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Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing
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Assessing the effect of information and communication technology on enhancing

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME134ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION ANDCOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON ENHANCING HIGHEREDUCATION SYSTEMS IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIAAhood M.A. Al-Sawaha*, Mansour E. Abou Gamila**, Khalid A. Bubshait ****Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 26671, Kingdom of Bahrain.** Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 26671, Kingdom of Bahrain,*** Arabian Gulf University, Manama, 26671, Kingdom of Bahrain.ABSTRACTThe use of information and communication technology (ICT) applications in highereducation is very vital and essential. Often this process is seen as a change process, relating toboth organizational change and educational innovation. ICT has become more enhanced,improved and affordable. Special educational products such as simulations and computerbased training have been extensively developed, and other technologies such as the internetare increasingly being used in educational situations. Faculty and students, but alsomanagement, administration and ICT support are affected by and affect ICT utilization. Tofacilitate the change processes the first step is to understand what the perspective of havingICT is, what it will leads to and how it affects the practice. This paper aims to identify theperceptions of ICT implementation on higher education among faculty members of Kingdomof Saudi Arabia’s universities. A questionnaire was designed and tested, then distributedonline to higher education faculty members in KSA universities in order to collect data fromthe respondents. It focuses on their perceptions of the implementation of ICT in highereducation systems in general, and, specifically, on the purpose for ICT implementation,impact on students, and ICT methods and facilities. The survey found that faculty memberswere generally positive about the use of ICT in higher education. They were found to holdstrong beliefs about how it can provide high quality education, create learning and peerinteraction, enhance educational content and courses and enable students to learn anytimeanywhere. They believe that ICT infrastructure and training can improve teacher efficiencyand ICT has an impact on educational organizations, processes, and outcomes in highereducation systems. Finally, the study revealed that the impact of ICT tool utilization in KSAuniversities is very encouraging. The contribution of the faculty as facilitators ofUniversities’ tutorials is significant. With the utilization of ICT tools in higher educationINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June 2013, pp. 134-149© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME135institutions (HEIs), the facilitators can further improve their role in the learning process of thestudents. This positive attitude is an important indicator of willingness and the first step ineffective integration.Key words: Quality of higher education, Higher education system in Saudi Arabia,Perception of ICT Implementation in Higher Education System, Purpose of ICT in highereducation, and ICT Facilities.1. INTRODUCTIONHigher education system “HEIs” have long played an integral role in national andinternational development. During the past decade, there has been a flood in applications ofICT in the whole society. It is thus not surprising to see increasing interests and investmentsbeing put into the uses of ICT in education throughout the world. The delivery of knowledgeusing ICT has influenced the design of various curriculum programs nationally and globallyin launching different educational programs. The current technology for example, allowslearner interaction with the computer screen rather than the teacher. Through the computernetwork, learners are able to communicate with the instructor on the material and can discussassignments.Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) are the spearhead of scientific endeavour to trainand educate the sons and daughters of our countries on self-learning and methods ofsearching for information, as well as ways to address emerging problems which may arise intheir operation. For this to happen, it must be supported by a clear awareness of therequirements of the time, the place and the community. As a result, the (HES) is a) influencedby the continuous progress in ICT, which b) increases the communication among allindustrial enterprises and service, c) encourages finding sources of information which will beused by students and researchers who are able to understand and use many terms to describethis change.ICT is emerging in all of aspects of today’s society, including education. ICT can bedefined as the tools that comprise electronic devices which are utilized for informationand communication needs of institution, organization, students and individuals. Suchelectronic devices include computer (hard and software), networking, telephone, video,multimedia and internet. Application and utilization of these devices convertsinformation, text messages, sound and motion to common digital font (Adebayo 2007).The 21st century has brought enormous change in Higher Education throughout the world asa result of new information and technological development. The government of Saudi Arabiahas recognized the high priority of increasing and deepening ICT to develop the nationalproductivity and global competitiveness. The government of Saudi Arabia emphasizes ICTdevelopment as a centrepiece of national policy. The King Abdul Aziz City for Science &Technology (KACST) was established and a comprehensive national ICT plan waspromulgated that focuses and prioritizes ICT development. Saudi Arabia aims to become aregional leader in an information society and in the field of ICT (Shalaby, 2002). This will beachieved through the Kingdom’s 20-year ICT plan.Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2007) described howthe ICT sector in Saudi Arabia is growing fast. They also described the government’scontinued policies to promote the development and use of ICT in transforming Saudi Arabiainto an information and knowledge society. Also, according to the International
