Anfis controller for solar powered cascade multilevel inverter 2

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Anfis controller for solar powered cascade multilevel inverter 2

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, October - December (2012), pp. 234-240© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp IJEETJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ©IAEME ANFIS CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR POWERED CASCADE MULTILEVEL INVERTER Shimi S.L. #1 , Dr. Thilak Thakur #2, Dr. Jagdish Kumar#3 , Dr. S Chatterji#4, Dnyaneshwar Karanjkar #5 #1, #3 Assistant Professor, #2Associate Professor, , #4Professor & Head,#5 Research scholar, #1, #4, #5 Electrical Engineering Department, NITTTR, Chandigarh #2, #3 Electrical Engineering Department ,PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh E-mail: #1shimi.reji@gmail.com, #2 tilak20042005@yahoo.co.in, #3 jk_bishnoi@yahoo.com, #4 chatterjis@yahoo.com,#5dskaranjkar@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT This paper deals with the design and simulation of solar powered cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter. ANFIS based controller switching scheme is used to improve the power quality thus to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)of the system . The system performance using ANFIS based controller are evaluated by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations and the results in terms of THD are simulate and compared with the conventional controller. Index Terms: Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Solar Powered Multilevel Inverter ,Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). I. INTRODUCTION Power quality is the major issue in the energy sector. The nonlinear electronic equipments connected in the network produce undesired harmonics components and results in poor power quality thus deteriorating the efficiency and performance of the system. To overcome these snag many different solutions have been proposed in literature. The multilevel converters are gaining high reputation because of their better efficiency and output waveforms over other standard two level pulse width modulated (PWM) converters [1], [2], [4], [5]. One of the major advantage of multilevel inverter is that even in high power application it is flexible to interface the renewable energy sources such as PV arrays, wind, and fuel cells in the dc input portion of the multilevel inverter [3, 4]. Multilevel converters have received more and more attention because of their capability of high voltage operation, high efficiency, and low electromagnetic interference (EMI) [5][3]. 234
  2. 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME The multilevel inverters use large number of power semiconductor devices for theirswitching thus results in more switching losses and is less reliable. But the industrialapplications such as industrial manufacturing are more dependent on induction motors andtheir inverter systems for process control. The IEEE 519 standard limits of THD of theoutput voltage of the converter circuit should be maintained for such applications [6]. Inindustries the harmonics mitigation of multilevel inverter circuit is a very important issue. In[7-9] the investigators have proposed the elimination theory to determine the switchingpatterns to eliminate the specific harmonics, such as 5th, 7th, 11th, and the 13th. In case of 3phase 11 level multilevel inverter there are 15 dc sources, as the number of dc sourcesincreases the degrees of the polynomials in these equations increases and thus it becomesdifficult to solve such a problem. The methods to solve such polynomial equations usingelimination theory are discussed in [10]. The solar powered multilevel inverter introduces alot of harmonics. In this paper an ANFIS based switching scheme is used for harmonicelimination. The knowledge of harmonic elimination for multilevel inverter is very necessaryas it gives an idea about the switching pattern for harmonic elimination in case of 11 levelcascade multilevel inverter [11].II. MULTILEVEL INVERTER DRIVES (MLIDS) In industrial drives the conventional inverter drives are most commonly used. Theyconsist of six power switches with pulse width modulation (PWM) switching. By using suchconventional converters the output voltage and current waveform qualities has deteriorated.To overcome this problem and improve the waveform quality the switching frequencyshould be increased, but this result in higher switching losses. As the number of levels ofmultilevel inverter is increased the output staircase waveform is more close to a sine wavethus very low distortion is produced in the output. Fig. 1 Single-phase structure of a mulitlevel cascaded inverterThe investigator of [3] has mainly discussed the cascade MLID and back-to-back diode-clamped converter topologies of multilevel inverters for electric drive application. The 235
