International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Vo...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
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Biomechanical study, 3 d modeling and kinematic analysis of shoulder joint 2-3-4

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Biomechanical study, 3 d modeling and kinematic analysis of shoulder joint 2-3-4

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 88 BIOMECHANICAL STUDY, 3D MODELING AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SHOULDER JOINT Pranav Birajdar1 , Shruti Bammani2 , Pravin Shinde3 , Rahul Bhandari4 , Jaya Bedare5 1, 2,3,4,5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.K. Orchid College of Engineering and Technology, Solapur, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT The shoulder complex is the functional unit that results in movement of the arm with respect to the trunk. This unit consists of the clavicle, scapula and humerus; the articulations linking them; and the muscles that move them. These structures are so functionally interrelated to one another that studying their individual functions is almost impossible. The present paper focuses on the anatomy, 3D scanning and modelling of humerus, scapula and clavicle. Finite element modelling of the ligaments and the muscles are carried out using the hexa-penta mesh elements in HyperMesh. This meshed model is then analysed for Von Mises stresses for flexion and extension motions at different points using LS Dyna. Keywords: 3D scanning, Biomechanics, CAD modelling, Extension, Flexion 1. INTRODUCTION The shoulder has the greatest range of motions than any joint in the body. It is our shoulders that allow us to put our hands where they need to be. To manage this, the shoulder must have the right balance of strength, flexibility and stability. Loss of this balance can lead to pain and injury. Maintaining this balance through exercises aimed at stretching and strengthening can help to avoid shoulder problems [1]. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Walter Maurel and Daniel Thalmann investigated the problems regarding the realistic animations of the shoulder joint of the improved model of shoulder joint. This was due to the fact that it was difficult to coordinate the simultaneous motion of the shoulder components in a consistent INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 88-95 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July way. On the basis of former biomechanical investigations, they proposed an extended s model including scapulothoracic constraint and joint sinus Douglas D. Robertson and his colleagues studied sixty cadaveric humeri and built 3 computer models from canal and periosteal contours extracted from computerized tomographic data and multiple measured anatomical parameters (Siemens Somatom Plus S scanner), including humeral canal axis, humeral head center, and hinge point offset; greater tuberosit center [3]. Daniel Kluess, Jan Wieding orthopaedic surgery of total hip replacement (THR). Firstly they presented a convenient modus operandi of generating FE-models of the implant tomograms of biological structures CAD-models of the implant [4], [5]. 3. ANATOMY OF SHOULDER JOINT The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which "shoulder joint" generally refers to. anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, the head sitting in the glenoid fossa. The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint. 3.1. Clavicle The clavicle is a long bone. It supports the shoulder so that the arm can swing clearly away from the trunk. The clavicle transmits the weight of the limb to the sternum. The bone has a cylindrical part called the shaft and two ends, lateral and medial. Figure I: 3.2. Humerus The humerus is the bone of the arm. It is the longest bone of the upper limb. It has an upper end, a lower end and a shaft. 3.3. Scapula The scapula is a thin bone placed on the posterolateral scapula has two surfaces, three borders, three angles and three processes. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 89 . On the basis of former biomechanical investigations, they proposed an extended s thoracic constraint and joint sinus cones [2]. Douglas D. Robertson and his colleagues studied sixty cadaveric humeri and built 3 dels from canal and periosteal contours extracted from computerized tomographic data and multiple measured anatomical parameters (Siemens Somatom Plus S scanner), including humeral canal axis, humeral head center, and hinge point offset; greater tuberosity and Daniel Kluess, Jan Wieding and Robert Souffrant used finite-element-method for implant in orthopaedic surgery of total hip replacement (THR). Firstly they presented a convenient modus models of the implant-bone-compound and developed computed tomograms of biological structures for computational finite element-analysis and correspondi ANATOMY OF SHOULDER JOINT The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which "shoulder joint" generally refers to. anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, the head sitting in the glenoid fossa. The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint. e. It supports the shoulder so that the arm can swing clearly away from the trunk. The clavicle transmits the weight of the limb to the sternum. The bone has a cylindrical part called the shaft and two ends, lateral and medial. Figure I: Anatomy of Shoulder Joint erus is the bone of the arm. It is the longest bone of the upper limb. It has an upper The scapula is a thin bone placed on the posterolateral aspect of the thoracic cage. The scapula has two surfaces, three borders, three angles and three processes. