Analytical study of the scope of nuclear energy in indian energy scenario
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Analytical study of the scope of nuclear energy in indian energy scenario Analytical study of the scope of nuclear energy in indian energy scenario Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 224 ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE SCOPE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IN INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO Singh.L.P1 , Dubey.M.K2 , Singh.P.K3 , Verma.S.K4 , Kushwaha.V.K5 1,2,3,4,5 MED,SHIATS-DU, Allahabad ABSTRACT India though rich in coal and abundantly endowed with renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, hydro and bio-energy has very small hydrocarbon reserves. Our primary energy needs are meeting by more than 25% energy imports. Indian peak power deficit was 10.8% in 2010& line losses are approx. 30% which makes Indian energy scenario worse. We have 2 lakh MW cumulative installed capacity of power as of March-end 2012. The Union power ministries has set a target of 100, 000 MW of additional power generation between 2012 and 2017. This paper focuses on Indian energy current status &try to sort out the main challenge i.e. high dependence on imports by exploring possibility in various energy systems& try to tag right one for Indian requirements. Based on facts & figures we found thorium based nuclear cycle can be a solution for Indian power requirement. INTRODUCTION Long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmental friendly are the governing factors for the status of any country. Globally we are now approximately 7,079,884,000 [1] in numbers. India has second largest population bank in world i.e.1,21,01,93,422[2] which is approximately 17%. The high standards of living in the developed countries are attributable to high-energy consumption levels. Also, the rapid population growth in the developing countries has kept the per capita energy consumption low. A comparison between India& world’s most developed countries-[3] INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 224-231 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 225 U.S.A. Russian federation china United kingdom India Land area (km2 ) 9158960 16995800 9326410 241590 2973190 Population 315705900 142500482 1349585838 62.6 million 1210193422 Energy Consumption: (million barrels of oil equivalent) 17,260 5220 13380 1620 3280 Energy Per Capita: (barrels of oil equivalent per person) 57.2 36.8 10.2 26.6 2.9 We are far behind in terms of energy per capita. India ranks sixth in the world in total energy consumption. Per capita energy consumption (498.39kwh)[4] in India is one of the lowest in the world. But, energy intensity is one of the highest in comparison to other developed and developing countries. For example, it is 3.7 times that of Japan, 1.55 times which of the U.S.A. 1.47 times that of Asia and 1.5 times that of the world average. Thus there is a huge scope for energy conservation in the country. Global energy sources& their current status in India Coal- Coal provides 30.3% of global primary energy needs and generates 42% of the world's electricity. Top 6 coal producers by 2011. [6] Approximately 70% of the coal is being used for thermal generation in India. Coal takes care of half of the primary energy needs and a third of the total energy needs in India[7].Due to low coal quality & poor conversion performance of coal based power plants we are looking forward in the field of power generation. We can see a pattern that developed countries like USA have 2nd position in coal production but uses in electricity generation is quite less as compared to developing countries like India. Developed countries switched to other form of energies because electricity generation through coal is destructive to our globe health through massive greenhouse gases production. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 top coal producer countries 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% southaffrica poland china australia kazakhsthan india israel greece morocco czecrep usa germany globally use of coal in electricity generation
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 226 Oil-World proved oil reserves at end of 2011 reached 1481526 million. In which OPEC countries have share of approximately 81%. It is sufficient to meet approximately 55 years of energy requirement at current rate. [8] Distribution among opec Venezuela 24.8% Libya 4% Saudi Arabia 22.1% Nigeria 3.1% Iran 12.9% Quatar 2.1% Iraq 111.89% Algeria 1% Kuwait 8.5% Angola 0.9% United arab emirates 8.2% Ecuador 0.7% India had 5.5 billion barrels of proved oil reserves at the end of 2012 which is about 0.6% of the total world. Another factor is India is 4th largest consumer in the world. Petroleum meets only 23% of the total Indian energy demand which includes imported as well as domestic production oil. [9] Natural gas- It is a substitute for both coal as well as petroleum because it emits 20% to 25% less CO2 emission as compared to petroleum products & 60% less as compared to coal based energy output.[10]In 2011 throughout the world produces 3388 bcm. In which top 10 countries produces approximately 66.70% of gas. India has rank 19 in the world with 46.1bcm of natural gas producers [11]. On consumption front India consumes 55.7 (Million tones oil equivalent) and hold 12th rank in the world [12].India became 6th largest importer of natural gas in the world by 2011. Impact of primary energy needs on Indian economy-India has current (2013-2014) total budget of 680123 in crore of rupees in which authorities plans to expense 158287 crore of rupees in energy sector which is approximately of around 23.27%. [13] 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Top 10 natural gas producers in 2011 world oil comodity non opec countries opec countries