  3. 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEcascaded multilevel inverter drive is the main focus of this paper. The Fig. 1 shows thesingle-phase structure of a multilevel cascaded inverter. 4ܸ஽஼ ∞ ܸ௔௕ ሺ‫ݐݓ‬ሻ ൌ ෍ ሺ ሺcosሺ݊ߠଵ ሻ ൅ cosሺ݊ߠଶ ሻ ൅ cosሺ݊ߠଷ ሻ ൅ cosሺ݊ߠସ ሻ ߨ݊ ௡ୀଵ,ହ,଻,ଵଵ,ଵଷ ൅ cosሺ݊ߠହ ሻሻ … … ሺ1ሻIII. PV MODELING Modeling of a solar cell is done by connecting a current source in parallel with aninverted diode along with a series and a parallel resistance as shown in Fig.2. The seriesresistance is due to hindrance in the path of flow of electrons from n to p junction and parallelresistance is due to the leakage current. The single diode model shown in Fig. 2 [13] wasadopted for simulating the PV module under different irradiance and temperature levels. Themodeling of the PV cell was done in MATLAB/SIMULINK by writing the code in theembedded block. The PV cell subsystems were modeled and connected to the 11 levelcascade multilevel inverter. Rs I + Rs V _ Fig. 2 Single diode model of a PV cellIn literature a number of approaches and models were found to analyze the behavior of PVs[14-16].The PV cell model used in this work is based on the single diode cell. The VI characteristics( in green) of a typical solar cell are as shown in the Fig. 3. 3. 1. PMPP 3 1. IMPP Cell current in A 2. MPP 1 Cell power in 2 0. 1. 0. 1 0. 0. 0. Vo 0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Cell voltage in V Fig. 3 V-I and P-V characteristics curve of photovoltaic cell 236
  4. 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEWhen the voltage and the current characteristics are multiplied we get the P-V characteristics(in blue) as shown in Fig. 4. The point highlighted as MPP is the point at which the panelpower output is maximum [17]. The equation (2) is the basic equation for the photovoltaiccurrent. ೇశೃೞ ಺ ௏ାோೞ ூ ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬௣௩ െ ‫ܫ‬௢ ݁ ೇ೟ ೌ െ1െ ோು …………………(2)Where,Ipv : photovoltaic currentI0 : saturation currentVt : thermal voltageRs : equivalent series resistanceRp : equivalent parallel resistancea : diode ideality constantIV. ANFIS (ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM) Intelligent control is the viable alternative to conventional control schemes. Theuncertain or unknown variations in plant parameters can be dealt more effectively by usingartificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy logic and neural network. Hence the robustnessof the control system can be improved. The multilayer feed forward network has nodes whichperforms a particular function on incoming signals. Each node has different formula. Thelinks in the adaptive network just indicate the signal flow direction [18, 19].V. PROPOSED DESIGN In this proposed method of the solar powered 11 level cascade multilevel inverter, hasfive input stages, all the five stages are alike in the construction module. All the modulesconsist of GTO’s as power switches. Fig. 4 Block Diagram of the proposed systemThe modulation index at the output of 11 level cascade multilevel inverter is calculated and isgiven as input to the ANFIS controller. The ANFIS controller chooses the optimized firingangles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and fires the 11 level cascade multilevel inverter. 237
  5. 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEVI. SIMULATED CIRCUITS AND WAVEFORMS The subsystem of the solar powered 11 level cascade multilevel inverter is shown inFig 5. The FFT spectrum of the line voltage is found using the FFT analysis tool. The FFTspectrum of a conventional controller and ANFIS controller are shown in Fig 6 and Fig 7respectively. The total harmonic distortion of a conventional controller is found to be 8.51 %and that of an ANFIS controller is found to be 4.51 %. Fig. 5 Subsystem of the solar powered 11 level cascade multilevel inverter Fig.6 FFT spectrum of conventional Fig.7 FFT spectrum of ANFIS controller controller 238
  6. 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEVII. CONCLUSION A three-phase solar powered 11 level cascade inverter has been proposed. The PV cellmodeling was performed and the dc supply for all the H-bridges were supplied through thePV cells. The ANFIS based switching scheme is used to fire the GTOs of multilevel inverterfor reducing the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and to improve the power quality of thesupply voltage and current. The total harmonic distortion of a conventional controller isfound to be 8.51 % and that of an ANFIS controller is found to be 4.51 %.REFERENCES[1] Carlo Cecati, Fabrizio Ciancetta, “A Multilevel Inverter for Renewables with FuzzyLogic-based Control”, IEEE Conference Publication, International Conference on CleanElectrical Power, 9-11 June 2009, Page(s): 227 - 231.[2] L.G. FRANQUELO, J. RODRIGUEZ, J. I. LEON, S. KOUKO, R. PORTILLO, M. A.M. PRATS, “THEAGE OF MULTILEVEL CONVERTERS ARRIVES”, IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS MAGAZINE,JUNE 2008, PP. 28-39.