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An experimental investigation of engine coolant temperature on exhaust emission of 4 stroke
 

An experimental investigation of engine coolant temperature on exhaust emission of 4 stroke

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    An experimental investigation of engine coolant temperature on exhaust emission of 4 stroke An experimental investigation of engine coolant temperature on exhaust emission of 4 stroke Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME217AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ENGINE COOLANTTEMPERATURE ON EXHAUST EMISSION OF 4 STROKE SPARKIGNITION MULTI CYLINDER ENGINEAjay K. Singh*1, Dr A. Rehman21* Research Scholar, Maulana Azad National Institute of technology, Bhopal-4620512Professor, Maulana Azad National Institute of technology, Bhopal-462051ABSTRACTThe present investigation reports the experimental study carried out by using threecylinders, four stroke petrol carburetor of Maruti 800 engine. The engine is connected to eddycurrent type dynamometer to provide suitable loading with provisions for measuring andcontrol of fuel flow to maintain fuel –air mixture ratio. It is found that exhaust emission is adependent parameter on decrease even at higher loads which confirming that engine performbetter upon optimal load condition rather than part load condition The result shows thatraising the temperature of coolant in the engine block can produce significant improvementsin the engine performance with a corresponding reduction in Hydrocarbon (HC) emission.Similarly lowering the coolant temperature in the cylinder head increases the knock limit ofthe engine with a corresponding reduction in the levels of NOx in exhaust emissions.Fuel efficiency is one of the major concerns for the users, the designers and themanufacturers of internal combustion (IC) engines, The effect of increasing the temperatureof cylinder liner has the advantage of reducing the specific fuel consumption but it increasesthermal stresses on piston head, challenges material properties such as high temperature yieldstrength, creep and high temperature fatigue, increases chances of knocking and pre ignitionand decreases the volumetric efficiency.KEYWORDS: Exhaust emission, spark ignition engine, optimization, and engine coolanttemp.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 217-225© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME2181. INTRODUCTIONThe effect of increasing the liner temperature i.e., engine temperature, has an advantage ofreducing the exhaust emission , however, high head temperature increases thermal stresses inthe top of the piston crown which , increases chance of knocking and pre ignition andreduces volumetric efficiency. Heat transfer to the air flow in the intake manifold lowers thevolumetric efficiency as the density of the intake air is decreased. In addition to above,optimum engine temperature is required for a number of other important reasons, includingmaterial temperature limits, lubricant performance limits, and emissions. [23-24] since thecombustion process in an internal combustion engine is not continuous, in contrast to that ofan external combustion engine, the average component temperatures are lower than the peakcombustion temperatures. The engine temperature is maintained by transfer of heat to acirculating coolant. [21]There are two types of engine cooling systems used for heat transfer from the engineblock and the head viz. (a) liquid cooling and (b) air cooling. In almost all multi cylinderpassenger automobiles liquid coolant is used as the heat transfer fluid. With a liquid coolant,the heat is removed through the use of internal channels within the engine block. Liquidsystems are much quieter than air systems, since the cooling channel also absorbs the soundsfrom the combustion process. However, liquid systems are subject to freezing, corrosion, andleakage problems that do not exist in air system. [1]The heat transfer rate in an engine is dependent on the coolant temperature and theengine size, among other variables. Complex interactions exist between various operationalparameters. For example, as the temperature of the engine coolant decreases, the heat transferto the coolant will increase, and the combustion temperature will decrease. [2-4]With increasingly compact engine design and higher specific power, the density of the wasteheat (i.e., the heat necessary to be dessipitated) has increased significantly. Removing heatfrom an increasingly restricted space is of particular concern especially at vulnerable region,such as the ‘exhaust valve bridge’ area, as the risk of catastrophic failure in such regions isincreased considerably even with minor failure in the cooling system. This heat rejectionproblem which is prominent at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) conditions is tackled byoptimizing coolant gallery design for optimum heat transfer effectiveness by targeting thisregion with high coolant-flow velocities. Consequently, hydraulic