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Comparative study of sae 1045 carbon steel and aluminium alloy

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME119COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SAE 1045 (CARBON STEEL) ANDALUMINIUM ALLOY 7075-T6 FOR LOWER SUSPENSION ARM OFA SEDAN CARProf. Pinank A. Patel11Department of Mechanical Engineering,Marwadi Education Foundations’ Group of Institutions-Rajkot, India,Vivek G. Patel22Department of Mechanical Engineering,Marwadi Education Foundations’ Group of Institutions-Rajkot, India,Dr. Shashikant S. Khandare33Principal B.D. Collage of Engineering-Wardha,ABSTRACTAutomobile parts are subjected to variable amplitude loads; fatigue characteristicsvary with material and loading conditions. This research focuses on the finite element basedfatigue life prediction of lower suspension arm subjected to numerous loads. Objectives ofthis analysis are to predict fatigue life of the lower suspension arm using Strain-life approachand to discover suitable material for the suspension arm. The CAD model of lowersuspension arm is developed using ProE (Wildfire4.0); later transferred to Ansys 12.1, wherefinite element analysis for fatigue life analysis was performed employing the Strain-lifeapproach subjected to variable amplitude loading. While performing fatigue analysis, twotypes of non-uniform variable amplitude loads are considered including zero mean loading(SAEBKT) and positive mean loading (SAETRN). We employed Morrow and SWT Method,wherein tetrahedron mesh is applied to the model for fatigue analysis.Keywords: Fatigue Life, Strain Life Approach, Aluminum Alloy, Non uniformly VaryingLoad (SAEBKT, SAETRANS)INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 119-124© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, MarchI. INTRODUCTIONRecent technological research and efforts have focused on new automobile materialforms. At present, in automotive industry it is very crucial task to produce lighter; cheaperand more efficient parts can sustain high loads. Every automotive suspension is meant fortwo aims; vehicle control and passenger comfort. A good car suspension system should havesatisfactory road holding ability, while providing comfort during riding over bumps and pitson the road. For the prediction of fatigue life stress and strain life approach can be applied,due to presence of stress concentrated area stress life can’t give accurate results. For here weemployed strain life approach for the prediction of fatigue lifeII. STRAIN LIFE APPROACHStrain life method is employed where plastic deformation occurs at critical regions (likenotches). In this method plastic strain or deformation is directly measured and quantifiedbecause Stress life approach fails to account for plastic strain. Even when the component isunder heavy loading conditions, it is necessary to have a plastic deformation at stressconcentration zone where strain life approach is superior to stress life approach. The localStrain Life approach has gained acceptance as a useful method of evaluating fatigue life of acomponent.The Strain-Life Curve can be formed by summing up the elastic and plastic strains.Total Strain, εt = εe + εpThe effect of the elastic and plastic components on the strainInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME120Recent technological research and efforts have focused on new automobile materialautomotive industry it is very crucial task to produce lighter; cheaperparts can sustain high loads. Every automotive suspension is meant fortwo aims; vehicle control and passenger comfort. A good car suspension system should havesatisfactory road holding ability, while providing comfort during riding over bumps and pitsthe road. For the prediction of fatigue life stress and strain life approach can be applied,due to presence of stress concentrated area stress life can’t give accurate results. For here weemployed strain life approach for the prediction of fatigue life of lower suspension arm.APPROACHStrain life method is employed where plastic deformation occurs at critical regions (likenotches). In this method plastic strain or deformation is directly measured and quantifiedh fails to account for plastic strain. Even when the component isunder heavy loading conditions, it is necessary to have a plastic deformation at stressconcentration zone where strain life approach is superior to stress life approach. The localfe approach has gained acceptance as a useful method of evaluating fatigue life of acan be formed by summing up the elastic and plastic strains.