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Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
Analysis of low noise smps system
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Analysis of low noise smps system

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, October - December (2012), pp. 211-221 IJEET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com ANALYSIS OF LOW NOISE SMPS SYSTEM 1 S.Sankar, 2S.Saravanakumar, 3M.Padmarasan, 4C.T .Manikandan, 5D.Jayalakshmi 1 Professor of EEE, Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai, TamilNadu, India,ssankarphd@yahoo.com 2 Professor of IT, Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India,saravanakumars81@gmail.com 3 Assistant Professor of of EEE, Panimalar Institute ofTechnology, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India,padmaras_mathi@yahoo.com 4 Assistant Professor of of EEE, Panimalar Institute ofTechnology, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India,manikandanct@yahoo.com 5 Assistant Professor of of EEE, Research scholar, St.Peters University, Chennai, TamilNadu, India, djayalakshmi28@gmail.com ABSTRACT The analysis of open and closed loop controlled DC-DC converter in SMPS system is analyzed in this paper. A new model of soft switching DC-DC converter topology with circuit is presented in this paper for the switching mode power supply applications. It is a type of power converter. Such electronic devices often contain several sub-circuits, each with its own voltage level require different from that supplied by the battery or an external. Additionally, the battery voltage declines as its stored power is drained. SMPS DC to DC converters offer a method to increase voltage from a partially lowered battery voltage thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same thing and the UPS operation at different modes are analyzed. Index Terms: DC-DC converter, Zero voltage soft switching, Zero current soft switching, Converter, Inverter. 1. INTRODUCTION A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source, like mains power, to a load, such as a personal computer, while converting voltage and current characteristics. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output 211
  • 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEvoltage, typically at a level different from the input voltage. Unlike a linear power supply, thepass transistor of a switching-mode supply continually switches between low-dissipation,full-on and full-off states, and spends very little time in the high dissipation transitions(which minimizes wasted energy). Ideally, a switched-mode power supply dissipates nopower. Voltage regulation is achieved by varying the ratio of on-to-off time. In contrast, alinear power supply regulates the output voltage by continually dissipating power in the passtransistor. This higher power conversion efficiency is an important advantage of a switched-mode power supply. Switched-mode power supplies may also be substantially smaller andlighter than a linear supply due to the smaller transformer size and weight. Switchingregulators are used as replacements for the linear regulators when higher efficiency, smallersize or lighter weights are required. They are, however, more complicated; their switchingcurrents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed, and simple designsmay have a poor factor. The switching power semiconductor in the SMPS system, theproblem of the switching loss and EMI/RFI noises has been closed up. This course producedthe EMC limitation like the International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR)and the harmonics limitation like the International Electro technical Commission (IEC). Forkeeping up with the limitation, the SMPS system must add its system to the noise filter andthe metal and magnetic component shield for the EMI/RFI noises and to the PFC convertercircuit and the large input filter for the input harmonic current. On the other hand, the powersemiconductor device technology development can achieve the high frequency switchingoperation in the SMPS system. The increases of the switching losses have been occurred bythis high frequency switching operation. Of course, the inductor and transformer size havebeen reduced by the high frequency switching, while the size of