losses in the enginecooling system is evident at ‘part-load’ conditions in convectional engine-cooling systembecause at the ‘part-load’ conditions the engine driven coolant pump, supplies more than thatrequired coolant flow in the system[19-20]Recent developments have seen thermal management features integrated into theengine management system to enable an optimized balance between engine warm-up, cabinconditions, electrical and electronic system, catalytic conversion and emission performance.Although the current engine-cooling system is a passive system, the engine managementsystem controls the heat distribution in the engine and the vehicle by compensating enginecontrols, such as spark timing and air-fuel ratio to regulate engine power output, as well asheat production and distribution to each part of the engine. Although the integration of thevehicle and the engine thermal management into the engine-cooling system significantlyimproves engine performance, there are limitations to the overall benefits that can beachieved with a simplistic and passive engine-cooling system. The engine-cooling system canbe improved significantly with the inclusion of advanced design and operating features,allowing the engine-cooling system to operate efficiently and effectively, indirectly
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME219improving fuel economy and lowering emission output. With greater emphasis placed onimproving fuel economy are lowering emissions output from modern IC engines, enginedownsizing & raising power density are the favored options. Through this route, modernengines can attain similar power outputs to larger convectional engines with reducedfrictional losses. [15-16]Further the introduction of legislated cold-start driven-cycle tests has changed thesignificance of engine-cooling system, due to its impact on the end results. Rapid enginewarm up is critical in attaining low fuel consumption and emission in drive-cycle tests asengine efficiency and emission are poorest in cold start which gradually improves as theengine warms up. The high demand for heat from the cabin heater in cold-climate conditions,in addition to performing safety functions, such as demisting & de-icing of the windscreen,further prolongs the engine warm up time. [5-6]The SI engines being used in automotives in India are designed with cold weatherconditions in consideration. As the coolant inlet temperatures are invariably the ambienttemperatures, any large variation in ambient temperatures are expected to cause variation inengine temperatures during cold start, warm up as well as during continuous operationbecause heat transfer in radiator will be affected by ambient temperature. India is amongthose tropical countries where the variation in the temperature is large. Considering this, it isvery difficult to predict and to maintain the optimal engine temperature of automobilesoperating in India. [10-11].Aaron Hein et al. (2000) faced several challenges in dealing with the noise generatedby the snowmobile. Noise coming from the exhaust, intake, and from the engine through thehood vents had to be reduced to an acceptable level based on the criteria stated in the rules forthe competitionThis paper presents an experimental study in this demanding and evolving area whichhas not attracted the kind of attention it deserves. The present paper deals with theexperimental studies conducted in this regard during which a three cylinder, four stroke,petrol, carburetor engine (Maruti 800) connected to eddy current type dynamometer forsimulating loading was adopted to study the effect of varying coolant temperatures (henceengine temperature) of 45 to 85°C with varying engine rotational speed of 1500 to 2400 rpmon the exhaust emission.2. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILSThe experimental study was carried out on a test rig which mainly consisted of a threecylinders, four stroke, water cooled, engine (Maruti 800) coupled with an eddy current type,dynamometer.. The facility also existed for control of once through cooling water (noradiator) and also for measuring the inlet and outlet temperature of the cooling water. The setup is also provided with necessary instruments for measurements of combustion pressure andcrank-angle. These signals are interfaced to an IBM computer through engine indicator forPΘ/PV diagrams. Provision is also made for interfacing airflow, fuel flow, temperatures andload measurements. The setup has standalone panel box consisting of air box, fuel tank,exhaust gas analyzer, manometer, fuel measuring unit, transmitters for air and fuel flowmeasurements, process indicator, load indicator and engine indicator. Rotameters areprovided for cooling water and calorimeter water flow measurement. The setup enables studyof engine performance for Exhaust emissions, brake power, indicated power, frictionalpower, BMEP, IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, mechanicalefficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific fuel consumption, air-fuel ratio and heat balance.