[3] L.M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, T. G. Habetler, “Multilevel Converters for Large ElectricDrives, ” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 35, no. 1, Jan./Feb. 1999, pp. 36-44.[4] J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel Inverters: Survey of Topologies,Controls, and Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 49, no. 4,Aug. 2002, pp. 724-738.[5] J. S. Lai and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel Converters – A New Breed of Power Converters,”IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 32, no. 3, May /June 1996, pp. 509-517. [6] C. K. Duffey and R. P. Stratford, “Update of Harmonic Standard IEEE-519: IEEERecommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric PowerSystems,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 25, no. 6, Nov./Dec. 1989, pp.1025-1034.[7] H. S. Patel and R. G. Hoft, “Generalized Harmonic Elimination and Voltage Control inThyristor Inverters: Part I –Harmonic Elimination,” IEEE Transactions on IndustryApplications, vol. 9, May/June 1973, pp. 310-317.[8] H. S. Patel and R. G. Hoft, “Generalized Harmonic Elimination and Voltage Control inThyristor Inverters: Part II –Voltage Control Technique,” IEEE Transactions on IndustryApplications, vol. 10, Sept./Oct. 1974, pp. 666-673.[9] P. N. Enjeti, P. D. Ziogas, J. F. Lindsay, “Programmed PWM Techniques to EliminateHarmonics: A Critical Evaluation” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 26, no.2, March/April. 1990. pp. 302 – 316.[10] J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. McKenzie, Z. Du, “A New approach to solving theharmonic elimination equations for a multilevel converter,” IEEE Industry ApplicationsSociety Annual Meeting, October 12-16, 2003, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp. 640-645.[11] T. Sripal Reddy, Dr. B.V.Sanker Ram, Dr. K. Raghu Ram “The Simulation AndAnalysis Of Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive”, International Institute ofEngineering and Technology Reserch Center, Vol No. 1, Issue No. 1, pp 043-049,2011. [12] E. Cengelci, S. U. Sulistijo, B. O. Woom, P. Enjeti, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg,“A New Medium Voltage PWM Inverter Topology for Adjustable Speed Drives,” in Conf.Rec. IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting, St. Louis, MO, Oct. 1998, pp. 1416-1423.[13] F. Filho, L. M. Tolbert, B. Ozpineci, Y. Cao, "Real Time Selective HarmonicMinimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural 239
  7. 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMENetwork Angle Generation," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 47, no. 5,Sept.-Oct. 2011, pp. 2117-2124[14] U. Boke, “A simple model of photovoltaic module electric characteristics,” EuropeanConference on Power Electronics and Applications, pp.1-8,Sept. 2007.[15] O. Gil-Arias, E. I. Ortiz-Rivera, “A general purpose tool for simulating the behavior ofPV solar cells, modules and arrays,” 11th Workshop on Control and Modeling for PowerElectronics, pp. 1-5, Aug. 2008.[16] R. Ramaprabha, B. L. Mathur, “MATLAB based modelling to study the influence ofshading on series connected SPVA,” 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends inEngineering and Technology, pp. 30-34, Dec. 2009.[17] Marcelo G, Gazoli J. and Filho E., “Comprehensive Approach to Modeling andSimulation of Photovoltaic Arrays”, IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 5,May 2009, p.p.1198-1208.[18] Mouloud A. Denai, Frank Palis, Abdelhafid Zeghbeb, ” ANFIS Based Modellingand Control of Non-Linear Systems: A Tutorial ”,IEEE International Conferenceon Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004.[19] J. S. R. Jang,”ANFIS: Adaptive Network-Based-Fuzzy Inference System”, IEEETransactions On Systems, Man And Cybernetics, VOL. 23, No. 3,May/June,1993.[20] A.Selwin Mich Priyadharson and Dr.T.R.Rangaswamy, “Cascaded Fuzzy ControllerScheme For Combustion Control Of A Utility Boiler Using Control Balance Model”International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 2, Issue 2,2011, pp. 42 - 53, Published by IAEME.[21] Sweeka Meshram, Ganga Agnihotri and Sushma Gupta, “A Modern Two Dof ControllerFor Grid Integration With Solar Power Generator” International Journal of ElectricalEngineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 164 - 174, Published byIAEME.[22] Ganni Gowtham , Ksitij Kumar , S.S Charan and K Manivannan, “ExperimentalAnalysis Of Solar Powered Ventilation Coupled With Thermo Electric Generator OnUnroofed Parked Vehicles” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology(IJMET), Volume3, Issue3, 2012, pp. 471 - 482, Published by IAEME.[23] M.S.Sujatha, Manoj Kumar.N and Dr M. Vijay Kumar, “Under Frequency LoadShedding For Reduction Of Energy Loss Using By Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Technique”International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume3, Issue2,2012, pp. 389 - 398, Published by IAEME 240

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