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME . On the basis of former biomechanical investigations, they proposed an extended shoulder Douglas D. Robertson and his colleagues studied sixty cadaveric humeri and built 3-D dels from canal and periosteal contours extracted from computerized tomographic data and multiple measured anatomical parameters (Siemens Somatom Plus S scanner), including and humeral head method for implant in orthopaedic surgery of total hip replacement (THR). Firstly they presented a convenient modus compound and developed computed analysis and corresponding The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which "shoulder joint" generally refers to. In human anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula, the head sitting in the glenoid fossa. The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the joint. e. It supports the shoulder so that the arm can swing clearly away from the trunk. The clavicle transmits the weight of the limb to the sternum. The bone has a erus is the bone of the arm. It is the longest bone of the upper limb. It has an upper aspect of the thoracic cage. The
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July 3.4. Joints of shoulder joint The four major joints of the shoulder complex are joint, Scapulothoracic joint and Glenohumeral joint 4. 3D SCANNING AND MODELING OF BONES Geometrically accurate and anatomically correct implants are essential for successful preoperative planning in orthopaedic surgery. Such models are often used in various software systems for the preparation surgical interventions. Therefore, it is very important to create geometry of the bone rapidly and accurately 4.1. Scanning Process In the data acquisition step of 3D scanning on the bed of the digitizer. The ATOS sensor head mounted on a tripod can easily be positioned relative to the bone. The laser probe projects a line of laser light onto the surface while 2 sensor cameras continuously record the changing distance and shape of the object. The result of the measurement is directly displayed. By rotat be acquired without changing the relative position of object and scans are imported into Geomagic Studio and meshing procedure creates about 8 million triangles cleaning procedure of Geomagic Studio re orientation differences. Using 3D scanning and the object with sharpened edges [8]. Figure II: Scanned M 4.2. CAD Modelling Reverse modelling of a human bones using CAD software means generating digital 3D model of bones geometry from 3D scanned model. software and its modules were used. Figure III: 3D M International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 90 major joints of the shoulder complex are Sternoclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular Glenohumeral joint [6]. 3D SCANNING AND MODELING OF BONES Geometrically accurate and anatomically correct 3D geometric models of human bones and implants are essential for successful preoperative planning in orthopaedic surgery. Such models are often used in various software systems for the preparation surgical interventions. Therefore, it is very the bone rapidly and accurately [7]. the data acquisition step of 3D scanning method, the bone that is to be scanned is placed on the bed of the digitizer. The ATOS sensor head mounted on a tripod can easily be positioned The laser probe projects a line of laser light onto the surface while 2 sensor cameras continuously record the changing distance and shape of the bone as it sweeps along the object. The result of the measurement is directly displayed. By rotating the object, further scans can be acquired without changing the relative position of object and reference points. In the next step, all imported into Geomagic Studio and merged into one single data set. about 8 million triangles in 10 to 15 minutes of processing time. cleaning procedure of Geomagic Studio re-adjusts neighbouring triangles which show large 3D scanning and digital software it was possible to scan Scanned Models of Humerus, Clavicle and Scapula Reverse modelling of a human bones using CAD software means generating digital 3D model of bones geometry from 3D scanned model. In this particular case, CATIA V5R20 software and its modules were used. 3D Models of Humerus, Clavicle and Scapula International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME Acromioclavicular of human bones and implants are essential for successful preoperative planning in orthopaedic surgery. Such models are often used in various software systems for the preparation surgical interventions. Therefore, it is very bone that is to be scanned is placed on the bed of the digitizer. The ATOS sensor head mounted on a tripod can easily be positioned The laser probe projects a line of laser light onto the surface while 2 sensor as it sweeps along the ing the object, further scans can In the next step, all merged into one single data set. The automatic 10 to 15 minutes of processing time. The adjusts neighbouring triangles which show large possible to scan and construct Reverse modelling of a human bones using CAD software means generating digital 3D is particular case, CATIA V5R20 CAD
