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1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 45-51 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.1861 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com © IAEME ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION TECHNIQUES BY INDUSTRIES: POTENTIAL FOR CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ACTIVITIES Dr. S. K. Doifode Dr. A. G. Matani Associate Professor – Chemistry, Associate Professor –Mech. Engg Government College of Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Amravati – 444 604 [M.S.] India. Amravati – 444 604 [M.S.] India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com ABSTRACT Energy Conservation goes beyond using efficient products. A huge amount of energy is wasted nationally due to sheer ignorance and lack of awareness. This paper highlights different areas of energy conservation and environment protection. This paper also suggests different roles of educational institutions in energy conservation and sustainable development awareness INTRODUCTION Social Responsibility (SR) policy guiding principles includes ethics, accountability, governance, financial returns, employment practices, business relationships, products and services, community involvement and environmental protection. Social Responsibility and Responsible Care are complementary initiatives and, when implemented in concert, they further enhance and strengthen organization’s commitment to health, safety and the environment. SIX BUSINESS REASONS COMPANIES SHOULD EMBRACE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  Innovation –Innovation is a huge benefit to a company and society. By using the “lens of sustainability” Unilever Global was able to innovate new products such as a hair conditioner that uses less water. Without sustainability, the company’s research and development efforts possibly wouldn’t have led to such a product. 45
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Cost savings – One of the easiest places for a company to start engaging in sustainabilityis to use it as a way to cut costs. Whether it’s using less packaging or less energy, thesesavings add up quickly. After installing energy monitoring meters on several pieces ofequipment at its Covington, GA. plant, the General Mills Company saved $600,000. Brand differentiation – In the past, brand differentiation was one of the primary reasonscompanies embraced CSR. The “Cola Wars” is one of the longest running rivalries inbusiness. Coke and Pepsi are constantly looking to grab as much market share as they canfrom each other. Yet they are both adopting similar, although slightly different, approaches toCSR. Both Pepsi and Coke are pursuing strategies of zero net water usage. Both companiesoffer water bottles made from sustainable packaging as well. Long-term thinking – CSR is an effort to look at the company’s long-term interest andensuring that the company’s future is well sustainable. It is a shift from worrying about thenext fiscal quarter’s financial results to the impact business decisions today have on financial(and social) results ten years from now. Customer engagement – Walmart has established itself as a leader on environmentalefforts. In 2008, Walmart ran an ad campaign designed to raise awareness about theenvironment and the product choices consumers could make. Using CSR can help youengage with your customers in new ways. This is an underused tool for business-to-businesscompany communication. Employee engagement – If company’s employees don’t know what’s going on within anorganization, that company is missing an opportunity. Companies like Sara Lee created across-functional, global Sustainability Working Team to help create a strategy forsustainability. At a more grass roots level, the Solo Cup Company created the SustainabilityAction Network to activate employees in community service focused on the company’s CSRpriorities.THE MOST SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE COMPANIES IN THE WORLD Fortune Magazine - a financial magazine includes a section listing their top 11 mostsocially responsible companies. It includes five companies with significant exposure tofossil fuel based energy (Statoil, Edison, ENI, Total and Nextera)1. Statoil - Statoil owns and operates over 2000 gas stations worldwide. Fortunes pick for themost socially responsible company in the world is this Oslo-based oil and gas giant which is67% owned by the Norwegian government. The company plans to expand into alternativeenergy, the bulk of their profits come from oil exploration, refining and distribution.2. Grupo Ferrovial - Ferrovial is a member of both the Dow Jones Sustainability andFTSE4good investment indices. A Spanish conglomerate involved in transportation andurban infrastructure services, also created an Environmental Performance Index, the first ofits kind, to track the companys global environmental performance in real time.3. Walt Disney Company - The house that Mickey built is the only US-based company inthe top 5. Some of their more interesting initiatives include running Disneyland trains onbiodiesel made with cooking oil from the resorts hotels, establishing a worldwideconservation fund and instituting a "green standard" for all employees and cast members.4. Edison - Founded in 1884, this Milan-based firm is Europes oldest energy company. Despite its age, Edison is one of the leading renewable energy providers in Europe with 68hydroelectric facilities, 29 wind farms, and one solar facility currently online. 46