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME136Telecommunication Union (ITU) (2009), Saudi Arabia has jumped impressively from rank73 in 2002 to rank 55 in 2007. ICT infrastructure and access has significantly improvedduring this time period. On the other hand, progress on the skills sub-index has been slow andhere the country still has great potential to improve.The objective of this paper is assessing the effect of ICT on enhancing highereducation systems and provide a guideline for determining the performance of HEIs throughfaculty perspectives in KSA.2. LITERATURE REVIEWICT uses modern day technological devices-mostly computers and relevant softwarepackage to store and retrieve information needed in institutions, corporations andorganizations.” In another related concept, ICT is conceptualized as “communication inwhatever fonts used, accessed, relayed and transmitted to communication or send andreceived information”. Qiang, et al. (2009) described “Information as the transformation ofan economy and society through the effective deployment of ICTs in business, social andpublic function.”UNESCO (2008a) defined ICT literacy as “the sustaining force of a knowledgesociety. Information literacy is recognized as a basic human right in the digital world as itempowers individuals in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use, and create informationeffectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational, and educational goals”. Theeducation ministries of several nations have already recognized that ICT must be a corecompetency for success in a global economy. HEIs are just starting to identify ICT as a corecompetency. Classroom, faculty and library professionals are working together to integratetechnology into the curriculum and create discipline-specific assignments that require criticaluse of information resources. However, there is still a need to measure the effectiveness ofthese efforts and to evaluate whether students have obtained the ICT skills they need to besuccessful in an information-rich, technology-based society (Katz and Macklin 2007).The central role of educational technology is to provide additional strategies that canbe used to address the serious environmental and educational challenges faced by educatorsand students in higher education. The most significant change affecting HEIs may be thecontinuing revolution in information technology. The central missions of HEIs is to developlifelong learners by a) ensuring that they have the intellectual abilities of reasoning andcritical thinking, and b) by helping them to construct a framework for learning and how tolearn. Colleges and universities are providing the foundation for continued growth throughouttheir careers, as well as in their roles as informed citizens and members of communities. ICTis seen as a way to promote educational change, improve teaching and learning, improve theskills of learners and prepare them for the global economy and information society (Kozmaand Wagner 2006; UNESCO, 2002).Advantages of Using ICT in education were summarized by Czerniewicz et al (2008)as communicate with other students by email, participate in email discussion lists, participatein computer Chat, communicate with other students by sms, use VoIP (e.g. Skype), useshared resources, upload resources onto the web, and publish your own content. Marian(2008) examined ICT evaluation in the Higher Education sector and explained how ICTevaluation in Higher Education is much overlooked, comparative to other sectors. Nyvang(2006) developed a theoretical model of the implementation of ICT in higher education basedon activity theory and on a case study in a Danish university. The implementation activity is
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME137composed of three processes: selection of ICT, adaptation of ICT, and change of practicewith ICT. The model and case study suggested a framework of challenges that must be metfor an implementation to succeed. The model assured that the most prominent and mostdifficult challenge was probably the need for a broad ownership of the implementation and itsresults. An individual who lacks ICT skills has fewer opportunities for personal advancement,and a society that lacks an ICT literate workforce will not compete in the global economy.Göktaş and Yıldırım (2009) presented teacher survey about ICT integration into educationprograms, their perceived ICT competencies and their ICT usage in their courses. The resultsindicated that most of the participants expressed positive perceptions about this integration.The main reasons for positive perceptions revealed that ICT can: increase the quality ofinstruction, be very supportive and effective for instructors and students, help people succeedin an information society, and increase the quality and ease the process of instructing.Generally, ICT competency was completely sufficient. Valasidou (2008) identified universitystudent and academic perceptions of the impact of ICT on higher education by exploring theunderstanding among faculty and students of how ICT affects their academic teachingpractice and learning strategies.Mehra and Mital (2007) evaluated the perception of management faculty about theimpact of instructional technology tools on the teaching process, and the perceived benefitsand limitations of the use of instructional technology tools. The instructor planning oflearning activities will be easier, less time consuming and expanded in scope with theavailability of instructional technology, and their skill in drawing from it will improve theirteaching ability.Meyer and Xu (2007) examined factors related to technology use in teaching byuniversity faculty. Results from their research confirmed that age and Internet access wereimportant factors related to faculty technology use. The relationship between email and Webuse to teaching productivity in particular is intriguing, and may indicate that productivefaculty