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July 5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS In any FE analysis, the work can be divided into three phases. First is pre defining the finite element model, then analysis solver implying towards the solution of finite element model and finally post-processing of results using visualization tool 5.1. Finite Element Modelling Processing the shoulder joint assembled model in Hypermesh IGES format. Then clean up tool was used for the missing data such as some edges, corners etc. There is a tool available for creating surfaces in design workbench of HyperMesh for the finite element modeling of muscles and ligaments. Here the surfaces are created with integration of Hexa Penta mesh. For the simulation and analysis of shoulder joint, it is desirable to use a mesh of hexahedral and pentahedral elements due to change in thickness at different points of ligament muscles. Figure IV: 5.2. Material Properties In order to perform the FE analysis of the properties. Based on these properties, we will obtain different stress distribution material property values of different bones and muscles are mentioned in the following table. Table I: Table II: Muscles Infraspinatus Subscapularis Triceps Bones Young’s Modulus (MPa) Cortical Bone 11000 Cancellous Bone 1100 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 91 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (FEA) OF SHOULDER JOINT analysis, the work can be divided into three phases. First is pre defining the finite element model, then analysis solver implying towards the solution of finite processing of results using visualization tools. Processing the shoulder joint assembled model in Hypermesh required importing the joint in IGES format. Then clean up tool was used for the missing data such as some edges, corners etc. There is a tool available for creating surfaces in design workbench of HyperMesh for the finite ligaments. Here the surfaces are created with integration of Hexa Penta mesh. For the simulation and analysis of shoulder joint, it is desirable to use a mesh of hexahedral and pentahedral elements due to change in thickness at different points of ligament Figure IV: HyperMesh View of Shoulder Joint perform the FE analysis of the model, we have to apply certain material properties. Based on these properties, we will obtain different stress distribution in the model. The material property values of different bones and muscles are mentioned in the following table. Table I: Material Properties of Bones Table II: Material Properties of Muscles Eo (MPa) Poisson Ratio 1.2 0.45 1.2 0.45 0.5 0.45 Young’s Modulus (MPa) Poisson Ratio Yield Stress (MPa) 11000 0.3 110 1100 0.3 7.7 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME analysis, the work can be divided into three phases. First is pre-processing i.e. defining the finite element model, then analysis solver implying towards the solution of finite required importing the joint in IGES format. Then clean up tool was used for the missing data such as some edges, corners etc. There is a tool available for creating surfaces in design workbench of HyperMesh for the finite ligaments. Here the surfaces are created with integration of Hexa- Penta mesh. For the simulation and analysis of shoulder joint, it is desirable to use a mesh of hexahedral and pentahedral elements due to change in thickness at different points of ligaments and model, we have to apply certain material in the model. The material property values of different bones and muscles are mentioned in the following table. Density (Kg/m3 ) 2000 1000
