Analysing secure image secret sharing schemes based on steganography


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Analysing secure image secret sharing schemes based on steganography

  1. 1. INTERNATIONALComputer Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING International Journal of JOURNAL OF COMPUTER (IJCET), ISSN 0976- 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) IJCETVolume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 172-178© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) © ANALYSING SECURE IMAGE SECRET SHARING SCHEMES BASED ON STEGANOGRAPHY Sonali Patil 1, Kapil Tajane 2, Janhavi Sirdeshpande 3 1 (Research Student, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, India) 2, 3 (ME Student, Pimpri Chinchwad College of Engineering, Nigdi, Pune, India) ABSTRACT The idea of secret sharing is to start with a secret, divide it into pieces called shares, which are then distributed amongst participants by the dealer. Only certain authorized subsets of participants can reconstruct the original secret. Visual Cryptography is a technique in which a secret is encrypted into several image shares/shadows and then decrypted later using a human visual system to stack all the share images. Conventional visual Cryptography methods divide a secret image into n shares and distribute these shares to n participants. But the created shadows are meaningless which can attract the attacker’s attention. Applications for secret sharing schemes seem to be getting more important now a days. For many circumstances, secret sharing has to provide more security as per the need of an application. To remedy such kind of vulnerabilities embedding of shadows can be a solution. The shadows can be embedded in cover images which make them more secure. The intent of this paper is to explain how the combination of secret sharing and steganography makes the secret sharing scheme more secure. The four different secret sharing schemes based on steganography to support the security of scheme. The comparative study of these methods guides to select a scheme and also proposes need of future to make such schemes stronger. Keywords: Cryptography, Secret Sharing, Security, Steganography I. INTRODUCTION Due to fast growth of Internet applications, digitized data becomes more and more popular. Secure transmission of data is more and more needed in the worldwide computer network environment. The effective and secure protections of sensitive information are primary concerns where only encrypting data is not a solution. Data security becomes an important issue nowadays. In certain applications, it is a risk if a set of secret data is held by 172
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEonly one person without extra copies because the secret data set may be lost incidentall or incidentallymodified intentionally. Secret Sharing Schemes refers to method for distributing a secretamongst a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret. The secretcan be reconstructed only when a sufficient number of shares are combined together; combinedindividual shares are of no use on their own. Shamir [1] introduced a secret sharing in 1979.1.1 Visual Cryptography Visual cryptography (VC) is a secret-sharing scheme that uses the human visual secret sharingsystem to perform the computations. Naor and Shamir introduced Visual Cryptography (VC)in 1994 [2]. They asked the following intriguing question: is it possible to devise a secret .sharing scheme in which an image can reconstructed "visually" by superimposing twoshares? Each share would consist of a transparency, made up of black and white pixels.Examination of one share should reveal no information about the image. Naor and Shamirdevised the scheme that specifies how to encode a single pixel, and it would be applied forevery pixel in the image to be shared. This scheme is illustrated in the Fig. 1. ge Fig 1. Visual CryptographyA pixel P is split into two sub pixels in each of the two shares. If P is white, then a coin tossis used to randomly choose one of the first two rows in the figure above. If P is black, then a above.coin toss is used to randomly choose one of the last two rows in the figure above. Then thepixel P is encrypted as two sub pixels in each of the two shares, as determined by the chosenrow in the figure. Every pixel is encrypted using a new coin toss. encrypteSuppose we look at a pixel P in the first share. One of the two sub pixels in P is black and theother is white. Moreover, each of the two possibilities "black-white" and "white "black white" "white-black" isequally likely to occur, independent of whether the corresponding pixel in the secret image is whetherblack or white.Thus the first share gives no clue as to whether the pixel is black or white. The sameargument applies to the second share. Since all the pixels in the secret image were encryptedusing independent random coin flips, there is no information to be gained by looking at anygroup of pixels on a share, either. This demonstrates the security of the scheme. 173