use technology to help them be more productive, or that technology use impactsproductivity. Research and service productivity also exhibited distinctive patterns with emailand Web use. Gülbahar (2008) examined factors that contribute to persevere teacherutilization of technology in a private university and suggested recommendations regardingthe effective utilization of technology. He indicated that teacher education programs fail toprovide appropriate instructional technologies and computer facilities for both in and out ofclass activities.Usluel et al. (2008) described how faculty members make use of ICT most as a meansof communication and for searching for information about the course through the Internet;and least, for publishing lecture notes and announcements concerning the course assignmentsand projects-on the Internet. Sife et. al. (2007) discussed the application and delivery of ICTin higher education. The pedagogical and socio-economic forces have driven the HEIs toadopt and incorporate ICTs in teaching and learning included a) greater information access;b) greater communication; c) synchronous and asynchronous learning; d) increasedcooperation and collaboration; e) cost-effectiveness and f) pedagogical improvement.However, ICT has not permeated to a great extent in many HEIs in most developing countriesdue to many socio-economic and technological circumstances. They discussed new learningand training technologies considering their pedagogical, cost and technical implications, aswell as challenges for the integrating.According to Kunaefi (2007), ICT can solve problems pertaining to quality, equity,and access to higher education. Kunaefi also mentioned that ICT can promote resource
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME138sharing and therefore improve efficiency and productivity, while at the same time opening upaccess to global resource of knowledge and information. The new teaching methodologiesaimed at more effective and appropriate learning for professional practices which involve theuse of audiovisual, computer and telemetric tools on the part of lecturers. Repiso and Tejedor(2006) presented a study in communication showing that the moderate development ofeducational activities mediated by ICT, are making lecturers highly motivated.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYBased to the objectives of this work, the research methodology was descriptive usingcomprehensive survey of the literature. A quantitative research methodology was also used,with a questionnaire presented to and completed by KSA Higher Education Council Facultymembers.3.1 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND TOOLSBased on several previous studies related to the utilization of ICT on highereducation, a first draft of survey tool "Questionnaire" was developed to gather informationfrom the faculties. To validate the questionnaire, it was e-mailed to a number of academicsand experts with experience in ICT. They were asked to evaluate the relevant contents of thequestionnaire, its language, accuracy, completeness, clarity and reliability. The final form ofquestionnaire was distributed online in order to collect data from the respondents. Thequestionnaire was distributed via emails sent to a range of Faculties’ mail-lists. The reasonfor the use of an on-line questionnaire was to enable only the faculties that using ICT tools tobe involved. In order to allow a large number of participation to be made, the questionnairewas available for the period of three months, and was able to be viewed and completed on-line at http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com.Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0 for windows was used forthe statistical analysis of the data collected by questionnaire. Microsoft Excel 2007 softwarewas used to manage, process, and present the data.3.2 RESEARCH POPULATIONThe population in this research work was all KSA private and government universitieslisted with the KSA Ministry of Higher Education Web site (www.mohe.gov.sa). Theresearch sample was required to be compatible with the below conditions:- Universities have a website.- Emails must belong to the university website (e.g. Faculty @universitywebsite.edu.sa).- Ease of reach the faculty emails through the university website.3.3 SAMPLE DISTRIBUTIONAccording to the above conditions, the researchers were able to reach 20 out of 33private and government universities listed in MOHE. 764 questionnaires were sent via emailsto faculties who were accessible and represented their institutions. They were requested toparticipate by completing the questionnaire. However, the final retrieved number ofresponses was 104. The collected data was then analyzed and conclusions were delivered.
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME1394. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1 Analysis of Responses According To Level Of Expertise In Using Software In IctTable (1) shows frequency, percentage and Chi-Square of the level of expertise in usingsoftware in ICT by survey respondents. These findings reflect that emailing, Internet browsing,using word processing and presentation tools are considered areas of ICT expertise byrespondents. The researcher attributes this to the fact that KSA HEIs are making the experience inusing these specific tools as one of the main requirements in hiring instructors. Specifically,76.0% of faculties in KSA universities take advantage of the internet browsing; this is asencouraging finding and reflects the seriousness of faculties in improving their teachingmethodologies at the personal level. Results revealed that there are significant differences atα=0.05 in the level of expertise in using word processing amongst the faculties of HEIs in KSAwith 75.0% of the sample rating their expertise as “Excellent" and 20.2% responding with arating of "Very Good" in using word processor application.In using spreadsheet application, the results also reveal that there are significantdifferences at α=0.05 amongst the faculties. 