International Journal of Advanced Research OF ADVANCED RESEARCH    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 ...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume...
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Aspects of teacher turnover with special reference to technical education

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Aspects of teacher turnover with special reference to technical education

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324 (Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME IN MANAGEMENT (IJARM)ISSN 0976 - 6324 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6332 (Online) IJARMVolume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013, pp. 45-55© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijarm.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2013): 4.7271 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ASPECTS OF TEACHER TURNOVER (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TECHNICAL EDUCATION) Dr.Amarja Satish Nargunde Faculty, Department of Management Studies at Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Institute of Management & Rural Development Administration, Sangli 416416 ABSTRACT The task of motivating and retaining teachers and that too talented and genuinely interested teachers seems to be full of challenges as it was found in the research conducted. The research was carried on keeping scope of the study to the region of Western Maharashtra and to the 2 Districts in it i.e. Kolhapur & Sangli. The researcher has chosen Engineering, Polytechnic, Technology and Management institutes. The research was conducted among total number of 215 teachers working on different posts. Aspects like the number of job switches, the reasons for job switching were studied. It was found that almost 52% of teachers who have worked in different organizations before joining the current organization. The more seriousness can be found in the fact that migration has taken from one organization to other in teaching profession only. Almost 75% of teachers do not want to change their current profession of teaching. However alarm bells are ringing for the institutions that almost 40% which is quite a sizable in number; like to change their current institute of work. It can only be on account of the poor experience they must be getting in their current institution. Time and again in different questions, the factor of “Additional Activities apart from Teaching” has found to be one of the significant factors affecting teachers negatively. There are almost more than 50 activities mentioned by teachers in which they are spending time apart from teaching. A teacher who has to take lectures and is also suppose to complete administrative job, would they have enough of time for lecture preparation and more of for research, is anybody’s guess. Significantly large number of i.e. 31% teachers have to take their work home and 45% of teachers stay back in the institute after working hour. Due to this, teachers get less time to spend with their family. Most of the time, the teachers who are sincere in their work are given the entire load relying on them that they will surely do the work. On aspects of working conditions in which teachers are doing their work, almost 28% of teachers do not have any separate place to sit after finishing their lecture. To add agony even further, almost 10% of 45
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEMEteachers do not have fan facility. It certainly resembles a pathetic scenario on workingconditions for teachers. 42% of teachers do not have fresh and clean fresh rooms, generalparlance termed as toilets. 32% of teachers do not have fresh and hygienic drinking water.45% of teachers do find relation between performance and reward; however 76% of teachersdo not find any incentive for good work. The reason for such contrasting picture may be thereward is also given in non economic format e.g. Best Teacher Award. In the same researchconducted teachers have replied positively on payment satisfaction. So mere extracompensation can not be the reason for the teacher turnover. Aspects like working conditions,career opportunities, performance – reward relation should be improved by the managementof the institutes.Key Words: Motivation, Retention, Working Conditions, Performance - Reward, careeropportunitiesAspects of Teacher Turnover (with Special Reference to Technical Education) The researcher has confined the scope of her study to the region of WesternMaharashtra and to the 2 Districts in it i.e. Kolhapur & Sangli. The researcher has chosenEngineering, Polytechnic, Technology and Management institutes. In sample of the institutesalso only known and those institutes which are performing for a considerable number of yearshave been selected; exceptions being of couple of institutes. Table 1.1 Classification of Institutes on the Basis of Disciplines Classification of Institutes Type of Management Engineering Polytechnic Technology Total Institution Count Count Count Count Count Total 9 10 6 1 26 (Source : Primary Data) Table 1.2 Number of Teachers in Each Type of Discipline Engineering Polytechnic Technology Management Total 122 27 04 62 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) 46