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME5. ENI - Another Milan-based energy company, specializing in oil, gas and petrochemicals. In 2010, ENI was named the best company in the world for the online communication of itscorporate social responsibility initiatives in the annual survey which analyzed the 91companies listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index.6. Whole Foods Market - The supermarket chain that brought organic products to themainstream American consumer.7. Total - French oil and gas conglomerate.8. Hochtief - Germanys largest construction company and a leader in the green real estatespace, Hochtief is also a member of the Dow Jones Sustainability index.9. Nestle - One of the largest food manufacturers in the world, in 2009 Nestle instituted "TheCocoa Plan" in an effort to encourage sustainability, labor rights and fair trade in the cocoaindustry.10. NextEra Energy - Formerly known as Florida Power & Light, Nextera NEE is thelargest owner and operator of wind power farms in the US and second only to Iberdrola in theworld (44% of NEEs total energy output comes from wind power).11. Weyerhauser - One the biggest players in the global forest products industry,Weyerhauser owns 6.6 million acres of commercial timberland worldwide and another 15.2million acres on long-term leases in Canada.GENERAL CONTENTS OF TEACHING PROGRAMS Due to energy costs and its important role in the economy, recent growth in energyconsumption has led all countries to formulate and execute various strategies in threeinterrelated areas to:a) Improve the efficiency of energy use;b) Increase energy conservation;c) Explore and develop new and renewable sources of energy.A diversified training program is needed to meet increasing demands for qualified personnelin the developing countries. This training should consider the latest developments in scienceand technology.POTENTIAL ACTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT Possible areas and actions for the development of general knowledge programs shouldinclude:** Organizing energy conservation and environment protection related training in colleges,universities and apprenticeship programs to cover all facets of energy management forindustry and buildings.** Integrating energy conservation and sustainable development strategies into schoolcurricula; developing curricula to establish the skills, knowledge and behavior ofconservation and renewable energy; developing guidelines for relating curriculum to energyefficient design.** Engaging community organizations, non-governmental organizations and public interestsgroups in culture change, communication, education and implementation of conservation. 47
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME** Facilitating energy auditing and benchmarking of existing buildings and providing accessto resources to implement retrofits.** Establishing accessible and understandable means of benchmarking energy use, planningand implementing conservation projects, accessing resources and technologies** Pursuing strategies for job creation in the manufacture of products and the delivery ofservices related to conservation and renewable energy; accelerated development of newtechnologies. Increasing conservation related training to industry.** Ensuring publicly funded institutions establish and maintain management reportingsystems, which cover energy use, costs and savings potential,** Produce and broadcast programs and documentary films for television.** Using web-based systems to allow comparison of energy use with comparable buildingsand estimation of potential savings.** Ensuring inefficient, older appliances are taken out of the market, their materials recycledand any toxic components managed.** Organizing seminars, workshops or summer schools for decision makers and expertsrelated to other energy fields.** Producing audio-visual materials that illustrate existing solar installations, as well asfuture prospects for these technologies.** Publishing information, in the form of study articles and comprehensive, well documentedreports, on solar energy and its prospects.ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION INITIATIVES BY INDUSTRIES ANDINSTITUTIONS: THE WORLD SCENARIO** American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) highlighting rolesof institutions AASCU devoted its July/August 2006 Public Purpose magazine to cover the issuesrelated to sustainability at public higher education institutions. The issue highlighted role ofvarious institutions implementing sustainability policies on its campuses, in its classroomsand bridging them to the business world.