cooling fan could be hugebecause of the increase of the switching losses. By using LC resonant phenomenon, this technique can minimize the switching powerlosses of the power semiconductor devices, and reduce their electrical dynamic and peakstresses, voltage and current surge-related EMI/RFI noises under high frequency switchingstrategy. Thus, a new conceptual circuit configuration of the advanced forward type softswitching DC-DC converter which has the neutral point inductor connected auxiliaryresonant snubber (NPC-ARS) circuit is presented in this paper with its operating principle insteady state. In addition, its fundamental operation and its performance characteristics of theproposed forward type soft switching DC-DC converter treated here are evaluated on thebasis of experimental results. A New Controller scheme for Photo voltaics power generationsystem is presented in [1]. The design and implementation of an adaptive tuning systembased on desired phase margin for digitally controlled DC to DC Converters is given in [2].Integration of frequency response measurement capabilities in digital controllers for DC toDC Converters is given in [3]. A New single stage, single phase, full bridge converter ispresented in [4]. The Electronic ballast control IC with digital phase control and lamp currentregulation is given in [5]. A New soft-switched PFC Boost rectifier/inverter is presented in[6]. Novel soft switched PWM current source rectifier is presented in [7]. The auxiliaryresonant commutated pole converter is given by [8].Resonant snubbers with auxiliaryswitches are given in [9]. A control strategy for PWM current source rectifier is given in[10].Comparison of active clamp ZVT techniques applied to tapped inductor DC-DCconverter is given in [11].The multiple output AC/DC Converter with an internal DC UPS isgiven in [12].The Bi-directional isolated DC-DC Converter for next generation powerdistribution – comparison of converters using Si and Sic devices are presented. The aboveliterature does not deal with modeling and simulation of closed loop controlled SMPS Systememploying forward converter. This work aims to develop a model for the Closed loop SMPSSystem. 212
  • 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME In some cases, the output ripple of the converter may still be higher than desired, evenwith the proper inductor and capacitor selections. In this case, an additional inductor andcapacitor may be used as a low pass filter at the converter output. A DC/DC Converter isnormally chosen because of its high efficiency in converting the input power to output power.Unlike a linear regulator, the efficiency measure of a DC/DC Converter generally increasesas its load increases. A properly designed DC/DC Converter can yield an efficiency measureof greater than 90% at full load. The efficiency of a DC/DC Converter is expressed as theratio of output power and input power. The following equations can be used to determineefficiency.II. Analysis of DC converter system The power supply network is connected to an H-bridge converter consisting of fourIGBT’s with anti-parallel diodes for bidirectional power flow mode. The converter should becontrolled so that two main tasks are accomplished: (i) providing a constant DC link voltage;(ii) ensuring an almost unitary power factor connection with the power network. ApplyingKirchhoff’s laws, this subsystem is described by the following set of differential equations: die ve 1 = − s vdc (1a) dt L1 L1 dvdc 1 1 = s ie − is (1b) dt 2C 2Cwhere ie is the current in inductor L1 , vdc denotes the voltage in capacitor 2C , is designatesthe input current inverter, ve = 2 .E. cos(ωet ) is the sinusoidal network voltage (with knownconstants E , ωe ) and s is the switch position function taking values in the discrete set{ − 1, 1 }. Specifically:  1 if S is ON and S ′ is OFF (1c) s= − 1 if S is OFF and S ′ is ONThe above (instantaneous) model describes accurately the physical inverter. Then, it is basedupon to build up converter simulators. However, it is not suitable for control design due to theswitched nature of the control input s . As a matter of fact, most existing nonlinear controlapproaches apply to systems with continuous control inputs. Therefore, the control design forthe above converter will be performed using the following average version of (1a-b) [6]: dx1 ve 1 = − u1 x2 (2a) dt L1 L1 dx2 1 1 = u1 x1 − is (2b) dt 2C 2C where: x1 = ie , x2 = vdc , u1 = s (2c)are the average values over the cutting periods of ie , vdc and s , respectively. 213