∇ε σf= (2Nf) + εf (2Nf)2 EThe effect of the elastic and plastic components on the strain-life curve is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 : Strain Life CurveInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –April (2013), © IAEMERecent technological research and efforts have focused on new automobile materialautomotive industry it is very crucial task to produce lighter; cheaperparts can sustain high loads. Every automotive suspension is meant fortwo aims; vehicle control and passenger comfort. A good car suspension system should havesatisfactory road holding ability, while providing comfort during riding over bumps and pitsthe road. For the prediction of fatigue life stress and strain life approach can be applied,due to presence of stress concentrated area stress life can’t give accurate results. For here weof lower suspension arm.Strain life method is employed where plastic deformation occurs at critical regions (likenotches). In this method plastic strain or deformation is directly measured and quantifiedh fails to account for plastic strain. Even when the component isunder heavy loading conditions, it is necessary to have a plastic deformation at stressconcentration zone where strain life approach is superior to stress life approach. The localfe approach has gained acceptance as a useful method of evaluating fatigue life of acan be formed by summing up the elastic and plastic strains.life curve is shown in Figure 1.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, MarchMorrow’s Strain Life Equation:Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT):III. CAD MODEL, BOUNDARYFigure shows CAD model of lower suspension arm and its bounding box dimensionsare mentioned in table.Figure 2 : Cad ModelFigure 3 shows the meshed model of lower suspension arm with 2.0 mm of mesh sizeand 10node Tetrahedron element (TET10) were considered for the analysis.boundary condition applied to the Lower suspension arm.Figure 3 : Meshed Model and Boundary ConditionIV. MATERIAL PROPERTIESFatigue behavior of any material is highly dependent on its tensile strength; highertensile strength, material will have high fatigue life.7075-T6 (Aluminum alloy) are shown in TableInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME121σf - σos Strain Life Equation: εa = (2Nf) + εf (2Nf)Eσmax εa E = (σf ) (2Nf) + εf ε E (2Nf)BOUNDARY CONDITION AND MESHED MODELFigure shows CAD model of lower suspension arm and its bounding box dimensionsCad ModelFigure 3 shows the meshed model of lower suspension arm with 2.0 mm of mesh sizeand 10node Tetrahedron element (TET10) were considered for the analysis. Figure 3 showsboundary condition applied to the Lower suspension arm.Meshed Model and Boundary ConditionPROPERTIESFatigue behavior of any material is highly dependent on its tensile strength; highertensile strength, material will have high fatigue life. The mechanical properties of C45 & ALT6 (Aluminum alloy) are shown in TableDirection LengthX 436.03Y 363.52Z 65.00International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –April (2013), © IAEMEMODELFigure shows CAD model of lower suspension arm and its bounding box dimensionsFigure 3 shows the meshed model of lower suspension arm with 2.0 mm of mesh sizeFigure 3 showsFatigue behavior of any material is highly dependent on its tensile strength; higher theThe mechanical properties of C45 & ALLength Unit436.03 mm363.52 Mm65.00 Mm
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME122Table 1: Material PropertiesProperties Unit C45 AL 7075-T6Strain-Life ParametersStrength Coefficient Pa 1099000000 876323996Strength Exponent -0.11 -0.0751Ductility Coefficient 0.52 0.4664Ductility Exponent -0.54 -0.7779Cyclic Strength Coefficient Pa 1402000000 943203168Cyclic Strain HardeningExponent0.201 0.0966V. LOADING CONDITIONThe standard ultimate loading cases what we considered are as shown in Table 2. Forprediction of fatigue life of lower suspension arm we considered two non-constant varyingload SAEBKT (Bracket History) and SAETRANS (Transmission History) as shown inFigure 4&5.Table 2: Loading ConditionConditions X Y ZA Pothole brake limit load 5688.2 −60.4 −4801.2B Oblique kerb limit load -9579.7 238.3 2382.1C Lateral kerb strike limit load 549.7 845.9 12218.3Figure 4: Sae Bracket HistoryFigure 5: Sae Transmission HistoryVI. RESULTSFrom the following results it is being clear that fatigue life of lower suspension arm isconsiderably increased by employing AL7075-T6 aluminum alloy as a lower suspension arm.Lateral kerb limit is the highest loading condition.