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME The researcher has studied the opinions of teachers of 26 institutions which areapproved by AICTE in the districts of Sangli and Kolhapur. The institutes come under thecategory of Engineering, Management, Polytechnic and Technology. The largest size i.e.56.7% is grabbed by Engineering, followed by 28.4% of Management Institutes. Technologyinstitutes forms the least slice of 1.86%. There is dominance of Engineering, Polytechnic institutes teachers in the sample ason the ground too there are more number of Engineering, Polytechnic institutes thanManagement institutes in the 2 districts. Table 1.3 Classification on the Basis of Gender and Designation Gender Male Female Total Designation Count Count Count Head of Department 10 4 14 Professor 2 0 2 Reader 2 0 2 Assistant Professor 18 4 22 Senior Lecturer 21 4 25 Lecturer 88 62 150 Total 141 74 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Designation wise largest number of Sample is of Lecturers which is of 69.77%;followed by that of Senior Lecturers i.e. 11.63% and Assistant Professor i.e. 10.23%. Theresearch has deliberately made distinction by keeping a separate designation of Head of 47
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEMEDepartment. It is very likely that these Heads of Departments may be having post of AssistantProfessor or Professor. Deliberate attempt has been made to get the opinions of Head ofDepartments as they do get to work many lecturers as well as Assistant Professors underthem. Table 1.4 Type of Job Migrated From Type of Job Migrated From No Previous Industry Teaching Both No Response Job Total 32 68 16 2 97 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Table 1.5 Total Number of Organizations Earlier Worked In Total Number of Organizations Earlier Worked In 0 1 2 3 4 Total 97 62 33 20 3 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) There are 45% of teachers who have not worked in any organization before joiningthe current organization. But there are almost 52% of teachers who have worked in differentorganizations before joining the current organization. There seems to be less stability and lessloyalty to institutions as teachers have migrated on even more than one count. The moreseriousness can be found in the fact that migration has taken from one organization to other inteaching profession only. There are only 14.88% of teachers who have come from theIndustry and 31.63% teachers who were earlier working in educational institutions only.7.44% of teachers have done both industrial and academic jobs before being on current job.So the figure percentage teachers migrated from academic profession comes to 38% asagainst only 15% from industry. Retention and motivational policies in technical educationinstitutions need to be seriously looked at. 48
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME On response to the reason of changing the job, most of the teachers who have repliedthat it was done on account of better job prospects. The growth motive can also be traced inthese teachers. After seeing no growth opportunity in organization, teachers seem to havechanged their organization. Table 1.6 Would you Like to Change In Profession? Change In Profession Yes No No Response Total 38 160 17 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Almost 75% of teachers do not want to change their current profession of teaching. Itseems to be a good sign. It can only be on account of the experience they have so far and alsothe like and love for the profession. Table 1.7 Change In Current Institute of Work? Change In Institute of Work No Yes No Response Total 87 112 16 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) After the above good sign, next is this bad sign where alarm bells are ringing for theinstitutions that almost 40% (87 in number and 7% of teachers have decided to keep silenceon the issue) which is quite a sizable in number; like to change their current institute of work. 49
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEMEIt can only be on account of the poor experience they must be getting in their currentinstitution. The management of these institutions has failed in their retention and motivationalpolicies.Some of the other reasons can be traced into the following aspects: Table 1.8 Do you have to looking After Too Many Activities Apart From Teaching? Looking After Too Many Activities Apart From Teaching True False No Response Total 150 58 7 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Table 1.9 Too much Clerical Work Involved in your Work? Too Much Clerical Work True False No Response Total 119 89 7 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)Time and again in different questions, the factor of “Additional Activities apart fromTeaching” has found to be one of the significant factors affecting teachers negatively. Thereare almost more than 50 activities mentioned by teachers in which they are spending timeapart from teaching. Teachers find too much clerical work involved in their job. One of theteachers has called it as “Donkey Work”. This include basically administrative duties,preparation various reports for various bodies and reporting to seniors. Until and unless thereis reduction in these activities, teachers will not get enough time for lecture preparation andresearch. A teacher should have teaching as well as research as his first priority. A teacherwho has to take lectures and is also suppose to complete administrative job, would they haveenough of time for lecture preparation and more of for research, is anybody’s guess. 50
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME Table 1.10 Do you have to Take Institute Work Home? Have to Take Institute Work Home True False No Response Total 67 143 5 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Table 1.11 Do you have to Stay Back After Working Hours? Staying Back After Working Hours True False No Response Total 97 112 6 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) These 2 factors affect the family life of teachers. Although majority of the teachershave replied negatively on these 2 aspects but still significantly large number of i.e. 31%teachers have to take their work home and 45% of teachers stay back in the institute afterworking hour. Due to this, teachers get less time to spend with their family. Organization Behavior calls for making balance between professional and personallife. Any imbalance on family front can affect working life ultimately. It should also be seenthat there should be equitable distribution of workload. Most of the time, the teachers who aresincere in their work are given the entire load relying on them that they will surely do thework. And the teachers normally found to be lethargic in their work, continue to be the sameand it is the sincere teachers who face the brunt of heavy workload. So it affects themotivation of sincere teachers who after a time, too start finding excuses for avoiding thework.It is also very interesting to see some of the aspects of teachers’ working conditions 51