45.2% rated their expertise as “excellent”, with29.8% rating their expertise as "very good" and 13.5% "good" expertise with these applications.There are significant differences at α=0.05 in the expertise of using presentation applicationsamong respondents with 69.2% of the sample rating their expertise as “excellent” and 24.0% ofthem rating their expertise as “very good”. Only 6.7% of the sample rated their expertise as"good" at using presentation tools.Table (1) the Level of Expertise in Using Software in ICTNExcellent Very Good Good Fair No Capability Chi2Sig.Freq % Freq %Freq% Freq % Freq %1Wordprocessing78 75.0% 21 20.2% 4 3.8% 1 1.0% 0 0.0% 147.6 0.012Spreadsheets47 45.2% 31 29.8% 14 13.5% 10 9.6% 2 1.9% 62.8 0.013Presentation tools(PowerPoint)72 69.2% 25 24.0% 7 6.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 65.0 0.014 E-mailing 82 78.8% 19 18.3% 3 2.9% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 100.6 0.015Internetbrowsing79 76.0% 17 16.3% 8 7.7% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 86.2 0.016Statisticaltools27 26.0% 34 32.7% 27 26.0% 12 11.5% 4 3.8% 29.4 0.017 Graphics 23 22.1% 35 33.7% 26 25.0% 16 15.4% 4 3.8% 25.9 0.018Web pagedesigning16 15.4% 19 18.3% 20 19.2% 28 26.9% 21 20.2% 3.8 0.449Programming19 18.3% 19 18.3% 20 19.2% 12 11.5% 34 32.7% 12.4 0.0110Databasemanagement17 16.3% 19 18.3% 20 19.2% 25 24.0% 23 22.1% 2.0 0.7411Projectmanagement23 22.1% 27 26.0% 17 16.3% 15 14.4% 22 21.2% 4.5 0.35Results also reveal that there are significant difference at α=0.05 in the level ofexpertise in using emails amongst respondents with 78.8% of the sample rated their expertiseas “excellent”, and 18.3% rated their expertise as “very good” in this area. In the use ofInternet browsing, the results also reveal that 76.0% of the sample rated their expertise as
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME140“excellent” in this area and 16.3% claimed “good" expertise. In using statistical application32.7% of the study sample rated their expertise as “very good, 26.0% said they are excellent,and 26.0% of them said are good at using statistical tools. 33.7% of the sample rated theirexpertise as “very good”, 25.0% rated their expertise as “good” and 22.1% rated theirexpertise as “excellent”. In programming, 32.7% of the sample rated their expertise as “nocompetence”. 18.3% rated their expertise as “excellent” in this area, with another 18.3% ratedtheir expertise as “very good”. Only 16.3% of respondents rated their expertise as "good" atusing these applications. However, results show no significant differences at α=0.05 in thelevel of expertise amongst the study sample in the applications of Web page designing,database management and project management.4.2 Analysis of Responses According To Rate Of Using Ict In UniversityThe study raised a question that measures the rate of using ICT by respondents intheir university. Table (2) shows frequency, percentage and Chi-Square of the responsesaccording to rate of use of ICT in their university.Table (2) the Rate of Using ICT in UniversityRate of ICT Usage in University Frequency Percentage Chi2Sig.Not used 4 3.8% 41.9 0.001Less than one year 10 9.6%1 - 4 years 42 40.4%5 - 8 years 25 24.0%More than eight years 23 22.1%Results show that 40.4% of respondents have been using ICT for one to four years,while 24.0% of them have been using ICT for five to eight years. 22.1% have been using ICTfor more than eight years, and 9.6% saying they have used ICT for less than one year. Only3.8% of the sample said they never use ICT in their university. Results show there aresignificant differences at α=0.05 in the sample according to their rate of using ICT in theiruniversities. Use of ICT for one to four years is a good indicator that the new policy taken upby the government of KSA is being taken very seriously with regard to the implementation ofICT in HES in order to move towards an information society.4.3 Analysis of Responses According To Maintaining A Personal Web Page As ATeaching ToolThe study raised a question about maintaining a personal web page as a teaching toolin the university. Table (3) shows the Frequency, percentage and Chi-Square for theresponses.Table (3) Maintaining a Personal Web Page as Teaching ToolMaintain a Personal WebPage as a Teaching ToolFrequency Percentage Chi2Sig.Yes 50 48.1% 0.21 0.695No 54 51.9%
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME141Web-page design is an important component of higher education, particularly for postinglecture notes, homework, quizzes and other appropriate materials, however; results showsthat 51.9% of the respondents do not maintain a personal web page as a teaching tool and48.1% of them maintain web pages. From the researcher’s point of view, the reasons mightbe: lack of time, lack of expertise, lack of training, and support. However, calculating Chi-Square showed no significant differences at α=0.05 in the sample according to maintaining apersonal web page as a teaching tool in the university.4.4 Analysis of Responses According To Purposes for Using Ict ToolsTable (4) shows the frequency, percentage and Chi-Square of responses about thepurposes for which they use the ICT tools. It can be inferred from the table that there aresignificant differences in the level of using ICT tools in "Teaching-learning for specificsubjects" of survey participants. 50.0% of the sample said they use ICT tools "everyday",with 32.7% of them use it "twice or more a week", and 15.4% using ICT tools "a few times amonth".Table (4) Purposes for Using ICT ToolsN Use ICT toolsVery often(everyday)Often (twiceor more aweek)Seldom (a fewtimes a month)Never Chi2Sig.Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq %1Teaching-learning forspecific subjects52 50.0% 34 32.7% 16 15.4% 2 1.9% 54.5 0.0012 Teaching computer skills 27 26.0% 35 33.7% 26 25.0% 16 15.4% 7.0 0.0723Finding/accessinginformation andeducational materials64 61.5% 27 26.0% 12 11.5% 1 1.0% 87.2 0.0014Makingpresentations/lectures54 51.9% 36 34.6% 11 10.6% 3 2.9% 63.0 0.0015Preparing lessons55 52.9% 34 32.7% 13 12.5% 2 1.9% 63.5 0.0016Communicating withstudents53 51.0% 37 35.6% 7 6.7% 7 6.7% 60.5 0.0017Communicating withother teachers50 48.1% 37 35.6% 13 12.5% 4 3.8% 51.9 0.0018Monitoring and evaluatingstudents progress orkeeping track of studentsperformance31 29.8% 42 40.4% 24 23.1% 7 6.7% 24.8 0.0019 Preparing reports 47 45.2% 37 35.6% 17 16.3% 3 2.9% 45.1 0.00110Further personaldevelopment56 53.8% 33 31.7% 12 11.5% 3 2.9% 64.4 0.00111Publishing the lecturenotes and theannouncement concerningthe course35 33.7% 38 36.5% 19 18.3% 12 11.5% 18.1 0.00112 Preparing exam questions 47 45.2% 37 35.6% 13 12.5% 7 6.7% 42.0 0.00113Statistical analysis forexams results34 32.7% 28 26.9% 29 27.9% 13 12.5% 9.5 0.02414 Others 37 35.6% 30 28.8% 21 20.2% 16 15.4% 10.1 0.018