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME123Figure 6: Lateral kerb strike limit load /Bracket / AL7075-T6Figure 7: Lateral Kerb Strike Limit Load /Bracket / C45Figure 8: Lateral kerb strike limit load/Transmission/ AL7075-T6Figure 9: Lateral kerb strike limitload/Transmission/ C45Load CasesStrain LifeC45 AL 7075 T6SAEBKT SAETRANS Bracket Transmission1Pothole brake limitload32232 124833 111763 1238482Oblique kerb limitload923866 3404196 175206502 4442899563Lateral kerb strikelimit load2268 1058 805 1197
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME124CONCLUSIONFrom the analysis of lower suspension arm it is concluded that if Al alloy (Al 7075-T6) will give comparative higher fatigue life then C45. Hence, weight of the componentmade up from Al Alloy (Al 7075-T6) is subsequently reduced (Approx 60%).REFERENCES[1] Sigmund Kyrre Ås, "Study of fatigue crack initiation in rough surfaces using the finiteelement method and measured surface topography," Norwegian University of Science andTechnology, Trondheim, Norway, 2005.[2] N.A. AL-ASADY, A. K. ARIFFIN, M.M. RAHMAN, AND Z. M. NOPIAH S.ABDULLAH, "FEA Based Fatigue Life Assessment of an Automobile Lower," InternationalConference on APPLIED and THEORETICAL MECHANICS, vol. 4th, 2008[3] K. Kadirgama, M. M. Noor, M. R. M. Rejab, S. A. Kesulai M. M. Rahman, "Fatigue LifePrediction of Lower Suspension Arm Using Strain-Life Approach," European Journal ofScientific Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 437-450, 2009.[4] M.M. Rahman, K. Kadirgama, M.M. Noor and Rosli A. Bakar Z. Husin, "Prediction offatigue life on lower suspension arm subjected to variable amplitude loading," in NationalConference in Mechanical Engineering Research and Postgraduate Studies, Pahang, Malaysia,2010, pp. 100-116.[5] S. Abdullah, A. K. Ariffin, S. M. Beden, and M. M. Rahman N. A. Al-Asady, "Fea baseddurability using strain-life models for different medium carbon steel as fabrication materials foran automotive component," International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering(IJMME), vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141-146, 2009.[6] Rahman M. M, and Omar R.M Hemin M. M, "Novel Design of Lower Arm Vehicle UsingFinite Element Analysis and Statistical Method," Journal of Advanced Science and EngineeringResearch, vol. 2, pp. 27-39, March 2012.[7] N.A.Al-Asady, A.K. Arrifin, M.M. Rahman S. Abdullah, "A Review on Finite ElementAnalysis Approaches in Durability Assessment of Automotive Components," Journal of AppliedSciences, no. 8, 2008.[8] MOHD KHAIRIL AZIRUL BIN KHAIROLAZAR, "Robust design of lower arm suspensionusing stochastic," university malaysia pahang, MALAYSIA, 2009.[9] Bernd Heißing & Metin Ersoy, Chassis Handbook, ed., Bernd Heißing and Metin Ersoy., Ed.Berlin, Germany: MercedesDruck, 2011.[10] ArkanJawdat Abassa , DhaferSadeq Al-Fatal, “Experimental And Theoretical Study Of TheInfluence Of The Addition Of Alumina Powder To 7020 Aluminum Alloy Foam On TheMechanical Behavior Under Impact Loading” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering &Technology (IJMET) Volume 3 Issue 3 (September - December 2012) pp. 412 - 428, ISSNPRINT : 0976 – 6340, ISSN ONLINE : 0976 - 6359. Published By IAEME.[11] I.M.Jamadar, S.M.Patil, S.S.Chavan, G.B.Pawar and G.N.Rakate, “Thickness Optimizationof Inclined Pressure Vessel Using Non Linear Finite Element Analysis Using Design by AnalysisApproach” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET) Volume 3Issue 3 (September - December 2012) pp. 682 - 689ISSN PRINT: 0976 – 6340, ISSN ONLINE: 0976 - 6359. Published By IAEME.[12] U. D. Gulhane, M.P.Bhagwat, M.S.Chavan, S.A.Dhatkar And S.U.Mayekar, “InvestigatingThe Effect Of Machining Parameters On Surface Roughness Of 6061 Aluminium Alloy In EndMilling” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET) Volume 4Issue 2 (March - April 2013) pp. 134 – 140, ISSN PRINT: 0976 – 6340, ISSN ONLINE: 0976 -6359. Published By IAEME.

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