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME220Fig.1: Computerized Test rig of 3 Cylinder 4 Stroke Water Cooled SI EngineThe above test rig was used to examine exhaust emissions, with varying engine coolanttemperature of 45oC to 85oC with respect to simulated engine loading of 5 to 14 kg.Engine temperature has been controlled by controlling cooling water flow rate. Nocoolant and/or additives were added in the water. The cooling water flow rate for engine ismeasured manually by rotameter. The values of engine performance parameter are directlyobtained by using "Engine Soft" software3. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONSThe results have been shown by various graphs in figure 2 to figure 5 trends of variationof Hydrocarbon (HC) against engine temperature, engine speed & engine load are shown.Fig. 2: Effect of engine temperature on HC with varying engine speed and at 5kg engine load20025030035040045045 55 65 75 85HCinPPmEngine temp. in deg.1500180021002400
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME221Fig. 3: Effect of engine temperature on HC with varying engine speed and at 8kg engine loadFig. 4 Effect of engine temperature on HC with varying engine speed and at 11 kg engineloadFig. 5: Effect of engine temperature on HC with varying engine speed and at 14 kg engineload25030035040045045 55 65 75 85HCinPPmEngine temp. in deg1500180030035040045045 55 65 75 85HCinppmEngine temp. in deg.150018002100240030035040045045 55 65 75 85HCinppmEngine temp. in deg1500180021002400
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME2223.1 Effect of engine temperature on HC emission:An analysis of results as shown from figures 2 to fig 5 reveals that at the simulatedloading of 5 kg the scatter in the data especially at the low temperature of 45oC is large which isusually the case because this temperature can be considered to be the warm up temperature. Thestability of data improves as the engine temperature increases and this is true irrespective of theengine rpm. As load increases HC emission increased as the engine works against higherresistance leading to uniform and stable operation of the engine. In this condition the engineoperations move from no load to on load condition. This can be attributed to the higher cycletemperature and better combustion efficiency. As the load increases the HC emission increasedbut it decreases when engine coolant temperature varies from 75oC to 85oC at 5 kg to 14 kgengine load.The results have been shown by various graphs in fig. 6 to fig. 9 trends of variation ofoxides of Nitrogen (NOx) against engine temperature, engine speed & engine load are shown.Fig. 6: Effect of engine temperature on NOx with varying engine speed and at 5kg engineloadFig. 7: Effect of engine temperature on NOx with varying engine speed and at 8kg engineload45050055060065070075080045 55 65 75 85NOxinPPmEngine Temp in degree1500180021002400600800100012001400160045 55 65 75 85NOxinPPmEngine Temp in degree1500180021002400
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME223Fig. 8: Effect of engine temperature on NOx with varying engine speed and at 11 kg engineLoadFig. 9: Effect of engine temperature on NOx with varying engine speed and at 14 kg engineload3.2 Effect of engine temperature on NOx emission:An analysis of results as shown from fig. 6 to fig. 9 reveals that at the simulatedloading of 5 kg the scatter in the data especially at the low temperature of 45oC is large whichis usually the case because this temperature can be considered to be the warm up temperature.NOx emissions shows decreasing trends when engine coolant temperature varies from 65oCto 85oC at 5 kg to 11 kg engine load; it also decreases at 14 kg engine load and 65oC to 75oCengine coolant temperature.5008001100140017002000230045 55 65 75 85NOxinPPmEngine Temp in degree150018002100240010001300160019002200250045 55 65 75 85NOxinPPmEngine temp in degree1500180021002400
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME2244. CONCLUSIONThe following conclusions can be drawn from the experiments on spark ignition engine:-1. The study confirms that exhaust emission is a dependent parameter on the engine coolanttemperature.2. The result shows that raising the temperature of coolant in the engine block can producesignificant improvements in the engine performance with a corresponding reduction inHydrocarbon (HC) emission.3. As the load increases, HC emission increased but is shows decreasing trends from 75oC to85oC engine coolant temperature at 5 kg to 14 kg engine load.4. Similarly lowering the coolant temperature in the cylinder head increases the knock limitof the engine with a corresponding reduction in the levels of NOx in exhaust emissions.5. NOx emissions shows decreasing trends when engine coolant temperature varies from65oC to 85oC at 5 to 11 kg engine load.5.0 REFERENCES[1] Robinson K, N., Campbell, J., Hawley. (1999) and D. Tilley (1999),"A Review ofPrecision Engine Cooling". SAE paper 1999-01-0578.