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME1.2 Steganography Image embedding hides a secret message in a cover image, this process is usuallyparameterized by a hide-key, and the detection or reading of embedded information ispossible only by having this key.1.2.1 Least Significant Bit Insertion [4] In this method the secret message is embedded into the least significant bit plane ofthe image. Since this only affects each pixel by +/- 1, if at all, it is generally assumed withgood reason that the degradation caused by this embedding process would be perceptuallytransparent. Hence there are a number of LSB based Steganography techniques available inthe public domain. The problem with this method is that it does not provide protection againstsmall changes resulting from lossy compression or image transformations. The otherdisadvantage of this method is that it is having very less data hiding capacity.1.2.2 Adaptive MELSBR Method [3] To avoid changing the properties of cover-images, the message must be embedded in"random texture" areas of each bit-plane. For taking advantage of local characteristics, anadaptive Steganography method based on the Minimum Error LSB Replacement (MELSBR)method is proposed. First, the upper bound of embedding capacity for each pixel in the cover-image is evaluated. If the amount of message to be embedded is less than the total embeddingcapacity provided by the cover-image, whole secret message will be embed in a local areaand it can be easier for the attacker to extract the secret. To treat this scattering method isprovided.1.2.3. Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS): [4] BPCS steganography was introduced by Eiji Kawaguchi and Richard O. Eason, toovercome the short comings of traditional steganographic techniques such as LeastSignificant Bit (LSB) technique, Transform embedding technique, Perceptual maskingtechnique. This traditional technique has limited data hiding capacity and they can hide up to10 – 15% of the vessel data amount. BPCS steganography makes use of importantcharacteristic that of human vision. In BPCS, the vessel image is divided into “informativeregion” and “noise-like region” and the secret data is hidden in noise blocks of vessel imagewithout degrading image quality . In LSB technique, data is hidden in last four bits i.e. onlyin the 4 LSB bits . But in BPCS technique, data is hidden in MSB planes along with the LSBplanes provided secret data is hidden in complex region. Various secret sharing techniques have been developed to secure data, but there is aneed to add more security to created shares as the shares are meaningless which can addattacker’s attraction. The created shares can be embedded in cover images to make the sharesmeaningful. Very few researchers have proposed the combination of secret image sharing andhiding techniques. These techniques give higher reliability and security at the same timecompared to only sharing or only hiding techniques. Chin-Chen Chang and Duc Kieu [7]have proposed a novel secret sharing and information-hiding scheme by embedding a secret 174
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEimage and a secret bit stream into two shadow images. It has limited reliability and shadowimage size is more. Y.S. Wu, C.C. Thien, and J.C. Lin [10] have proposed sharing and hidingof secret images but with size constraint. Wang’s [11] verifiable secret sharing method isused to create the shares/shadows for binary images. This paper discusses few secret sharingschemes based on steganography. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 some definitions are discussed.Section 3 covers literature survey based on secret sharing schemes and steganography.Section 4 discusses the comparison of the schemes discussed in literature survey. Finally insection 5, the survey is summarised based on their comparative results.II. SOME DEFINITIONSFor Image quality improvements some important concepts get used which are defined below:PSNR: The distortions present in the stego image are calculated using Peak to Signal NoiseRatio (PSNR).MSEcolor: Mean Square Error between the original cover color image and the stego colorimage. Formal foundation of secret sharing was formulated using the information theory.Two important concepts were defined based on information rate: ideal and perfect schemes.Information Rate: The information rate was studied by Stinson. It is a measure of theamount of information that the participants need to keep secret in a secret sharing scheme.The information rate for a particular shareholder is the bit-size ratio (size of the shared secret)/ (size of that user’s share). The information rate for a secret sharing scheme itself is theminimum such rate over all participants. The efficiency of a secret sharing scheme ismeasured by its information rate.Ideal Secret Sharing: Secret sharing schemes with information rate 1 are called ideal.Scheme is ideal if share has the same length as secret. Ideal property can be thought asefficiency.Perfect: A perfect threshold scheme is a threshold scheme in which knowing only (t - 1) orfewer shares reveal no information about Secret S whatsoever, in the information theoreticsense.III. REVIEW3.1 Review of Lin and Tsais scheme [6] Lin and Tsai suggested a secret sharing method which divides a secret image into theshadows based on t-1 polynomial. These shadows are embedded within a cover image to hidethe secret. [6] added authentication along with steganography to prevent participants fromfalse stego image changed in active attacks. However the secret image reconstructed usingthe above secret sharing method will have distortions because of truncations of gray pixelsvalues that are greater than 250.Drawback: Some applications not tolerate even small distortions. Dishonest participants caneasily manipulate the stego image for successful authentication but cannot recover the secretimage. The other shortcoming is that the visual quality of the stego images is not goodenough. 175