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME Table 1.12 Is there Separate Arrangement of Cabin or Cubical for you? Arrangement of Separate cabin or cubical Yes No Shared No Response Total 146 61 1 7 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Table 1.13 Is there Availability of Fan at the place where you sit? Availability of Fan Yes No Shared No Response Total 186 21 1 7 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) The above some aspects enquire into the working conditions in which teachers aredoing their work. Almost 28% of teachers do not have any separate place to sit after finishingtheir lecture. Obviously a teacher would like to keep his things on desktop according to hisconvenience or work or prepare for lecture in alone or meet his students or have interactionwith them, even this little privacy the teachers are not getting. Libraries can not solution forseparate work area. To add agony even further, almost 10% of teachers do not have fan facility. This isthe basic minimum facility. It certainly resembles a pathetic scenario on working conditionsfor teachers. 52
  9. 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME Table 1.14 Do you get Separate Clean Fresh Room? Separate Clean Fresh Room Yes No No Response Total 115 91 9 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) Table 1.15 Do you get Fresh Hygienic Drinking Water? Fresh Hygienic Drinking Water Yes No No Response Total 139 69 7 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)It’s even more appaulling picture on hygiene conditions. 42% of teachers do not have freshand clean fresh rooms, general parlance termed as toilets. 32% of teachers do not have freshand hygienic drinking water. Someone who is the basic necessity for running educationalinstitute, the teachers are really the neglected elements as far as the working conditions areconcerned. Even after facing such tough times on working conditions, teachers who doingtheir work (whether qualitative or otherwise), one must salute them, one feels. Table 1.16 Is there No Relation Between Performance and Reward? No Relation Between Performance and Reward True False No Response Total 96 105 14 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1) 53
  10. 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEME Table 1.17 Are Incentives Provided For Good Performance? Incentives Provided For Good Performance Yes No No Response Total 30 164 21 215 (Source : Same as Table No. 1.1)45% of teachers do find relation between performance and reward; however 76% of teachersdo not find any incentive provided for good work. The reason for such contrasting picturemay by the reward is also given in non economic format e.g. appreciation by superiors, BestTeacher Award, sending teacher for summer or winter schools etc. But the second questionwas pertaining to economic aspect. There is no such economic reward which teachers aregetting for their good performance. 10% of teachers have preferred to keep mum on questionof incentive and good work. It’s only on one occasion teachers replied that they were gettingincentives in money if the result of the subject which they are teaching is 80% or more,teachers were given Rs. 1000/- as incentive.CONCLUSION Retaining teachers and that too dedicated teachers has really become a challengingtask. The problem of teacher turnover has too be seriously looked into. In the same researchconducted teachers have replied positively on payment satisfaction. So mere extracompensation can not be the reason for the teacher turnover. Aspects like working conditions,career opportunities, performance – reward relation should be improved by the managementof the institutes. This frequent job hopping by teachers can not only hamper the overallworking of the institutes but also the learning process of the students and students can bedeprived of real good knowledge if a dedicated and genuinely good teacher decides to leavethe institute on account of frustration and complete apathy of management towards his goodperformance. 54
  11. 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), ISSN 0976 – 6324(Print), ISSN 0976–6332 (Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- April 2013 © IAEMEREFERENCES1. E. Raj Kumar and K.Annamalai, “An Investigation on Faculty Development and Retentionin Technical Education” International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 1,2011, pp. 117 - 125, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.2. Saket Jeswani and Dr. Sumita Dave, “Emotional Intelligence as an Antecedent of TurnoverIntention: An Empirical Analysis on Faculty Members” International Journal of Management(IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 400, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.3. Dr. C. Kavitha and S. Sushma Raj, “A New Paradigm in Management of HigherEducational Institutes of Government Sector, India” International Journal of Management(IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 32 - 42, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 55

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