  • 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEIII. Modeling of Inverter systemThe inverter model is based on the motor equations in the rotating α -and- β axes and readsas: dΩ f m T = − Ω + (isβ φrα − isα φrβ ) − L (3a) dt J J J disα = baφrα + bpΩφrβ − γisα + m1vsα (3b) dt disβ = baφrβ − bpΩφrα − γisβ + m1vsβ (3c) dt dφ r α = −aφrα + aM sr isα − pΩφrβ (3d) dt dφ r β = −aφrβ + aM sr isβ + pΩφrα (3e) dtwhere isα , isβ , φrα , φrβ , Ω , and, TL , are the stator currents, rotor fluxes, angular speed, andload torque, respectively. Wherever they come in, the subscripts s and r refer to the statorand rotor, respectively. That is, Rs and Rr are the stator and rotor resistances; Ls and Lr arethe self-inductances. M sr denotes the mutual inductance between the stator and rotorwindings. p designates the number of pole-pairs, J the inertia of the motor-load set, and fis the friction coefficient. The remaining parameters are defined as follows: R M sr 2 2 2 2 M a = r ,b = , γ = ( Lr Rs + M sr Rr ) / σLs Lr , σ = 1 − ( M sr / Ls Lr ) , m = p sr , Lr σLs Lr Lr 1 m1 = . σLsIn (3a-e), vsα , vsβ are the stator voltage in the αβ -coordinates (Park’s transformation of thethree phase stator voltages). The inverter is featured by the fact that the stator α- and β-voltages can be controlled independently. To this end, these voltages are expressed infunction of the corresponding control action (see e.g. [2]): vsβ = vdc u3 , vsα = vdc u 2 (4a) Fig.1.Open loop circuit for Low Noise Converter 214
  • 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME Fig.2. Current through switch S1The open loop controlled low noise system is as shown in the Fig.1.Where (u 2 , u3 ) represent the average α- and β-axes (Park’s transformation) of the three phaseduty ratio system ( s1 , s2 , s3 ) . The latter are defined by (1c) replacing there ( S , S ) by ( Si , Si )( i = 1, 2,3 ).Now, let us introduce the state variables: x3 = Ω , x4 = isα , x5 = isβ , x6 = φrα , x7 = φrβ , (4b)where the bar refers to signal averaging over cutting periods (just as in (2c)). Using the powerconservation principle, the power absorbed by the DC/AC inverter is given by the usualexpression Pai = x2 is . On the other hand, the power released by the inverter is given byPrm = x2 (u2 x4 + u3 x5 ) . As Pai = Prm , it follows that: is = (u 2 x4 + u3 x5 ) (4c) Then, substituting (4a-c) in (3a-e) yields the following state-space representation of theassociation ‘inverter-motor’:In the Fig.2 shows the current flow at the switch S1 dx3 f m T = − x3 + ( x5 x6 − x7 x4 ) − L (5a) dt J J J dx4 = bax6 + bpx3 x7 − γx4 + m1u2 x2 (5b) dt dx5 = bax7 − bpx3 x6 − γx5 + m1u3 x2 (5c) dt dx6 = − ax6 + aM sr x4 − px3 x7 (5d) dt dx7 = − ax7 + aM sr x5 + px3 x6 (5e) dt The state space equations thus obtained are put together to get a state-space model of thewhole system including the AC/DC/AC converters and the induction motor. For convenience,the whole system’s model is rewritten here for future reference: dx1 ve 1 = − u1 x2 (6a) dt L1 L1 215
  • 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME dx2 1 1 = u1 x1 − (u 2 x4 + u3 x5 ) (6b) dt 2C 2C dx3 f m T = − x3 + ( x5 x6 − x7 x4 ) − L (6c) dt J J J dx4 = bax6 + bpx3 x7 − γx4 + m1u 2 x2 (6d) dt dx5 = bax7 − bpx3 x6 − γx5 + m1u3 x2 (6e) dt dx6 = −ax6 + aM sr x4 − px3 x7 (6f) dt dx7 = −ax 7 + aM sr x5 + px3 x6 (6g) dt Fig.3.Current through Switch S2 Similarly the current flow at S2 is as shown in the Fig.3. The output voltage across the loadis shown in the Fig.4. Fig.4.Output Voltage across the Load With increase in voltage with time 216