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3.2 Review of chang’s scheme [7] Chin-Chen Chang, Yi-Pei Hsieh, Chia-Hsuan Lin overcame drawbacks in Lin anTsai’s scheme and proposed a novel secret image sharing scheme combining Steganographyand authentication based on Chinese remainder theorem (CRT). The proposed scheme notonly improves the authentication ability but also enhances the visual quality of the stegoimages.3.3 Review of Yang et al.s scheme [8] Yang, C.N., Chen, T.S., Yu, K.H., Wang, C.C. presented a scheme to improveauthentication ability that prevents dishonest participants from cheating.The scheme also defines the arrangement of embedded bits to improve the quality of stego-image. Furthermore, by means of the Galois Field GF(28), they improved the scheme to alossless version without additional pixels.3.4 Review of L.Jani Anbarasi’s scheme [9] L.Jani Anbarasi and S.Kannan proposed Novel image secret sharing for color imagewhich possesses reversible characteristics. Authorized participants are allowed to reconstructthe secret and the original cover from the stego using the reversibility scheme. This reversiblescheme can be used for medical image processing, artistic images and military images wherethe secret is retrieved without any distortion.IV. COMPARATIVE RESULTS The experimental results are produced to compare Lin, Yang, Chang and Anbarasai. TABLE 1. Comparison of PSNR for stego image Leena for Lin, Yang, Chang and Anbarasai schemes Cover Image Secret Share Lin [8] Yang [12] Chang [14] Anbarasi[20] Image PSNR DHC PSNR DH PSNR DHC PSNR DHC % C% % % Brain.bmp Lenna1 38.85 12.5 41.23 14 37.65 16 41.88 52 128X128 Baboon.bmp Leena2 38.15 12.8 40.43 15 38.65 16 42.88 52 512X512PSNR: Peak to Signal Noise RatioDHC: Data Hiding capacity 176
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEV. CONCLUSION In this paper we have tried to analyze secure secret sharing schemes based on secretsharing with steganography. These secure secret sharing schemes draw our attention, and weare also eager to know their specific implementation methods. Also the performances ofexisting secure secret sharing schemes are evaluated on Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and DataHiding Capacity.REFERENCES[1] Shamir, How to share a secret, Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, 1979.[2] M. Naor and A. Shamir, “Visual cryptography,” Cryptograhy:EUROCRYPT’94, LNCS, vol. 950, pp. 1–12, 1995.[3] P.S.Revenkar, Anisa Anjum, W .Z.Gandhare, “Survey of Visual Cryptography Schemes, International Journal of Security and Its Applications”, Vol. 4, No. 2, April, 2010[4] József LENTI, steganographic methods, PERIODICA POLYTECHNICA SER. EL. ENG. VOL. 44, NO.3–4,PP.249–258(2000)[5] Steve Beaullieu, JonCrissey, IanSmith, BPCS Steganography, University of Texas at San Antonio.[6] Lin, C.C., Tsai, W.H., 2004. Secret image sharing with steganography and authentication. J. Syst. Software 73 (3), 405–4l4[7] Chin-Chen Chang, The Duc Kieu “Secret Sharing and Information Hiding by Shadow Images”, 2006.[8] Yang, C.N., Chen, T.S., Yu, K.H., Wang, C.C., 2007. Improvements of image sharing with steganography and authentication. J. Syst. Software 80 (7), l070–1076.[9] L.Jani Anbarasi and S.Kannan, 2012. Secured Secret Color Image Sharing With Steganography. ISBN: 978-1-4673-1601-9/12/2012 IEEE. ICRTIT-2012[10] Wu, Y.S., Thien, C.C., Lin, J.C., 2004. Sharing and hiding secret images with size constraint. Pattern Recognition 37 (7), l377–l385.[11] Wang, D., Zhang, L., Ma, N., Li, X., 2007. Two secret sharing schemes based on Boolean operations. Pattern Recognition 40 (l0), 2776–2785[12] Blakley, G.R., l979. “ Safeguarding cryptographic keys”. In: Proc. AFIPS National Computer Conf., vol. 48, pp. 3l3–3l7.[13] Chang, C.C., Hwang, R.J., l997. Efficient cheater identification method for threshold schemes. IEE Proc. – Comput. Digital Techn. l44 (l), 23–27[14] Beimel, A., Chor, B., l998. Secret sharing with public reconstruction. IEEE Trans.Inform. Theory 44 (5), l887– l896.[15] Thien, C.C., Lin, J.C., 2002. Secret image sharing. Comput. Graphics 26 (l), 765–770.[16] C.Thien, and J. C. Lin, Secret Image Sharing, Computers and Graphics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 765-770,2002.[17] Wang, R.Z., Su, C.H., 2006. Secret image sharing with smaller shadow images Pattern Recognition Lett. 27(6),55l–555.[18] Chin-Chen Chang , Yi-Pei Hsieh , Chia-Hsuan Lin, 2008. Sharing secrets in stego images with authentication. Pattern Recognition 41 (2008) 3130 – 3137 177
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME[19] Chang, C.C., Lin, C.C., Lin, C.H., Chen, Y.H., 2008. A novel secret image sharing schemin color images using small shadow images. Inform. Sci. l78 ( ll), 2433–2447[20] Chang, C.C., Hsieh, Y.P., Lin, C.H., 2008. Sharing secrets in stego images with authentication. Pattern Recognition 4l (l0), 3l30–3l37.[21] Chen, T.H., Tsao, K.H., 2009. Visual secret sharing by random grids revisited. Pattern Recognition 42 (9), 2203–22l7.[22] Pei-Yu Lin, Chi-Shiang Chan, 2010. Invertible secret image sharing with steganography. Pattern Recognition Letters 31 (2010) 1887–1893[23] Zhi-hui Wang, Chin-Chen Chang, Huynh Ngoc Tu, Ming-Chu Li, Sharing a Secret Image in Binary Images withVerification, Volume 2, Number 1, January 2011.[24] Prabakaran. G, Dr. Bhavani.R and Kanimozhi.K, “Two Secret Image Hiding Method Using SVD and DWT Techniques” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 102 - 107, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[25] Vismita Nagrale, Ganesh Zambre and Aamir Agwani, “Image Stegano-Cryptography Based on LSB Insertion & Symmetric Key Encryption” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 35 - 42, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[26] B.Saichandana, Dr.K.srinivas and Dr. Reddi Kiran Kumar, “Visual Cryptography Scheme for Color Images” International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 207 - 212, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 178