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July 5.3. Meshing Meshing of the model was carried out elements were used for meshing the bones ligaments and muscles. The meshed model Fig. V: Meshed 6. RESULTS The solved model file is exported to HyperView for post viewed in various forms and judged by different parameters. In this case, two major parameters are Von Mises stress and displacement of th Dyna. The farther end of the Clavicle is fixed so that the other end of the Clavicle which joins the Humerus and the Scapula is in relative motion. We have not applied any external load but instead we have considered the self weight of the arm acting on the joint between Humerus and Scapula. The velocity applied on the free end of Humerus is 10 mm/s. We have studied and worked on the Flexion and Extension movement of the shoulder joint and mentioned th and plots. The following figures and tables describe the various stresses acting on the ligaments, muscles and bones of the shoulder joint. Table III: Ligament / Muscle Teres Minor Subscapularis As we can observe, the maximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor i.e. 0.90 MPa while the least stress is obtained at the long head of t Table IV: Ligament / Muscle Teres Major Coracobrachialis Subscapularis The stresses obtained after the simulation of shoulder joint vary for various parts on the costal muscles. Maximum stress is obtained at the Teres Subscapularis muscle. The stress at the Coracobrachialis muscle is 0.39 MPa. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 92 was carried out after the material properties to each component. Tetra elements were used for meshing the bones while hexa and penta elements were used for meshing The meshed models are depicted in Fig. V. Meshed Model of Humerus, Clavicle and Scapula The solved model file is exported to HyperView for post-processing. The model can be viewed in various forms and judged by different parameters. In this case, two major parameters are Von Mises stress and displacement of the components. The boundary conditions are defined in LS Dyna. The farther end of the Clavicle is fixed so that the other end of the Clavicle which joins the Humerus and the Scapula is in relative motion. We have not applied any external load but instead we have considered the self weight of the arm acting on the joint between Humerus and Scapula. The velocity applied on the free end of Humerus is 10 mm/s. We have studied and worked on the Flexion and Extension movement of the shoulder joint and mentioned the stresses and displacement charts and plots. The following figures and tables describe the various stresses acting on the ligaments, muscles and bones of the shoulder joint. Table III: Stresses near the Glenohumeral Joint Stress 0.90 MPa 0.46 MPa aximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor i.e. 0.90 MPa while s obtained at the long head of triceps which is 0.01 MPa. Table IV: Stresses on Costal Muscles Stress 0.824 MPa 0.39 MPa 0.10 MPa he stresses obtained after the simulation of shoulder joint vary for various parts on the costal muscles. Maximum stress is obtained at the Teres Major while the least stress is obtained at the Subscapularis muscle. The stress at the Coracobrachialis muscle is 0.39 MPa. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME component. Tetra were used for meshing he model can be viewed in various forms and judged by different parameters. In this case, two major parameters are e components. The boundary conditions are defined in LS Dyna. The farther end of the Clavicle is fixed so that the other end of the Clavicle which joins the Humerus and the Scapula is in relative motion. We have not applied any external load but instead we have considered the self weight of the arm acting on the joint between Humerus and Scapula. The velocity applied on the free end of Humerus is 10 mm/s. We have studied and worked on the Flexion e stresses and displacement charts and plots. The following figures and tables describe the various stresses acting on the ligaments, aximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor i.e. 0.90 MPa while he stresses obtained after the simulation of shoulder joint vary for various parts on the costal Major while the least stress is obtained at the
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July Table V: Name of Ligament Infraspinatus Supraspinatus The maximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor muscle while the least stress is obtained at the Subscapularis muscle. The stress at the Infraspinatus muscle is 0.39 MPa. Fig. VI: Von Misses S Fig. VII: Von The graph represents the variation in time. When the humerus starts displacing itself from the initial position, following the Flexion motion, Von Mises stresses start inducing in the muscles and ligamen Maximum stress is induced at 8 micro this graph validate the previous stress plots. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 93 Table V: Stresses on Dorsal Muscles Name of Ligament Stress 0.39 MPa 0.22 MPa aximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor muscle while the least stress is obtained at the Subscapularis muscle. The stress at the Infraspinatus muscle is 0.39 MPa. s Stresses on Glenohumeral Joint and Costal Muscles Von Misses Stresses on the Dorsal Muscles The graph represents the variation in the maximum stresses induced with respect to change in time. When the humerus starts displacing itself from the initial position, following the Flexion start inducing in the muscles and ligaments as shown in the above graph. Maximum stress is induced at 8 micro-seconds when the value is 0.9 MPa. The results observed from this graph validate the previous stress plots. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME aximum stress is obtained at the Teres Minor muscle while the least stress is obtained uscles maximum stresses induced with respect to change in time. When the humerus starts displacing itself from the initial position, following the Flexion ts as shown in the above graph. seconds when the value is 0.9 MPa. The results observed from
