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Coalmine safety system with zigbee specification


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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME504COALMINE SAFETY SYSTEM WITH ZIGBEE SPECIFICATIONMiss. Smita B. Garde1, Prof. S.L.Kotgire21(Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication, M.G.M.’s college of Engg. /S.R.T.M.University, Hingoli road, Nanded, India)2(Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication, M.G.M.’s college of Engg. /S.R.T.M.University, Hingoli road, Nanded, India)ABSTRACTThis paper provides a better solution for safety system of coalmines using Zigbeewireless sensor networking. The proposed monitoring system collects temperature, humidityand methane values at underground section of coalmine through zigbee sensor nodes and thentransmits the data to the receiver section which is present at the ground section of a coalmine.When the received values cross the threshold level then buzzer will start alarming, at thesame time data will be displayed on the LCD screen which is present at both ground andunderground section. So that everyone present in/outside the coalmine should be alert aboutthe accident to be happened and it should be possible to provide an immediate help ifnecessary. With this system it is possible to safe the manpower as well as coal as a naturalfuel.Keywords: coalmine safety, LCD, monitoring system, wireless sensor node, Zigbeespecification.1. INTRODUCTIONUp till now lot of systems are proposed for safety purpose of coalmines but it isobserve that most of them depends on the cable or wired network, very few of them usewireless network but they are also not able to give the correct information about the numberof persons present inside the coalmine at the time of accidents. Because we observe that mostof them use the parameters like temperature, pressure, humidity, gas but not use such aparameter which is use to detect exact number of persons present inside the coalmine whenan accident happened [1]. This system is design by considering all these parameters i.e. it canINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 504-512© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME505sense temperature, pressure, humidity, gas as well as number of persons can also be measured byusing IR sensor nodes. When an accident happened, especially explosion, the sensors and cablesusually were damaged, and couldnt provide information for rescue search and detection events soit is a better solution to design the safety system with wireless network [2].This paper provides survey of previous work, design overview of the system, working ofcomponents used in system designing.2. LITERATURE SURVEYAs we know safety is one of the main aspects of industry specially mining industry ascoal is the ultimate natural fuel of the world. To avoid any types of unwanted phenomena, allmining industries must follow some basic precautions. Communication is the main key factor forany industry today to monitor different parameters and take necessary actions accordingly toavoid any types of hazards. To avoid loss of material and damaging of human health, protectionsystem as well as faithful communication system is necessary inside the underground mines. Toincrease both safety and productivity inside the mines, a reliable communication must beestablished between workers, moving stations, and fixed base stations in the mine. The wiredcommunication system is not so effective inside mines. The reliability and long life ofconventional communications systems in harsh mining environments has always been a problem.Due to uncomfortable situation in mines the cost of installation as well as maintenance is veryhigh for wired communication networks. It is very difficult to re-install the wired communicationsystem inside mines after a landslide or damage due to any reason. Due to roof fall, if by anymeans some workers trapped inside mines, to maintain the continuity of the communicationsystem is very much important to know the actual position and condition of the trapped workers.To monitor other parameters during this condition it is very much necessary to maintain thecommunication system as usual. Accordingly, development of mine monitoring system toaccurately detect temperature, pressure, flammable and poisonous gas and to track undergroundminers and vehicles on real-time has significant meaning to safety production and rescue of coalmine disaster [2].Coal mine safety monitoring system based on wireless sensor network can timely andaccurately reflect dynamic situation of staff in the underground regions to ground computersystem. There are different other research ideas proposed by different people on wirelesscommunication. For the successfully wireless data transmission, in this work the Zigbeespecification is used to design a monitoring system.3. DESIGN OVERVIEWCoalmines are specially divided into two main parts. The first section is undergroundsection and another section is ground section. Underground section is the main part of a coalminei.e. the area where actual work is done, so this section is design to sense different parameters liketemperature, pressure, humidity, and poisonous gases as these parameters affects the coalmineenvironment adversely. The ground section is generally present outside the coalmine where thecontrol room is present which provide accurate information and help time to time whennecessary. The ground and underground sections are connected by means of a wireless link. Herea zigbee specification is used as wireless link between two sections. The overall block diagram ofthe system is as shown in Fig.1. The designed systems are placed in different parts of the mine.Sensors present at underground section will sense the environment conditions such astemperature, humidity, gas etc.., and this information is send to ADC of the micro controller,Microcontroller displays this information in the LCD board and sends through Zigbee transmitter.Ground section is having Zigbee receiver which collects this information and sends to the
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME506controller and controller sends the information to GSM modem and at the same time theinformation is displaying on the LCD present at ground section. Here GSM modem is used tosend the messages to everyone present inside the mine through mobile when sensors exits therethreshold level.3.1 Under-ground sectionUnderground section of a coalmine consists of different sensor nodes, microcontroller,Zigbee transmitter, LCD as shown in figure1. The sensor nodes sense the physical parameterslike temperature, humidity, pressure which are always in analog form. These analog quantities arethen sending to the microcontroller but microcontroller cannot take the data in analog form so itneeds to be converted first into digital form. That’s why we must select such microcontrollerwhich has inbuilt feature of analog to digital convertor. Here we select AVR controller.Microcontroller checks these values and sends it to the ground section through Zigbeetransmitter. At the same time the values will be displayed on the LCD board, if any of thereceived value crossed the threshold level then buzzer will be ON giving warning to the miners.The number of people present inside the mine can also be detecting by means of IR sensor. Thisinformation plays very vital role during a hazard to know whether there are any people remainedinside the coalmine. Information regarding the safety measure like wearing oxygen helmets etc.,will be already given to the workers so that they can save their life.Figure 1 General Block diagram of designed system
