International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) V...
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An analysis of product development activities of an indian venture

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An analysis of product development activities of an indian venture

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME320AN ANALYSIS OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES OF ANINDIAN VENTUREYash Pratap AggrwalM.tech scholar, Division of Mechanical Engineering, School of Civil and MechanicalEngineering, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, IndiaABSTRACTThis paper explores the activities involved during Development of the Customerdesigned based Product of an Indian venture firm of automobile ancillaries. In todays rapidlygrowing global economy companies need to continuously improve, and innovate theirresources. Because customers expect better products and services all the time, organizationshave to be creative and innovative. This paper does not only discuss and reviews thedefinition of product development (PD) and the Seven phases of product development inwhich all the activities of PD of Indian organizations are involved but also leads to a detailedanalysis of product development activities of Indian organization, one which make Fuelinjection Pipes.Keywords: Product Development, Product development processes, Product developmentphases, product development department, Production department, Indian organization1. INTRODUCTIONIn a cutthroat market of today, organizations can only be victorious if they can pleasethe customers with their products [1]. This difficult task, counts not only the existing productportfolio but also the capability of presenting new exciting products to the market at regulartime intervals. These efforts can be usually carried out in Product development (PD) with thehelp of different organizational groups within the company. Product development is one ofthe most powerful but complex activities in business [2]. Business managers and marketingacademics of multiple organizations consider Product development as the key of anorganization’s long-term survival. The development of excellent product not only opens newmarkets and attracts new customers, but also influence existing assets and expand anorganization’s capabilities [3].INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 320-327© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME321Product development can be brought into the product in different forms such as newfeatures/functions, new looks/feel or new technologies, contributing to the main sources forkeeping customers excited which affects the results in maintaining or increasing market share[4-6]. Generally, there are separate departments in organizations one is which deals with theproduct development and another which deals with the production of the developed product.Other departments in an organization have the perspective to support these two departments.In all Indian companies, product development department has to hand over the developedproduct to the Production Department of the company so that mass production can be started.All production steps, processes and their sequence, their conditions and parameters aredecided and documented during the product development. The production department hasonly just to follow those processes as defined in the handover documents.2. THE TRADITIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STAGESExtent literature introduces the Different definitions of the stages involved in PDP.Ward [7] uses Design system, Design sub-system, Test sub-system, Test system, andLaunch” as the major stages in the “V development processes”. And Crawford [8] defined thePDP stages as “Opportunity identification and selection, Concept generation, Concept orproject evaluation, Development, and Launch”.Yelkur and Herbig describe the eight stage of traditional new product developmentprocess: idea generation, screening, concept development and testing, marketing strategy,business analysis, development, market testing and commercialization [9]. For this to occur,four major tasks must take place. First, product designs and/or models must be madeavailable to manufacturing and to the team for preliminary market testing. Second, marketacceptance studies on current product ideas must be finalized. Third, customer segments mustbe identified and target markets selected. Fourth, production studies must be initiated [10]. Inthe market strategy stage, the idea has completed its transformation into a physical product.Technical and design problems are resolved and consumer reaction is gauged in order todevelop entry strategies. During this stage, emphasis shifts from technical to market concernsas the product approaches commercialization. But now organizations have enhanced theirresources and way of thinking. Organizations have developed several internal departmentsand each of those departments focuses only a particular field so that the organization mayachieve greater results and may absolutely use every available and future aspect of resources.In Indian organizations idea generation, screening, concept development and testing,marketing strategy, business analysis, market testing and commercialization, these stagesBelongs to Sales and marketing departments not to Product development department thoughPD department can help them to achieve the goal of those stages. Stages involved in Productdevelopment are entirely different now, each having and fulfilling a particular series ofactivities and each Stage Describe a phase involved in PD.3. SEVEN PHASES OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTProduct development is a systematic arrangement of processes and techniques whichare to be performed or followed to get a new product and it’s design within given set ofconditions, or to improve the quality/ efficiency/ features /functions of a existing one(product) in order to fulfill the need of the customer. Ulrich and Eppinger stated that theProduct Development Process (PDP) is traditionally defined as a succession series of