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME142There are significant differences in the level of using ICT tools in "Finding/accessinginformation and educational materials" by respondents. A majority, 61.5% of the sample saidthey use these tools "everyday", 26.0% said they use them "twice or more a week" and 11.5%of the sample use ICT tools" a few times a month".There are significant differences in the level of using ICT tools in "Makingpresentations/lectures" by respondents. 51.9% of the sample said they use these tools"everyday", 34.6% use them "twice or more a week" and 10.6% of the sample use ICT tools"a few times a month". 52.9% of the sample indicated that they use ICT tools everyday inpreparing lessons, while 32.7% said they prepare their lessons using ICT twice or more aweek. 12.5% said they use ICT a few times a month to prepare for their lessons.There are significant differences in the level of using ICT tools in "Communicatingwith students" by respondents. 51.0% of the sample said they use these tools "everyday" forthe purpose of communicating with students, 35.6% said they use them "twice or more aweek". 6.7% of the sample use ICT tools a few times a month for the same purpose. 48.1% ofthe sample said that they use ICT tools everyday in Communicating with other teachers,while 35.6% said they communicate with other teachers using ICT twice or more a week. Thecalculated Chi-Square showed significant differences in the level of using ICT tools incommunication with other teachers by the responding faculties of Higher Education in KSA.There are significant differences in level of using ICT tools in monitoring and evaluatingstudent’s progress or keeping track of student performance by respondents. 40.4% of thesample explained that they use ICT tools twice or more a week in monitoring and evaluatingstudents’ progress or keeping track of student performance. 29.8% said they monitor andevaluate student progress or keep track of student performance through ICT “everyday.There are significant differences in the level of using ICT tools in preparing reports byrespondents. 45.2% said they use ICT tools everyday for the purpose of preparing reports,while 35.6% use them twice or more a week. There are significant differences in the level ofusing ICT tools for the purpose of achieving further personal development by respondents.53.8% of the sample said they try to develop themselves through the everyday use of ICTtools, while 31.7% said they use them twice or more a week. 36.5% of the sample said thatthey use ICT tools twice or more a week in publishing the lecture notes and theannouncement concerning the course. 33.7% said they publish their notes and announcementsthrough ICT every day. The calculated Chi-Square showed significant differences in the levelof using ICT tools in publishing the lecture notes and the announcement concerning thecourse by respondent faculty of Higher Education in KSA.The results also show that, there are a significant differences in the level of using ICTtools for Preparing exam questions with 45.2% of the sample said they use ICT everyday toprepare exam questions, and 35.6% said they use them twice or more a week. There aresignificant differences in the level of using ICT tools in doing statistical analysis for examsresults by respondents. 32.7% of the sample use these tools “everyday”, while 26.9% usethem twice or more a week and 27.9% use ICT tools a few times a month. However, resultsshow that, there is no significant differences at (α=0.05) in the level of using ICT tools inteaching computer skills by the responding faculties of higher education in KSA (Chi2=7.0,α=0.072), with 33.7% said they use ICT twice or more a week, 26.0% of them said that theyuse them “everyday”. 25.0% of the sample said that they use them few times a month for thepurpose of teaching computer skillsThe respondents seem to use ICT every day for Finding/accessing information andeducational materials, Further personal development, Preparing lessons, making
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME143presentations/ lectures and preparing lessons, and Teaching-learning for specific subjects.The researchers consider these results as a motive from the faculties to persuade students touse computers by writing assignments or searching the internet for information for theirstudies.4.5 Analysis of Sample According To Perceptions of Ict Implementation In HigherEducation SystemParticipants were asked about their perceptions about ICT implementation in HigherEducation System in KSA. Results in table (5) show that the majority of respondents holdpositive perceptions about ICT implementation in HES with percentage 80.58%. Thisindicates that the perception of ICT implementation in HES as positive is "high degree".Results reveal that the most positively perceived element is that ICT infrastructure andtraining improve teacher efficiency with a percentage of 83.08%. A large percent ofrespondents think that implementing ICT in the universities of the KSA can create learningand peer interaction in HES with percentage of 82.30% and they said that ICT could helpteachers in realizing the “good teaching” or “Best Practice” beliefs with percentage 81.92%.Table (5) Perceptions of ICT Implementation in Higher Education SystemN Phrase MeansstandarddeviationPercentage Standings1Help teachers in realizing the “goodteaching” or “Best Practice” beliefs4.096 1.273 81.92% 32Infrastructure and training improveteachers’ efficiency4.154 1.147 83.08% 13Innovate practices which may offernew educational practitioners4.077 1.172 81.54% 54 Create learning and peer interaction 4.115 1.249 82.30% 25Introduction changes the dynamic