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 227 India, which relies on import for 79% of its oil needs, bought a total of 182.5 million tonnes crude in 2012-13. It had in the previous fiscal imported 171.7 million tonnes of crude oil, up from 163.4 million tonnes in 2010-11 and 159.2 million tonnes of 2009-10. During 2011-12 India spent a 160 billion USD to import crude oil, import bill during same period surges to approximately 40%. This is an amount equivalent to more than half of the country’s total earnings from exports during the same period. If we take a glance on all over energy import bills expense for our energy essentials then definitely this will be a huge amount. This huge drastic amount can meet our thousands of in house purposes if somehow we shall manage our energy starving. Renewable Energy Source-Indian government took an interest in Renewable energy to overcome the difference between its demand & supply. The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy estimates that there is a potential of around 90,000 MW for the country. Solar Power in India- India has a 5 trillion kWh/year theoretical potential [16] & Most of the country receives more than 4kWh/m2 /day & we have More than 300 sunny days in the most part of the country which making it an ideal scenario for solar power in India. We are far behind in terms of solar energy utilization &storage. The first applications for solar power has been for water pumping to replace India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps. New projects are on the pipeline and an area of 35,000 square km has been set aside in the Thar for solar power projects. Only less than 5% of the THAR desserts can provide enough solar energy to meet all India energy needs. It is estimated these projects will generate 200,000 megawatts by 2050 which is approximately around 1.3 times of the current energy production of the country. Some obstacles (1-cost, its manufacturing procedure (R & D), 2-The land acquisition for erecting solar power plants) with solar power in India are also there. Wind power-As of February, 2013 wind energy installed capacity of India is 18527MW total [17]. The total potential for wind power in India was first estimated by the Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) at around 45 GW, and was recently increased to 48.5 GW. However with the help of technology and R&D by placing old turbines to the new ones at a hub height of 55-65 meter Indian wind turbine manufacturer claimed that we may have potential up to 65-70 GW. India has a long coastline of over 7500 kilometers based on which world institute of sustainable energy assumes that with some innovation we shall able to achieve approximately 100GW of potential. 0 50000 100000 150000 200000quantity imports of crude oil, petroleum products & lng[14] crude oil petroleum products
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 228 Hydroelectric Power-Over 19 % of electricity produced by India today is from hydropower. During the Tenth and Eleventh Plan periods it has registered a compound annual growth rate of only about 4 per cent. The average annual net capacity addition during the Tenth Plan was almost 1,700 MW, which dropped to below 900 MW in the Eleventh Plan. Going forward, the Central Electricity Authority expects a hydro capacity addition of 11,897 MW in the Twelfth Plan period, including a contribution of 3,534 MW by private companies [18]. Although we have enough potential of generating a huge amount power from our renewable. But it will not meet our current growth rate in energy sector. Now the big question is that which energy source can be a panacea for Indian peak power deficit. Is India blessed by nature in some other form of energy? Which source could provide us concentrated high quality energy? Let us find out our answers in form of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy-Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of an atom. The energy provided by 1 kg of uranium will be equivalent to 3000 tons of coal if utilized at its full capacity. [19] In the reactor core nuclear releases energy in form of heat which is used to generate steam& steam is used to generate electricity. Based on different chain reactions there are two form of nuclear energy. 1- Nuclear fission 2-Nuclear fusion Nuclear food-Uranium- Uranium is mostly used to serve the purpose because of its fissionability. It is found mainly in seawater & rocks [20]. World total uranium production was 54610 tons in 2011 which were increased by 2% from last period i.e. 53610 tons in 2010 natural uranium contains mainly 1-U238(99.2739%), 2-U235(fissionable)(0.7205%), 3-U234(.0056%). India produced 400 tons of uranium by 2011 remains same from last period data & shares only 0.73 % contribution. Annual uranium requirements for 2010 amounted to 930 tons and will increase in tandem with increases in installed nuclear capacity. Identified conventional resources can support 10-15GW installed capacity of PHWR operating at a lifetime capacity factor of 80% for 40 years [22]. During the period 2010 production was 400 tons and requirement was 930 tons. This indicates again a huge difference between demand v/s supply. Which may again create an energy panic to India. So I think we cannot totally reckon on uranium based nuclear power cycle. Uranium based cycle does not answer to all my questions which I persuade before discussion to nuclear energy. Another nuclear food is thorium. Let us find out some possibilities in field of thorium based nuclear power cycle. Source wise Estimated Potential of Renewable Power (in MW) in India as on 31.03.2011 Wind power Small hydro power Biomass power Cogeneration- bagasse Waste to energy Total Estimated Reverses All india total 49130 15385 17538 5000 2707 89760