  • 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEMEThe closed loop controlled low noise converter is as shown in the Fig.5. The output voltageacross the load as shown in the Fig.6. Fig.5.Closed loop circuit for Low Noise Converter Fig.6.Closed loop output voltage across the load with a set point of 95V With the exception of the “online” style UPS, an uninterruptible power supply cannot runon its battery power indefinitely. The schematic of half wave bridge rectifier as shown in theFig.7. The amount of time it can run depends on the amount of power the load connected to itwill consume and the current capacity of the battery, as stated in the previous section. Whenthe line power comes back on the amount of power that has been depleted from the batteryhas to be restored. To restore the power a battery charger is used. The charger is essentially an AC to DCconverter. It will receive an AC input voltage and rectify it to a DC current. This can be donein many different ways. The most efficient way to rectify an AC signal to DC is the use of thebridge or full wave rectifier. 217
  • 8. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME When the AC source is outputting it positive current the diode D1 and D2 conduct creatinga positive output across the resistor RL. When the AC source transitions into its negativecurrent output, diodes D1 and D2 no longer conduct, but diodes D3 and D4 begin to conductand then fully turn on. When this happens the current direction through RL stays the samekeeping the output voltage positive. This causes theoutput of the circuit to be a purely DC output. Fig. 7. Schematic of a bridge or full wave rectifier The inverter section of the UPS is conversion device that will convert a DC signal to anAC signal. It takes the DC power supplied by the battery and converts it to a usable ACpower for the component. Fig. 8. Single phase bridge inverter In figure 8 a bridge single phase inverter is shown. Vs would be the battery of the UPSdevice. To allow a positive output voltage on the load both switches Q1 and Q2 must be on.Then when the voltage and current is driven negative switches Q1 and Q2 must turn off andthen switches Q and Q4 must turn on. This process would be repeated every 16.67milliseconds or at a frequency of 60 Hz. The diodes in the inverter circuit shown above arefreewheeling diodes used to prevent voltage spikes during the transitioning time of theswitches. All uninterruptible power supplies have an inverter/converter at some point. When highpower devices are connected to the output a three phase inverter could be used. The threephase inverter is basically three single phase inverters connected in parallel to form theconfiguration of a three phase inverter. To obtain the desired three phases, the gating signals should be advanced delayed 120degrees to obtain a balanced three phase inverter 218
  • 9. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME Fig.9.Three phase bridge inverter In the Fig. 9. Three phase bridge inverter schematic connected in parallel, there willbe six transistors and six diodes. Only two transistor switches will be on at any one time. There are six modes of operations in a cycle and each mode is 60 degrees. This allowsthere to be three separate phase outputs. When switches Q1 and Q6 are on there is a positivevoltage developed across nodes a and b. To transition from a positive to negative voltageacross node a and b Q1 and Q6 must turn off and then Q4 and Q3 would turn on. To complete the remaining two sets of phase voltages across nodes b and c as well asnodes a and c we will turn on the following switches. Switches Q3 and Q2 will be on for apositive voltage across node b and c, then switches Q6 and Q5 for a negative voltage acrossnode b and c. Finally, to obtain a positive voltage across nodes a and c switches Q1 and Q2will be on, and to develop a negative voltage across these same two nodes switches Q4 andQ5 need to be on.IV. CONCLUSION This Application Note has demonstrated that the PIC16C620A can be used to performsimple SMPS controller functions, such as Constant Voltage, Constant Current, or ConstantVoltage with current limit. The program example can be used with any of the PICmicrofamily members, which has on-board comparators. These types of units have been configuredto accept different standards in both input voltage and frequency and are also available inmany output power ranges from 560VA to 6KVA.REFERENCES[1] Tamer T.N.Khabib, Azah Mohamed, Nowshad Admin,”A New Controller Scheme forPhoto voltaics power generation system,”European journal of scientific research ISSN 1450-216X vol.33 No.3 (2009), pp.515-524[2] J.Morroni, R.Zane, D.Maksimovic, ”Design and Implementation of an adaptive tuningsystem based on desired phase margin for digitally controlled DC-DC Converters, ”IEEETrans. Power Electron.,vol.24,no.2,pp.559-564,feb.2009[3] M.Shirazi,J.Morroni,A.Dolgov,R.Zane,D.Maksimovic,”Integration of frequency responsemeasurement capabilities in digital controllers for DC-DC Converters,”IEEETrans.PowerElectron.,vol.23, no.5,pp.2524-2535,sep.2008[4] Hugo Ribeiro, Beatriz V.Borges,”New single stage, single phase, full Bridge Converter,“submitted for appreciation to the Technical committee of IEEE ECCE-Energy conversioncongress and exhibition, January 2009 219