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME5073.2 Ground sectionThe ground section consists of Zigbee module, microcontroller, LCD, PC and GSMmodem. PC and GSM are optional. In the Ground Section, the Zigbee receiver collects theinformation and sends to the AVR controller. The LCD connected to the controller displaysthe information in the Ground Section. The officers present inside the control room takeproper actions according to the displayed data on LCD and provide immediate help ifnecessary. In additional to this controller is also connected to PC; to store the values forfuture help. GSM modem is used to send the data to miners on mobile phones.4. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION4.1 AVR MicrocontrollerIn short we can say that it is High-performance, Low-power 8-bit Microcontroller. Ithas Advanced RISC Architecture, 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock CycleExecution, 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers. And some extra features like it hasinbuilt Flash, SRAM and EEPROM memories. It is Available in 40-Pin DIP form with inbuilt8-Channel 10-bit ADC, Timers/Counter, separate PWM Channels, and peripherals like InSystem Programmer (ISP), Serial USART, SPI Interface, Digital to Analog Comparator etc.Fig.2 shows physical port of microcontroller AVR of ATmega series.Figure 2 Physical port of AVRThe parameters which we want to measure are physical parameters (i.e. in non–electrical form). So as to convert it into electrical form we are using sensors. The output ofsensor is in analog in nature but microcontroller is not able to read this analog form ofparameters so to convert it into digital form we must require an ADC which is inbuilt in AVRcontroller. ADC of controller converts these quantities into digital form and analyzed it fortaking proper action. After that controller ask ZIGBEE module it is ready to receive the dataor not. If zigbee is ready, then controller sends these data through UART to Zigbeetransceiver .The information is send to another zigbee module present at ground section. Itwill receive it and decodes it. Then give it to AVR controller and according to information isreceived, will display on LCD. Likewise information will be updated after every fixedduration [1].
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME5084.2 Zigbee moduleThis section presents a Zigbee wireless specification used to build a safety system forcoalmines. This paper prefers this specification by considering all the features like frequencybands, transmission speed etc. Instead of zigbee we may use other wireless communicationlink as RFID, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Wi-max. But zigbee is somewhat better than other linkswhich will be cleared from following comparison table. Table 1 shows difference betweensome wireless specifications.Table 1 Comparison between wireless specificationsFeatures IEEE 802.11b Bluetooth ZigbeeBattery Life Hours Days YearsComplexity Very complex Complex SimpleNodes/master 32 7 64000Latency Enumeration up to 3secondsEnumeration up to 10secondsEnumeration up to30ms (to 1 second)Range 100 Meters 10 Meters 70-300 MetersExtendibility Roaming Possible No YesData rate 11 Mbps 1 Mbps 250 KbpsSecurity Authenticationservice set ID (SSID)64 bit, 128 bit 128 bit AES andApplication layerAs we know the basic components required for any wireless communication links aretransmitter, receiver, antenna and transmission medium.Figure 3 Basic components of wireless communication link.For zigbee specification one common zigbee module can be used as a transmitter as well asreceiver and called as Zigbee transceiver. It has on-chip antenna as shown in fig.4 givenbelow.
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME509Figure 4 Zigbee transceiverIn few words I would like to say: zigbee is a “low cost, low power, very diversepossibility”. Zigbee is a wireless networking standard that is aimed at remote control andsensor applications which is suitable for operation in harsh radio environments and in isolatedlocations. It is IEEE standard 802.15.4 which defines the physical and MAC layers; alsoZigbee defines the application and security layer specifications enabling interoperabilitybetween products from different manufacturers. Hence we can say Zigbee is a superset of the802.15.4 specification. The 802.15.4 standard is primarily aiming at monitoring and controlapplications. Low power consumption is the most important feature that makes batteryoperated devices operates for a long time. The amount of data throughput (bandwidth) isrelatively low compared to wireless LAN for example, but with 250kbps for manyapplications more than enough. The distance between 2 nodes can be up to 50 meters but beaware the each node can relay data to the next making a very big network, coveringsignificant distances, possible. It is more beneficial due to its features like it has an in-builtantenna, 400 ft (120 meters) range, 250kbps maximum data rate. 8 to 10 digital input-outputpins etc. [4].4.3 MAX232Microcontroller operates at TTL logic level (0-5 V) level whereas the serialcommunication in PC operates on RS232 standard (Recommended Standard). RS232 is astandard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)and a DCE (Data circuit –terminating Equipment).Usually all the digital ICs work on TTL or CMOS voltage levels which cannot use tocommunicate over RS232 level. So, a voltage or level convertor is needed which can convertTTL to RS232.The most commonly used RS-232 level converter is MAX232. As mentionedearlier, RS232’s voltage levels are not compatible with microcontroller so to make itcompatible MAX232 is used, which is known as line drivers. It converts the TTL levels toRS232 voltage levels and vice versa. Pin no 13 and 14 of MAX232 (i.e. R1in and T1outrespectively) are connected to pin no. 2 and 3 of RS232 and pin no 11 and 12(i.e. T1in andR1out respectively) of MAX232 is connected to pin no 11 and 12 of microcontroller. Itrequires four capacitors ranging from 1 to 22uF. Most widely used is 22uF. Fig.5 showsinterfacing and pin diagram of MAX232level convertor IC.