[2] Borman, G. and K. Nishiwaki (1987), "International Combustion Engine Heat Transfer,"Proceedings of Energy Combustion Sci., 13, p. 1 - 46.[3] Bruckner, M. Gruenbacher, E. Aberer, D. RE, L.D., Tschreiter, F, (Oct 2006), "PredictiveThermal Management of Combustion Engine," page 2778-2783,[4] Shayler, P., S. Charistian, and T. MA, (1993), "A Model for the Investigation ofTemperature, Heat Flow and Friction Characteristics During Engine Warm up," SAEpaper no 931153[5] D. Bradley, G. T. Kalghatgi, M. Golombok, Jinku yeo, (1996) "Heat Release Rates due toAuto-ignition, and Their Relationship to Knock Intensity in Spark Ignition Engines",Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, pp.2653-2660.[6] Kirlosker, C.S., Chanderasekher, S.B and Narayan Rao, N.N., The av-1 series 3differentially cooled semi-adiabatic diesel engine below 10kw.SAE paper no.790644.1979.[7] Finlay, I.C. Tugwell, W., Biddulp, T.W. and Marshell, R.A.:- “The influence of CoolantTemperature on the Performance of a Four Cylinder 1100cc engine.[8] Kubozuka, T., Ogava, N., Hirano, Y .and Yayashi, Y: - The development of engineevaporative cooling system .SAE paper no. 870033, (1987).[9] Clough ,M.J.: Precision cooling of a four valve per cylinder engine .SAE paper, no.931123.(1993)[10] Guillemot, P., Gatellier, B. and Rouveirolles, P. :-The influence of coolant temperature onunburnt hydrocarbon emission from spark ignition engine SAE paper no 941962, (1994).[11] Pang ,H.H., Brace ,C.J. and Akehurst, S. “Potential of controllable engine cooling systemto reduce nox emission in diesel engine” SAE paper no.(2004)[12] Nishano, T., Seneba, H. and Murakami, N. “Study of engine cooling technology forknock suppression in spark ignition engines”. Mitsuhibishi Motor Technology Review2004, no.16.
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME225[13] Finlay, I.C., Gallacher, G.R., Biddulph, T.W. and Marshell, R.A.:- The application ofprecision cooling to the cylinder head of a small automotive petrol engine, SAE paperno. 880263.(1988)[14] Fattic, G. T. and Walters, J.E: Cold starting performance of a 42 volt integrated startergenerator system, SAE paper no. 2002-01-0523, 2002.[15] Taylor, C.F. (1985), "The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice," MITPress, Cambridge, Massachusetts.[16] LI WEI, Wang Ying, Zhou Longbao, Su ling, (10 April 2007), "Study on Improvementof Fuel Economy.[17] LI Jafari, Siamak Kazemzadeh Hannani, (January 2006),"Effect of Fuel and EngineOperational Characteristics on The Heat Loss From Combustion Chamber Surfaces of SIEngines", International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 33, Issue 1,Pages 122-134.During Engine Warm-up," American Journal of Applied Sciences 4 (3),106-111, ISSN 1546-9239.[18] Willard W. Pulkrabek (2003) “Engineering fundamental of internal combustion engine”page no. 229-230[19] A. Rehman, R.M. Sarviya, Savita Dixit, Rajesh Kumar Pandey (2010) “The influence ofcoolant temperature on the performance of a four stroke S.I. engine employing dualcircuit cooling system” CIGR Journal, Vol. XII, Januray, 2010.[20] Aaron Hein, Dustin Jagusch, Josh Mills, Jesse Olson, Marti Price, Brett Russenberger,Jeremy Thoennes, Scott Betcher, Mark Brandl, Allen Caldwell, Ryan Erickson, JeffGillen, Lance Groth, Dale LaRue, Nathan Lindeman, Brian Martin, Jan Smith, JasonWilke, Bruce Jones and Kirk Ready, “1998 Polaris Indy Trail: An Entry by MinnesotaState University, Mankato in the ’Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000’ ”, SAE TechnicalPaper Series 2000-01-2574, 2000.[21] Z. Ahmed and D. K. Mahanta, “Exergy Analysis of a Compression Ignition Engine”International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3,Issue 2, 2012, pp. 633 - 642, ISSN Print : 0976 - 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[22] Suhas B.G, Shivaprasad and K.V , Kumar G.N, “Experimental Investigation of SingleCylinder 4s Si Engine With Hydrogen Blends”, International Journal of MechanicalEngineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 84 - 95, ISSN Print :0976 - 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359.[23] T. Pushparaj and S. Ramabalan, “Influence of CNSL Biodiesel with Ethanol Additive onDiesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission”, International Journal of MechanicalEngineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 665 - 674,ISSN Print : 0976 - 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359.[24] Shri. N.V. Hargude and Dr. S.M. Sawant, “Experimental Investigation of Four StrokeS.I. Engine using Fuel Energizer for Improved Performance and Reduced Emissions”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3,Issue 1, 2012, pp. 244 - 257, ISSN Print : 0976 - 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 - 6359.