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME322processes or actions which a business has to follow, design, and commercialize a product[11]. PDP is extremely imaginative activity focusing on awareness and knowledge, distinctfrom the production systems which primarily deal with physical products and repetitiveoperational sequences. The work in PD is a pole apart with the work of productiondepartment or Sales and marketing department therefore in this paper product developmentactivities are divides into seven phases.Figure 1: Phases in product development3.1 Customer need analysisThis phase of PD is accomplished by the Sales and marketing department at customerend. Further The Product development department takes part in the analysis of customer needwith thee sales and marketing department. What is the technical need of a customer totransfer that into a product or what customer except from the product and at what cost?Means how much money customer is willing to pay for his need fulfillment. This phase is asurvey of customer requirement. This Phase also included the survey of product design.Customer needs should be taken into account throughout the intact process of productdevelopment, and then there is less probability of quality problems once full productionbegins [12].Handover to ProductionDocumentationTesting and EvaluationMaking of PrototypeSelection of the Processes andSequencesCustomer need analysisDefining the design data
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME3233.2 Defining the design dataTechnical specification such as material requirement, dimensional data, design goals,design requirements, cost estimation of the product is defined and finalized in this phase. Thisis done by the help of development team as it conducts many analyses like initial designanalysis, failure modes and effect analysis, producibiliity analysis and uses feedbacks toimprove the design data. Even Logistics and packaging standards are defined in this phase.Deming defines quality as a product’s ability, not merely to meet a customer’s expectations,but to exceed them. Deming’s philosophy starts and finishes with the customer [13]. Limexamines the traditions to get better quality using experimental design [14]. Lochner andMatar [15], Logothetis and Wynn [16] also thrash out how to use experimental design forproduct development in their books.3.3 Selection of the Processes and SequencesAfter defining the Design Data in this phase all the "what if" and "hows" becomesassignment for the development department. All the processes, tests and their sequence aredecided in this phase in order to develop a product. This phase also include the logistics andsupply activities. It requires the support of the personnel having specialized knowledge ofvarious discipline.3.4 Making of PrototypeThis phase starts with end of the phase of selection of processes and their sequence.Here the conceptual work of all above activities is developed into reality. This phase includesthe maximum activities done during the Product development.3.5 Testing and EvaluationTest and evaluation is an integrated series of evaluations leading to the common goalof design improvement [17]. if there is defect during in any one activity of prototyping and ifit is passes for the next activity in sequence then it will lead the failure of product in finaltesting and hence lot of time and money will be wasted thats why the activities of testing andevaluation are merged with the activities of making a prototype so that the defect might notpass for the next activity. Testing and evaluation is an important tool for identifying andcorrecting problems in PD.3.6 DocumentationThe product development effort does not end when the product is ready forproduction. It still waits for the response from customer end so that if there is need of changethen it could be observed before production starts. Documentation mean is making a file withthe collection of Bill of material, Process flow chart, control chart, test reports etc.3.7 Handover to ProductionThis is the last phase of product development. Developed Products file is handed overto the Production department for the mass production. Sometimes this phase wait for thecustomer approval for the production to be started.
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME3244. ACTIVITIES IDENTIFICATION OF AN INDIAN ORGANIZATIONThis paper has taken the survey of An Indian Automobile ancillary firm which dealsin fuel injection pipes and hose tubes. Development of a fuel injection pipe is analyzed; herefuel pipes design (drawing) and specifications come from customer side. Productdevelopment department of organization starts with receipt inspection. All activities from thereceiving of Drawing to the Handing over are tabulated blow.TABLE 1ActivityDescription1. Drawing Receiving Product design from the customer end is received. Sales and marketingdepartment handover the customers drawing of product to the productdevelopment department.2. Assigning anEngineerHead of the Development department assign an engineer according toneed and part specification. The work of product development engineeris to make prototype and sample lot and dispatch the samples tocustomer and after customer approval hand over the product documentto the Production Department for mass production of the product.3.Receipt Inspection Feasibility testing is done in this phase. This is done to match thefollowing requirements:1. Does the organization have the pipe of given specifications such asInternal Diameter (ID), Outer diameter (OD), other materialsrequired?2. Does all bending radius and flaring is possible to achieve?3. What are the child parts? Do we have all of them? If we don’t haveall of them, then ask the vendors if anyone can develop those missingchild parts.4.Fixture Developmentfor BendingFor the bending of the pipe, fixture is needed. It is essential for accuratebending operations with given specification of a pipe. There may beneed of more than one fixture for overall bending operation of a pipe(product).5. Testing of theInventory MaterialMaterial composition of pipe and child parts is tested to meet therequirement under a certified lab. All the test reports are required to befiled with the other documents of Development.6. Pipe cutting Here the Cutting of the pipe in required length is performed.7. ID Chamfering After pipe cutting, there may be burr remaining at the edge of the pipe inits Internal Diameter, which may cause the blockage. Thats whychamfering operation is performed. Chamfering is process of burrremoving by the help of a small drill8.Air blasting After pipe cutting and Id chamfering, Air with high pressure is passedthrough the pipes in order to check the blockages and to clean theinternal section of the pipe.9. Electro Plating After air blasting all pieces are sent for the Plating process.10. Visual Inspection After receiving from plating, Check for any visual defects such as dent,bend etc is performed manually by Development Engineer.