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME510Figure 5 Interfacing and Pin diagram of MAX232Advantage of MAX232 is that it uses 5V power supply which is same as for microcontroller.4.4 LCDAn electronic display module which is widely used in portable DVD players, TV’s,video scan convertor box, computers, cell phones etc. It is a type of screen which can displaythe data in alphanumeric form i.e. it can display letters as well as numbers. It has wide rangeof applications and available in various modules. A 16x2 LCD module is one of the commondisplay module and used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred overseven segments and multi segment LEDs due to its features like more economic, easilyavailable and easily programmable. Also it has no limitation of displaying special charactersor custom characters unlike seven segments. Though LCD’s are very thin but actually it hasseveral layers. Those layers include two polarized panels, with a liquid crystal solutionbetween them. Light is projected through the layers of crystals and is colorized, whichproduces the visible image. LCDs are also able to display animations. A 16x2 LCD means itcan display 16 characters per line and there are two such lines. Here each character has somefix value or space, which is measured in pixel like image. For each character 5x7 pixel matrixis decided by default. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data. Thecommand register stores the command instructions given to the LCD to do a predefined tasklike initializing it, clearing screen, controlling display etc. Data registers are used to store thedata to be displayed on LCD. The data is nothing but the ASCII value of the character to bedisplayed on LCD.
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME5115. SYSTEM FLOWCHARTSFig.6 gives the flowcharts for underground and ground sections.Figure 6 Flowcharts of designed system6. CONCLUSIONSThis paper gives a better solution for a safety system for coalmines with a newwireless specification i.e. Zigbee. Here we are displaying the parameters on LCD at bothground and underground section; it will be helpful to all miners present inside the mine tosave their life before an accident. For future help we are storing the parameters in PC.Messages can also be send to all miners when sensor values crossed the threshold level.Zigbee is lifelong device; so it avoids the replacement of system frequently.
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME512REFERENCES1. S.Vandana, V.B.Sundheep, Development of Coalmine Safety System using WirelessSensor Network, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE)Vol. 3 No. 5 May 2011, ISSN : 0975-3397.2. MO LI and YUNHAO LIU, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Underground Coal Mine Monitoring With Wireless Sensor Networks, ACMTransactions On Sensor Networks, Vol. 5, No. 2, Article 10, Publication Date: March2009.3. Tanmoy Maity, Partha Sarathi Das, Mithu Mukherjee, A Wireless Surveillance andSafety System for Mine Workers based on Zigbee, 1st International Conf. on RecentAdvances in Information Technology, RAIT-2012.4. Swathi Bhupatiraju, T J V Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Design and Automation of SecurityManagement System for Industries Based On M2M Technology, International Journal ofComputer Engineering Science (IJCES) Volume 2 Issue 3 (March 2012) ISSN :2250:3439.5. Sarang D. Patil. and Prof. S.N. Pawar, “Wireless Amr System Using ZigbeeTechnology”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering&Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 107 - 115, ISSN Print: 0976-6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.6. Ansari Md.Asifmd Riyasat, Vijayshree A More, Prof.J.G.Rana and Dr.S.A.Naveed,“Green House Monitoring Based on Zigbee”, International Journal of ComputerEngineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 147 - 154, ISSN Print:0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375AUTHOR’S PROFILE1Miss S.B.Garde, a PG Scholar in M.G.M.’s college of Engg. Nanded (MH). The postgraduation specialization is Electronics and telecommunication. She graduated fromAnuradha college of Engineering, chikhali, Amravati University in the stream of Electronicsand telecommunication Engineering. She is working as a lecturer at Pankaj laddhad Instituteof technology & management studies, Buldana, Amravati University from last 2 years.2Prof. S.L.Kotgire, PhD(Scholar), Principal at M.G.M.’s College of CS & IT, Nanded,Assistant professor, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering,M.G.M.’s college of Engineering, Nanded (MH). He has completed graduation & postgraduation in the stream of Electronics and telecommunication Engineering and TeachingExperience of 24 years.