. compatibility helps financially as we don’t have to create 100% new network -life or for the the vendors and investments. Optimization Of IPv4 Packet’s Issue 1, No 2, Michael A. Gallo, William M. Hancock, “Computer Communications and Networking edition”, New Delhi, India, Tata McGraw- Clark, M.P., “Data Networks IP and the Internet, 1st edition”, West Sussex, England, , Amsterdam, the Netherland, f Ipv6 Packet’s Headers International Journal of Electronics and Communication 111, ISSN Print:
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 AUTHORS Mr. Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem Computational Sciences, MARATHWADA UNIVERSITY, Nanded, in field of IP Network Optimization. He received MSC SMU, India 2005 a Senior Network (Supervisor) M.E. degree in field of in field of Applied Electronics, Diploma in Computer Management was obtained his PhD in field of Computer Science. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME 210 Mr. Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem is a Ph.D. student at Computational Sciences, SWAMI RAMANAND TEERTH MARATHWADA UNIVERSITY, Nanded, India. He is doing research in field of IP Network Optimization. He received MSC-IT degree from SMU, India 2005 – 2007. He is a dual CCIE R&S and SP. Network Engineer in mobily SPK.S.A. (Supervisor) Mr. Vilas Mahadeorao Thakare, has received his degree in field of Advance Electronics, received his Applied Electronics, Diploma in Computer Management was obtained his PhD in field of Computer Science. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), June (2013), © IAEME is a Ph.D. student at School of SWAMI RAMANAND TEERTH India. He is doing research IT degree from He is a dual CCIE R&S and SP. He works as , has received his , received his M.Sc. degree Applied Electronics, Diploma in Computer Management. He