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME32511. PlatingPerformance testResistivity of the plating layer of the pipe against pollution, moisture,and harsh environment is tested by the Salt Spray Test, and the thicknessof layer of coating is measured by the help Electro Vernier caliper.12. ID verification ID is verified of each pipe with the help of A GO/NO GO Gauge by thedevelopment Engineer. This activity is performed in productdevelopment department.13. Flaring of one side This is performed by the help of Dies on a punching machine by labor.14. Testing andEvaluation of FlaringThis is performed by the help of Shadow graph. Engineer draw a graphby enlarging the shadow of the flaring end, and hence performs thecheck for the dimensions.15. Assembly of childpartsBefore flaring the second side of pipe all child parts are assembled onthe pipe.16. Flaring of secondsideFlaring of the second side of the pipe (already having one side flaringand child parts) is performed17. Straight pipeflushingOil with high pressure flushed through the pipes to check the blockageand lubricating the internal section18. Bending Bending of the pipe is performed by the help of fixtures. Skill labor isrequired to do this operation19. Cleaning This is done by passing the cleansing oil from the pipes with highpressure20. Visual inspection Check for rust, dent etc.21. Contamination test This is a test of sample piece to check the contamination level of theinner surface of pipe.22. Packaging andDispatchPackaging of product with the given standard of packaging or customerspecified standards23. Approval It is the information received from the customer about the fitness of theproduct for their purpose. If customer gives his approval for the product,than go for next activity.24. Documentation Collection of all the test reports, BOM (bill of material), drawings ofparent part and child part, make Process flow chart, etc.25. Handover the file Handing over the developed product for mass production to productiondepartment.5. CONCLUSIONThis paper through some light on seven phase of product development and theActivities involved in those with the help of Activity identifications of an IndianOrganization. A Relation between these seven phases and activities can be easily understandby the given table.
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME326TABLE 2Phases of PD Activity involvedCustomer need analysis 1Defining the design data 2,3,4Selection of the processes andsequences2,6-24Making of Prototype 4-22Testing and evaluation 3,5,8,10-12,14,17,19-21Documentation 23,24Handover to Production 25The ultimate source of quantifying the product is customer satisfaction, which mayvery well forecast their potential of market success or failure. Consequently, products have tobe developed and in such an approach that customer requirements and expectations mustfully meet.REFERENCES[1] S. Elonen, and K. Artto, Problems in managing internal development projects in multi-project environments, International Journal of Project Management, 16, 2003, 395–402.[2] K.B. Clark, and S.C. Wheelwright, The Product Development Challenge: Competingthrough Speed, Quality, and Creativity, A Harvard Business Review Book, 1993.[3] Zhihai Zhan, Application of experimental design in new product development, TheTQM Magazine, 10(6), 1998, 432-437.[4] K. Kosonen, and P. Buhanist, Customer focused lean production development,International Journal of Production Economics, 41, 1995, 211-16.[5] S. Mallik, and D. Chhajed, Optimal temporal product introduction strategies undervaluation changes and learning, European Journal of Operational Research, 172, 2006,430-52.[6] G. Naveen, and N. Singh, Lean product development: maximizing the customerperceived value through design change (redesign), International Journal of ProductionEconomics, 114, 2008, 313-32.[7] A.C. Ward, Lean Product and Process Development, Lean Enterprise Institute, Inc.2007.[8] M.C. Crawford, & A.C. Di Benedetto, New Products Management, 7th edition.McGraw-Hill, 2003.[9] R. Yelkur, and P. Herbig, Global markets and the new product development process,Journal of Product & Brand Management, 5(6), 1996, 38-47.[10] F.G. Bingham, and C.J. Quigley, a team approach to new product development, TheJournal of Consumer Marketing, 6, 1989, 5-14.[11] K.T.Ulrich, S.D. Eppinger, Product Design and Development, 4th Edition. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2008.
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME327[12] B.B. Flynn, R.G. Schroeder, and S. Sakakibara, A framework for quality managementresearch and an associated measurement instrument, Journal of OperationsManagement, 11, 1994, 339-66.[13] W.E. Deming, Out of Crisis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1986,MA.[14] T.E. Lim, Quality improvement using experimental design, International Journal ofQuality & Reliability Management, 7(1), 1990, 70-6.[15] R.H. Lochner, and J.E. Matar, Designing for Quality: an Introduction to the Best ofTaguchi and Western Methods of Statistical Experimental Design, Chapman and Hall,London, 1990.[16] N. Logothetis, and H.P. Wynn, Quality through Design: Experimental Design, Off-lineQuality Control, and Taguchi’s Contributions, Clarendon Press, 1989, Oxford.[17] J.W. Priest, and J. M. Sanchez, Product Development and Design for Manufacturing:A collaborative Approach to Producibiliity and Reliability, 2(58), 2001.[18] Raju B S, Chandra Sekhar U, Drakshayani D N and Chockalingam K, “Recent Trendsin Rapid Product Development” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering &Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 21 - 31, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340,ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.[19] P.S.Senthil Kumar, Dr. S.Balasubramanian, Dr. R.K.Suresh and Dr. S.Arularasu,“Pairing of Intelligence Design Concept Method and Kano Model for ProductDevelopment”, International Journal of Design and Manufacturing Technology(IJDMT), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 1 - 13, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6995, ISSN Online:0976 – 7002.[20] V.Kumar and Dr. Mu.Subrahmanian, “Identification of Factors and Development ofFramework for Resource Management of New Product Development in IndianAutomobile Industries”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3,Issue 1, 2012, pp. 6 - 18, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

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