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July Fig. VII: Graph of Max 7. CONCLUSION An attempt has been made to achieve accurate results by using state achieving accurate dimensions and using high end analysis softwares for the kinematics analysis. The analysis of the shoulder joint was performed by using high end analysis softwares such as Dyna and HyperMesh. The scope of the project can further be enhanced by assembling the further bones of human arm, radius and ulna. More detailed analysis of othe Abduction, Adduction, External Rotation, Internal rotation can be carried out. Same approach can be used to model, simulate and analyze various human bones and joints 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to thank Mr. Shriniwas Metan and Dr. Vyankatesh Metan for their invaluable guidance in biomechanics and anatomy of shoulder joint. We would also express our deep gratitude to Mr. Jitendra Jagtap, the founder of finite element modeling and analysis of shoulder joint. 9. REFERENCES [1] Carol Oatis, “Kinesiology: The mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009 [2] W. Maurel, D. Thalmann, “Human and joint sinus cones”, Computers [3] Douglas D. Robertson et al, “ relevance to arthroplasty”, The Journal of Bone and [4] Rho, J. Y., M. C. Hobatho, et al. numbers in human bone”, Med Eng Phys International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 94 Graph of Maxima of Effective Stresses with Respect to Time An attempt has been made to achieve accurate results by using state-of-the-art 3D scanner for achieving accurate dimensions and using high end analysis softwares for the kinematics analysis. analysis of the shoulder joint was performed by using high end analysis softwares such as esh. The scope of the project can further be enhanced by assembling the further bones of human arm, radius and ulna. More detailed analysis of other shoulder movements such as Abduction, Adduction, External Rotation, Internal rotation can be carried out. Same approach can be used to model, simulate and analyze various human bones and joints. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors want to thank Mr. Shriniwas Metan and Dr. Vyankatesh Metan for their invaluable guidance in biomechanics and anatomy of shoulder joint. We would also express our deep gratitude to Mr. Jitendra Jagtap, the founder of Optimizt Technologies, Pune for their guidance on finite element modeling and analysis of shoulder joint. Kinesiology: The mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009, 118-119. W. Maurel, D. Thalmann, “Human shoulder modelling including scapulo-thoracic constraint and joint sinus cones”, Computers & Graphics, vol. 24, 2000, 203-218. “Three-dimensional analysis of the proximal part of the humerus: , The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 82-A (11), 2000 159 Hobatho, et al., “Relations of mechanical properties to density and Med Eng Phys, 17(5), 1995, 347-355. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – August (2013) © IAEME espect to Time art 3D scanner for achieving accurate dimensions and using high end analysis softwares for the kinematics analysis. analysis of the shoulder joint was performed by using high end analysis softwares such as LS esh. The scope of the project can further be enhanced by assembling the further r shoulder movements such as Abduction, Adduction, External Rotation, Internal rotation can be carried out. Same approach can be The authors want to thank Mr. Shriniwas Metan and Dr. Vyankatesh Metan for their invaluable guidance in biomechanics and anatomy of shoulder joint. We would also express our deep for their guidance on Kinesiology: The mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement”, thoracic constraint dimensional analysis of the proximal part of the humerus: 11), 2000 159-602. nical properties to density and CT
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 95 [5] Snyder, S. M. and E. Schneider, “Estimation of mechanical properties of cortical bone by computed tomography”, J Orthop Res 9(3), 1991, 422-431. [6] B D Chaurasiya, “Human anatomy: Upper limb & thorax”, CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 2004, 4-23. [7] M. Viceconti, C. Zannoni, L. Pierotti, “TRI2SOLID: an application of reverse engineering methods to the creation of CAD models of bone segments”, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol.56, 1998, 211-220. [8] Brian Curless, “From range scans to 3D models”, Computer Graphics, 33 (4), 2000, 38–41. [9] Mayuri Y. Thorat and Vinayak K. Bairagi, “Hybrid Method to Compress Slices of 3D Medical Images”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 250 - 256, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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