ofthe lecture room4.019 1.174 80.38% 76Have a relation with the curriculumdevelopment3.962 1.165 79.24% 87Will encourage teachers to changetheir teaching approach3.923 1.212 78.46% 108Enhance achievement due to thesupport and practice that ICT afford3.942 1.156 78.84% 99Impact on educational organizations,processes, and outcomes in HES4.038 1.105 80.76% 610Adoption and implementation in HESconsidered as an important foundationof education in the informationsociety4.086 1.119 81.72% 411Facilitate the implementation ofobjectives that universities areintending to realize3.894 1.198 77.88% 11Total 4.029 1.054 80.58%Responses showed that adoption and implementation in HES considered an importantfoundation of education in the information society with percentage 81.72%, and they believedthat this implementation innovates practices which may offer new educational practitionerswith percentage 81.54%. Similarly, the results showed that ICT has an impact on educationalorganizations, processes, and outcomes in HES with percentage 80.76%. Results revealed
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME144that the study sample thinks that implementing ICT in the universities of the KSA helped inintroduce changes to the dynamic of the lecture room with a percentage of 80.38%.According to these results, all the previous phrases are classified within the rank "highdegree". The researchers believe that the faculties’ high degree of positive perceptions resultsare encouraging, indicating that faculties are visualizing themselves in the future and notdistancing themselves from it. This is important because faculties’ role will demand a greatdeal of motivation and willingness to change. A faculty who considers him/herself as part ofthe change will be motivated to go through the process of change and actively engage with it,whereas one who distances by viewing the change but believing that it is not going to involvehim/her will resist change.4.6 Analysis of Sample According To Purposes of Ict Implementation In UniversityRespondents were asked about the purposes of ICT implementation in KSAuniversities according their opinions. Results in table (6) show that there are multiplepurposes to the implementation of ICT at their university, with percentage 77.22%. Resultsshow that the study sample thinks that the first purpose of ICT implementation in KSAuniversities is providing high quality with percentage 83.08% and this statement is classifiedwithin the rank "high degree". Enhancing educational contents and courses using ICT is thesecond purpose of ICT implementation with percent 82.70%. Adapting to various learningformats come the third with percent 81.92%. Providing students with effective education andprovide efficient education came fourth and fifth with a percentage of 81.54% and 80.00%respectively.Table (6) Purpose of ICT Implementation in UniversityN Phrase MeansstandarddeviationPercentage Standings1Provide high qualityeducation4.154 1.197 83.08% 12Encourage humanresources foreducation using ICT3.981 1.061 79.62% 63Enhance ofeducational contents& courses using ICT4.135 1.005 82.70% 24Provide students witheffective education4.077 1.031 81.54% 45Adapt to variouslearning formats4.096 1.010 81.92% 36Improve handwritingand language skillsthrough the use ofword processor3.413 1.334 68.26% 97Provide efficienteducation4.000 1.141 80.00% 58Rationalize educationand administration3.721 1.170 74.42% 79 Attract new students 3.663 1.228 73.26% 810 Reduce costs 3.365 1.293 67.30% 10Total 3.861 0.946 77.22%
  • 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME145According to respondents, the sixth purpose of implementing ICT is encouraginghuman resources for education using ICT with percent 79.62%, followed by rationalizingeducation and administration and attract new students with a percentage of 74.42% and73.26% respectively. According to these results, all the previous statements are classifiedwithin the rank "high degree". The researchers believe that attracting new student 73.26% iscompatible with the major developments lines in KSA education system, through openingopportunities to competent students and enables them to continue their studies in higherinstitutes and universities of all specialties. Encouraging human resources for education usingICT 79.62% will be compatible with Beebe (2004) in his study regarding suggestion fortechnology development stages, and how HEIs teach students to use the technology in theentry stage and develop an entirely new learning environments that use technology as aflexible tool; which will make learning becomes collaborative, interactive, and customized inthe Invention stage.4.7 Analysis of Sample According To Facilities and Methods Used By KsaUniversitiesThe study investigated the ICT facilities and methods used by KSA universitiesaccording to the opinion of the sample. Results in Table (7) show that KSA universitiesprovide "medium degree" of facilities and methods regarding using ICT With percentage70.46%. The researchers believe that these results are promising showing that there has beenan importance given to ICT physical facilities in KSA universities to provide academic andstudent services.Table (7) Facilities and methods used by KSA universitiesN Phrase MeansstandarddeviationPercentage Standings1Equipped with large screensor multiple displays enablingeducation using ICT3.625 1.240 72.50% 22Able to upload teachingmaterials to the internet,students can look at them ontheir computers3.817 1.305 76.34% 13Discussions between studentsare held on electronic bulletinboards3.385 1.317 67.70% 44Short tests are conducted overPCs and mobile terminals3.163 1.293 63.26% 55Students can send reports viaPCs and mobile terminals3.605 1.301 72.10% 3Total 3.523 1.088 70.46%It can be inferred from the results that the most important ICT facilities and methodused by KSA universities according to the opinion of the sample is that the universities areable to upload teaching materials to the internet so that student can look at them on theircomputers with percentage 76.34%. The second is that universities are equipped with largescreens or multiple displays enabling education using ICT with percentage 72.50%.