** Blue Star working on R & D on energy efficiency Blue Star’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) philosophy is built on three pillarsnamely • Environment protection • Energy conservation • Community development around its facilities.The Company is highly committed to the cause of protecting the environment. Energyefficiency of its products remains a corner-stone of its research and development efforts Air,water and energy management services as well as LEED (Leadership in Energy andEnvironmental Design) consultancy for Green Buildings have been part of its business andpractices. The Company has also been contributing in the technical domain in the use of eco-friendly refrigerants in its products. Blue Star helps deserving institutions such as hospitalsand colleges to save power by conducting free walk-through energy audits. 48
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME** Bedford college in Southern England providing training for small businesses Bedford College in Southern England is a center for excellence in green energy,providing training for small businesses in installing and maintaining solar panels, windturbines and biomass technology.** Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) developingcomprehensive projects The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) withrepresentation of 294 companies, and 24 sector task forces is active in developingcomprehensive projects to improve conservation in their municipal operations. Non-governmental organizations are implementing community-wide programs for improving theconservation in existing and new buildings, and at developing integrated, fuel efficienttransportation schemes.** Florida Gulf Coast University reducing operating expenses National Center for Academic Transformation implements effective uses forinformation technology in order to improve student learning and reduce the cost of highereducation. By redesign their coursework schools reduced costs by an average of 37 percent,saving of $3.1 million in operating expenses each year.** Mitsubishi Electric Group Became a Global, Leading Green Company Mitsubishi Electric is one of Japans leaders in the development and implementationof systems for wastewater treatment in manufacturing, water purification for publicconsumption, and more effective industrial cleaning processes. The Mitsubishi ElectricGroup established Environmental Vision 2021 to contribute to the development of asustainable society, and is advancing initiatives to achieve a low-carbon, recycling-basedsociety such as micro-bubble technology that removes oil and other deposits withoutdetergents or hazardous chemicals, and ozone generation technology that purifies waterwithout chlorine. Membrane separation technology is also being put to use in high-gradeindustrial applications in Mitsubishi Electrics own manufacturing operations. The goal is100% recycling of water to eliminate unnecessary wastewater, encourage water conservationand promote cost-savings. Such initiatives are a part of Mitsubishi Electrics efforts tostrengthen its corporate constitution and contribute to society as a leading green company.** Park Lane College in Leeds offering courses on climate change Park Lane College in Leeds offers a "reduce your carbon footprint" coursemanaged by a team of conservation and environmental tutors through practical energy savingtechniques, and the science behind climate change.** The Wisconsin Environmental Education Board And The University Of Wisconsin -Stevens Point Utilizes Community Resources: K12 energy education program (KEEP) encourages school-to-career skills and the useof a rich set of community resources including professionals, businesses, environmentalorganizations, and institutions of higher education. Wisconsin students are now competentenough to cope with difficult decisions about energy and its relationship to environmental,socio-political, and economic issues. 49
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME** Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) encouraging energy-efficiency projects Oil Overcharge Funds used for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects areconsistent with settlement guidelines and approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).** University of Nimes in Southern France organizing programs for eco-citizens University of Nimes in Southern France, in March 2007, organized a program to promotethe behavior of "eco-citizens". Concentrating on the promotion of waste management andeconomizing on energy use a university wide campaign for providing practical demonstrations ofenvironmental awareness linked to social psychology theory** York University encouraging green buildings The Computer Sciences Building of York University is an ideal example of a "green"building built at no cost premium. Raising the standards for new buildings and major renovations isthe most economical means of conserving energy in new buildings and avoids the lost opportunitycost associated with retrofitting improvements after the building is constructed.NOVEL