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 229 Thorium- Thorium is safer and more efficient alternative to the sole use of uranium and plutonium for nuclear power generation. Thorium is not a primary exploration target and resources are estimated in relations to uranium and rare earths resources. [23][24]Based on available resources data I must say- Yes, the answers to our all my previous questions is thorium based nuclear power cycle. It is the most concentrated available energy. Indian power status based on nuclear- The Indian nuclear power program has three stages according to its limited uranium and vast thorium resources. In the first stage, PHWR of 10, 000 MW are deployed. PHWR uses natural uranium as fuel and generate Pu239 as a byproduct, which is fissile. Utilization of uranium in such reactor is less than 3%. In the second stage, LMFBR is to be deployed to utilize rest uranium. In LMFBR, the Pu generated in first stage of reactors is used as fuel for fission energy. The core of LMFBR is surrounded by natural or depleted U238 as fertile blanket material which in due course gets converted to Pu239. The Pu239 thus generated in LMFBR is more than that used for fission leading to breeding ratio greater than 1 towards the fag end of second stage. Th232 is to be used as a fertile material which gets converted to U233. The U233 thus bred will be used as fissile material and thorium as blanket in the third stage of the breeder reactor. Presently 9 PHWRs are under operation and generating about 200 MW powers, while some other are under construction. The IGCAR is entrusted with the responsibility of developing fast breeder technology for India. Already a loop type fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) of 40 Mwe thermal energy, based on French design is under operation at this center. 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Estimated world thorium resources in tons 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 kazakhstan canada australia niger namibia uzbekistan russia USA china ukraine malawi southaffrica india brazil uranium production (tu) figure by 2011 0 5 10 15 20 USA france russian… china southkorea japan ukraine U.K. germany canada top 10 countries based on uranium consumption in 2011(in 1000 metric tons)[23]
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 230 A comparison with the remain world [25] S. no. Country Reactors in operation Reactors under construction Nuclear electricity supplied in 2011 No of units Total MW No of units Total MW TWh % of total 1 United States of America 104 101465 1 1165 790.4 19.3 2 France 58 63130 1 1600 432.5 77.7 3 Japan 50 44215 2 2650 156.2 18.1 4 Russian federation 33 23643 10 8188 162.0 17.6 5 Republic of Korea, 21 18751 5 5560 147.8 34.6 6 India 20 4391 7 4824 29.0 3.7 7 United kingdom 18 9953 ------ -------- 62.7 17.8 SUMMARY & CONCLUSION Based on data facts and figures it can be predicted nuclear is far better option for Indian power requirement as compared to others. Let us have a look on comparison between all three (conventional, non-conventional, nuclear) energy sources in respect to India. Conventional energy source Non-conventional energy source Nuclear energy Available potential Too much disappointing, we are dependant for our present needs. 90,000 MW In PHWR-330 GW-Yr, In fbrs- 42200 GW-Yr, In breeders 150,000 GW-Yr [26] Total Installed & under construction capacity 141713.68 MW including coal gas & oil Grid interactive power 28068.45 MW, Off grid power- 882.57[27] as on 31/03/13 9215 MW Estimated life Exhaustible in one century Never ended form of energy For several thousand years %contribution in electricity generation 66.91% [29] 30.81% [29] 3.7 % Safety measures. It works like slow poison, too harmful to environment Completely safe, no harm to environment Very sensitive issue. Under IAEA guide lines nuclear plants are constructing.
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 231 REFERENCES 1. http://www.census.gov/popclock/-till 19 April 2013 2. http://www.censusindia.gov.in 3. http://www.worldpopulationbalance.org/population_energy 4. as per CIA World Fact book 2012 5. http://www.productivity.in/knowledgebase/Energy%20Management/a.%20Energy%20and%20 environment/1.1%20Global%20Energy%20Scenario/1.1%20globalenergy%20scenario.pdf 6. International energy agency 7. World coal association/ archive 2012 8. OPEC annual statistical bulletin 2012 9. U. S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINSTRATION / india overview 10. "Composition of natural gas". Naturalgas.org. Retrieved 2012-07-14. 11. CIA. The World Fact book. Natural gas - production 12. National statistical organization ministry of statics and program implementation energy statics 2012 13. Data by ministry of finance union budget 2013-14 14. Indian petroleum & natural gas statistics 2011-12 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_electricity_production_from_renewable_sou rces 16. Potential being mapped by IMD (Indian meteorological department), and few other institutes 17. http://www.indianwindpower.com/ 18. 10th Annual Conference on HYDRO POWER IN India Accelerating Development: Issues and Opportunities- January 29-30, 2013, the Imperial, New Delhi 19. Walter C Patterson NUCLEAR POWER SECOND EDITION PENGUIN BOOKS 20. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Facts-and-Figures/Uranium-production- figures/#.UYB8H7VkSvg 21. http://www.statista.com/statistics/37400/uranium-consumption/ 22. URANIUM 2011: RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, ISBN 978-92-64-17803- 8, © OECD 2012 23. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Current-and-Future-Generation/Thorium/#.UYG-ObVkSvg 24. OECD NEA & IAEA, Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand ("Red Book"), using the lower figures of any range and omitting ‘unknown’ CIS estimate. 25. IAEA NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 2012 26. http://www.icrier.org/pdf/Presentation V_Raghuraman_SessionV.pdf 27. http://mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/ 28. http://www.igcar.ernet.in/igc2004/rtisection4.pdf 29. http://powermin.nic.in/indian_electricity_scenario/introduction.htm 30. Ankush Gupta, Ameesh Kumar Sharma and Umesh Sharma, “Future Potential of Small Hydro Power Project in India”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 427 - 442, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553. 31. Prakash Kumar Sahu and Prof.Dr.A.C.Tiwari, “Implement of Solar Energy in Thermal Power Station for Increase Sensible Heat of Makeup Water for Save the Conventional Energy, A Review & Case Study”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 180 - 186, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.