  • 13. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME146“Students can send reports via PCs and mobile terminals”, and “Discussions betweenstudents are held on electronic bulletin boards” came the third and fourth with a percentage of72.10%, and 67.70% respectively. Short tests are conducted over PCs and mobile terminalswere also seen as important by a large number of respondents with percentage 63.26%.4.8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCEAnalysis of variance was carried out to identify any significant differences at α=0.05in the role of ICT in enhancing HESs considering the five independent variables namelygender, age, Type of university, experience in education, and training in ICT. The resultsassured that, there are no significant differences in the role of ICT in enhancing highereducation systems in the KSA according to the study variables “ gender, age, Type ofuniversity, experience in education, and training in ICT”. They are greater than 0.05 and theeffect is considered to be no significant.The researchers attribute that to the freedom of having information, and that thekingdom emphasizes on ICT literacy for all. However, King Abdullah University of Scienceand Technology (KAUST) represent this through promoting Science research on the basis ofequality, without regard to gender differences. Also, all private universities in the kingdomwere established recently, which means ICT was part of their infrastructure, and thegovernment universities are working hard to modify their infrastructure for more ICTadoption.5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe major objective of this research is to investigate, bring out and discuss the role ofinformation and communication technology in enhancing HEIs in the Kingdom of SaudiArabia. Based on literature and interviews with a number of experts, a model was developed,questionnaires were designed and distributed, the data were collected and analyzed. Theresults from this research are promising and indicating that ICT is potentially a useful toolboth for managing and for teaching. Use in managing educational institutions should beencouraged, as should use by instructors to gain access to educational materials. The studyrevealed that ICT utilization in KSA Universities is very encouraging. The contribution of thefaculties as facilitators of Universities’ tutorials is significant.The conclusions are summarized in the following points:I. Emailing, Internet browsing, using word processing and presentation tools areconsidered areas of ICT expertise by respondents.II. The respondents seem to use ICT every day for Finding/accessing information andeducational materials, personal development, Preparing lessons, makingpresentations/ lectures, and Teaching-learning for specific subjects.III. A large number of respondents 82.30% think that implementing ICT in theuniversities of the KSA can create learning and peer interaction in HES and 81.92%of them said that ICT could help teachers in realizing the “good teaching” or “BestPractice” beliefs. 81.54% of respondents believe that ICT implementation innovatespractices which may offer new educational practitioners.IV. The study sample thinks that the first purpose of ICT implementation in KSAuniversities is providing high quality, followed by Enhancing educational contentsand courses using ICT.
  • 14. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME147Therefore in order to have an effective utilization of ICT in KSA higher education system,there is a need for the following:I. Professional development programs where faculties could be shown and develop aconception of their teaching subjects with respect to ICT.II. Learners should be equipped with skills they require to be able to use the computersin their universities for learning.III. University management should encourage and motivate all faculties to use thetechnologies available in their institutions.IV. Updating of infrastructure, bandwidth, and equipments reliability, accessibility oflogins or permissions need to be done.V. Solving the problems associated with blocking / filtering of Internet content with theconsideration of our religion and culture.VI. Literate the interest in e-Learning within the university.6. REFERENCES[1] Adebayo, F.A., (2007). “Management information system for managers”, Ikeja,Lagos. Atlantic Associated Publishers.[2] Al-Ankary, K. (1998). Higher education in Saudi Arabia, World Conference on HigherEducation: Higher Education in the Twenty-first Century, Paris: UNESCO, 5–9 October.[3] Bakkabulindi, F. E. K.; Sekabembe, Beatrice; Shopi, J.M.; Kiyingi, G. (2009).“Effect of qualification in ICT, age and income on use of computers amongpostgraduate students in Makerere University School of Education”, Journal ofScience and Sustainable Development, Uganda Martyrs University. Vol.2 (1),PP.51-57.[4] Beebe, M. A. (2004). “Impact of ICT Revolution on the African AcademicLandscape’,Codesria Conference on Electronic Publishing and Dissemination,Dakar,Senegal.Retrieved fromhttp://www.codesria.org/Links/conferences/el_publ/beebe.pdf.[5] Bradshaw, L.K. (2002). “Technology for teaching and learning: Strategies forstaff development and follow-up support”, Journal of Technology and TeacherEducation, 10(1), 131-150[6] Czerniewicz, L., Brown, C., Lee Pan, S. & Moyo, A. (2008). "Students make aplan: ICT access and social and academic uses in higher education", Proceedingsof the 6th International Conference on Networked Learning, Greece.[7] ESCWA (2007). “Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia”, NationalProfile of the Information Society in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[8] Fallows, S. & Bhanot, R. (2005). “Quality Issues in ICT-Based HigherEducation”, Canadian Journal of Higher Education, Volume 38, No. 1, 2008,pages 121-132.[9] FETC (2006). Faculty Educational Technology Committee Summary November19, 2006 “Information and Communication Technology Literacy College ofCharleston ICT Literacy Assessment.”[10]Goktas, Y., Yildirim, Z., & Yildirim, S. (2009). “A Review of ICT related coursesin preservice teacher education programs”, Asia Pacific Education Review, 9(2), 81-92.