INITIATIVES OF GENERAL ELECTRIC FOR ENERGY ANDENVIRONMENTAL SECTOR General Electric offering Excellence Award for highest environmental, health and safety General Electric Company is a diversified technology and financial services companyoperating in more than 150 countries and employ about 300,000 people worldwide. GE works findingsolutions in energy, health and home, transportation and finance. Building, powering, moving andcuring the world by offering best technologies taking on the toughest global challenges.GE Appliances Decatur Refrigerator Plant received General Electrics (GE) highest environmental,health and safety Excellence Award for significantly reducing workplace injuries and in adapting itsmanufacturing operations to more environmentally friendly processes.Other accomplishments that brought Decatur the EHS Excellence Awardincludes:* A 30 percent reduction in workplace injuries classified as reportable by OSHA.* A 45 percent reduction in workplace injuries causing lost work time for employees.* A 21 percent reduction in hazardous waste generation.* A reduction in landfill waste of 12 percent.* An increase in recycled cardboard of over 10 percent.* The elimination of toluene-di-isocyanate from the manufacturing process. GE Power Systems offering environmentally friendly power generation optionsThe wind power industry offers tremendous opportunities for growth and continued technologydevelopment. Various synergies from several GE businesses have been applied to wind turbinetechnology areas such as plastics, transportation gearing applications and power controls towardsGE Power Systems line of environmentally friendly power generation options with the broadestpossible range of clean energy solutions for the 21st century. GE driving a global energy transformation with a focus on innovation and R&D GE is driving a global energy transformation with a focus on innovation and R&D investmentto accelerate the development and deployment of clean energy technology. More than 90ecomagination-approved products have been brought to market with revenues reaching $18 billion in2009. With $5 billion invested in R&D its first five years to accelerate a new era of energyinnovation. The company will invest $10 billion in R&D over five years and double operationalenergy efficiency while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption. 50
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEENERGY EFFICIENCY SERVICES LIMITED IMPROVING ENERGYEFFICIENCY IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Energy Efficiency Services Limited [EESL], A joint venture of PSUs, of Ministryof Power, Government of India , New Delhi is actively involved in improving energyefficiency in the Agricultural sector. Some of the Key opportunities areas includedinvestments will be for procurement and the Operation & Maintenance of the Agriculturepump sets , capital costs are paid by the regulator in three yearly installments directly toEESL. Capital costs include cost of energy efficient pump sets, cost of dismantling existingpump set, cost of installing energy efficient pump sets, cost of installation of protectionsystems, Monitoring &Verification (M&V) and other costs .CONCLUSIONS Standards & Labeling is one of the major thrust areas of the Bureau of EnergyEfficiency. A key objective of this scheme is to provide the consumer an informed choiceabout the energy saving and thereby cost saving potential of the relevant marketed product.The Standards & Labeling programme of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency has now beenextended to 11 appliances and a few more appliances are likely to be added in the currentfinancial year. EESL proposes to implement the scheme on behalf of the Bureau of EnergyEfficiency.Educational institutions also have an important role in educating and training the workforce,not only independently, but also as vendors to employers who seek outside providers oftraining. Educators and administrators are searching for new means to cut costs whileincreasing quality and efficiency on campus.REFERENCES Duan Liping (2011), Analysis of the relationship between international cooperation andscientific publications in energy R&D in China, Applied Energy , 88(12), 4229-4238. M. E. Douglas, Timothy C. Wagner , Michael K. Sahm , William J. Wepfer : EconomicOptimization of a Combined Heating and Power System for an Office Building , Proceedingsof Energy Sustainability 2007 , June 2007, Long Beach, California USA Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair, Garimella Niraj (2010), Battery energy storage systems:Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration, Energy and Buildings , 42(11),2124-2130. Subhadra Bobban G. (2011) ,Macro-level integrated renewable energy productionschemes for sustainable development, Energy Policy, 39(4), 2193-2196 Saidur R., Islam M.R. , Rahim N.A., Solang K.H. (2010), , A review on global windenergy policy, , Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ,9(1) 1744-1762 www.ge.ecomagination.com Various reports published in The Times of India, Mumbai newspaper 51