  • 10. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME[5] Y.Yin, M.Shirazi, R.Zane,”Electronic Ballast control IC with digital phase control andlamp current regulation,”IEEETrans.Power Electron., vol.23, no.1, pp.11-18, jan.2008[6] Yungtaek Jang,David L.Dillman and Milan M.Javanovie,”A New soft-switched PFCBoost Rectifier with Integrated Flyback Converter for stand –by Power,”IEEE Trans.onPower Electronics,pp.66- 72,No.1,2006[7] Gerry Moschopoulos and Geza Joos, “A Novel Soft-Switched PWM Current SourceRectifier/ Inverter”, Proc. of 25th IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference,pp.978-984, 2010[8] R.W. De Doncker “The Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole Converter”, IEEE IAS’10 Records, pp.829-834, 2010[9] W.MacMarray “Resonant Snubbers with Auxiliary Switches”, IEEEIAS7 ’11 Records,pp.829-834, 2011[10] Braz J. Cardoso Filho, Steffen Bernet and Thomas A. Lipo, “A New Control Strategy forthe PWM Current Stiff Rectifier/Inverter with Resonant Snubber”, Proc. of 28th IEEEAnnual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp.574-579, June, 2011[11] S. Abe, T. Ninomiya, Comparison of Active-Clamp and ZVT Techniques Applied toTapped-Inductor DC-DC Converter with Low Voltage and High Current, Journal of PowerElectronics, Vol.2, No.3, pp.199-205, 2011[12] Arturo Fernandez,Member,IEEE,Javier sebastin,Member IEEE,Maria HernandoMember IEEE,”Multiple output AC/DC Converter with an Internal DC UPS,”IEEE Trans onIndustrial Electronics.vol.53.no.1.Feb.2011BIOGRAPHY Dr.S.Sankar obtained his B.E Degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering at Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, from Madras University and M.E (Power System) Degree from Annamalai University Chidambaram. He has done his Ph.D in the area of FACTS controllers in 2011. His research interests are in the area of FACTS, Electrical Machines, Voltage stability, power quality, Power system security and Power System Analysis. Dr S.SARAVANAKUMAR has more than 10 years of teaching and research experience. He did his Postgraduate in ME in Computer Science and Engineering at Bharath engineering college,anna university chennai, and Ph.D in Computer Science and Engineering at Bharath University, Chennai. He has guiding a number of research scholars in the area Adhoc Network, ANN, Security in Sensor Networks, Mobile Database and Data Mining under Bharath University Chennai, Sathayabama University and Bharathiyar University. 220
  • 11. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October – December (2012), © IAEME Mr.M.PADMARASAN has completed his B.E. in Priyadharshini Engineering College, Vaniyambadi. He completed his M.E. (Power System Engineering) at Annamalai University, Chidambaram in the year of 2004. He is a Research Scholar in Sathyabama University. His area of interest is Power System Stability, Dynamics, Renewable Power Generation, Hybrid Power Generation & High Voltage Engineering. He published various papers in International Journals & Conferences. Mr.C.T.MANIKANDAN has completed his B.E. in V.R.S College of Engineering and Technology,Arasur. He completed his M.E. (Power Electronics and Drives) at Anna University, Chennai in the year of 2009. His area of interest is DC-DC converters,Inverters ,Electrical Machines,Power Qualityand Facts devices. He published various papers in International Journals & Conferences.Conferences. D.Jayalakshmi obtained her B.E Degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering at Jaya College of Engineering, from Madras University and M.E (Power System) Degree from AnnaUniversity Chennai.. Her area of interest is Power System Stability, Dynamics, Renewable Power Generation, Hybrid Power Generation & High Voltage Engineering. She published various papers in International Journals & Conferences. 221

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