  • 15. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME148[11]Göktaş.Y. Yıldırım, S. and Yıldırım,Z. (2009). “Teacher Educators’ ICTCompetencies, Usage, and Perceptions”, GÜ, Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt29, Sayı 1, 109-125.[12]Gülbahar, Y. (2008). “ICT Usage in Higher Education: A case Study onPreservice Teachers and Instructors”, The Turkish Online Journal of EducationalTechnology, January 2008, ISSN: 1303-6521, volume 7, Issue 1, Article 3.[13] International Telecommunication Union ITU (2009). “Measuring the InformationSociety, the ICT Development Index”, Available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/index.html.[14]Katz, I. and Macklin, A., (2007). “Information and Communication TechnologyLiteracy: Integration and Assessment in Higher Education”, Volume 5, Number 4,pages: 50-55.[15]Kozma, R., & Wagner, D. (2006). “Reaching the most disadvantaged with ICT:What works? In R. Sweet & D. Wagner (Eds.)”, ICT in non-formal and adulteducation: Supporting out-of-school youth and adults. Paris: OECD. PP 97-120.[16]Kunaefi, T. J. (2007). “ICT in University Teaching/Learning and Research ISoutheast Asian Countries: A Case of Indonesia”, Regional Seminar on Making aDifference: ICT in University Teaching/Learning and Research in SoutheastAsian Countries, Jakarta, Indonesia 24 August 2007.[17]Marian, C, (2008). “The Evaluation of ICT Investment Performance in terms of itsFunctional Deployment”, A Study of Organizational Ability to LeverageAdvantage from the Banner MIS in Institutes of Technology in Ireland.[18]Mehra, P. And Mital, M. (2007) “Integrating technology into the teaching-learning transaction: Pedagogical and technological perceptions of managementfaculty”, Journal of Education and Development using Information andCommunication Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 1, PP. 105-115.[19]Meyer, K.A.& Xu, Y. J. (2007). “A Bayesian analysis of the institutional andindividual factors influencing faculty technology use”, The Internet and HigherEducation, 10(3)[20]Nyvang, (2006). “Implementation of ICT in Higher education as interactingActivity System”, Fifth International conference on Network learning, LancasterUniversity.[21]Qiang, C., Bhavnani, A., Hanna, N., K., Kimura and Sudan, R., (2009). “Ruralinformatization in china”, World Bank Working Paper No.172.[22]Repiso, A.and Tejedor, (2006). “Use of Information and CommunicationTechnology in Higher Education and Lecturers’ Competencies” CurrentDevelopments in Technology-Assisted Education, PP.1787-1791.[23]Shalaby, N. (2002). “Towards an ICT revolution in Saudi Arabia”, Arab News,Annual top 100 Saudi companies file, PP. 24-25.[24]Sife, A. Lwoga, E. and Sanga, C.( 2007). “New technologies for teaching andlearning: Challenges for higher learning institutions in developing countries”,International Journal of Education and Development using Information andCommunication Technology (IJEDICT), 2007, Vol. 3, Issue 2, PP. 57-67.[25]UNESCO, (2008a). “Towards Information Literacy Indicators”, United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.
  • 16. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME149[26]Usluel, K. Y., & Seferoğlu, S. S. (2004). “Öğretim elemanlarının bilgiteknolojilerini kullanmada karşılaştıkları engeller, çözüm önerileri ve öz-yeterlikalgıları. Eğitim Bilimleri ve Uygulama”, 6 (3), 143-157.[27]Usluel, Y. K., Aşkar, P., & Baş, T. (2008). “A Structural Equation Model for ICTUsage in Higher Education”. Educational.[28]Valasidou, A.( 2008), “The Impact Of ICT’s In Education: The Case OfUniversity Of Macedonia Students”, Journal of Business Case Studies, Volume 4,Number 329, University of Macedonia, Greece.[29] Brajraj Singh, Rakhee Chaudhary and K. Singh, “Execution of Organisational Strategies– A New Paradigm in Shaping the Future of Higher Education”, International Journal ofManagement (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 38 - 46, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSNOnline: 0976-6510.[30] Kavita Suryawanshi and Dr. Sameer Narkhede, “Evolution of Green ICTImplementation in Education Sector: A Study of Developed and Developing Country”,International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 91 - 98,ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

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