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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
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A study of impact of merchandise variety and assostment on shopping experience of customers

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  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 85-94 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.html ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5420 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com A STUDY OF IMPACT OF MERCHANDISE VARIETY AND ASSOSTMENT ON SHOPPING EXPERIENCE OF CUSTOMER SIN CONVENIENCE STORES IN ORGANIZED RETAIL IN INDIA VIJAY.R.KULKARNI Assistant Professor Sinhagad Institute of Management and Computer Application Pune, Maharashtra E-mail: vijaykulkarni@simca.ac.in ABSTRACT The study is about finding the impact of merchandize variety and assortment on shopping experience of customers in convenience stores format in organized retail in India. The study was conducted at Pune during October 2012. Exploratory Research Design is used for the study. The sample size is 159 respondents. Survey method is used with customer intercepts at Convenience stores and the data was collected with a structured questionnaire. Ratio scale was used for Income and Age and for all other variables Nominal Scale was used. The data was analyzed with SPSS 17 version and tools like Cronbach Alpha, Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Chi-Square. The findings of the study are 1) Availability of fresh fruits and vegetables 2) Freshness of fruits and vegetables 3) Chances of getting all the products 4) Availability of wide variety of national brands have impact on customer satisfaction and happiness 5) Customer happiness due to availability of products he intends to buy results in good shopping experience and 6)Customers who are satisfied due to availability products which gets translate into wonderful shopping experience for them recommend the stores to others. Key Words: Customer Experience, Store Image, Intention to recommend 1. INTRODUCTION As a sequel to Globalization and in its quest to be the part of Globalization process Government of India initiated the liberalization process setting in process reforms across the board. The reforms and the subsequent all round growth in the economy resulted in change in the demographic profile of Indian society, improvement in the technologies of production processes and entry of multinationals across the board thereby increasing the threshold of 85
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)quality. This coupled with competitive prices due to intense competition has definitelyresulted in benefit and well being of the consumers at large. However this is the beginningonly and the Indian businesses have a long way to go since the bench marks of customerexpectations keep on increasing on a continuous basis.For decades Indian consumer has faced non availability of products at the right place and atthe right time. The basic need of the customer is availability of products of his/her choice.The customer’s expectation when he visits convenience stores is availability of variety andassortment so that he can buy all his requirements under one roof. Therefore all things beingequal availability of right blend of variety and assortment are become a critical element ofconvenience stores sales mix in delivering customer satisfaction and positive shoppingexperience. The retailers therefore need to be alert to the situation that today they are notconfronted with traditional docile customer but a highly informed and vibrant customer whowhen faced with the situation of lack of availability of products at the right place and righttime when he intends to buy may shift to other retailers. The situation is much tougher inIndia due to the presence of neighbourhood kirana stores who are going out of the way toserve their customers.2. LITERATURE REVIEW The ability to satisfy heterogeneous customer preferences in a cost-efficient manner isa key facet of traditional retail competition. Along with physical location and price, theselection of products that a store offers to its customers, i.e., the assortment is an importantfactor driving store choice. A larger assortment increases the probability that the store will beable to deliver exactly the product a customer desires. Even if a customer’s tastes are not welldefined, her perception of variety in a store’s assortment may drive her purchasing decisions.1Variety is the number of different merchandize categories a retailer sells whilst assortmentrefers to the number of different items in a merchandize category. The freshness of a productstimulates repeat visits from the customer. Convenience retailers are businesses with highturnover, resulting in constantly replenishing stockpiles. Goods are generally not long enoughin the stores to become obsolete. Consumers can therefore expect to buy goods that are freshand that have not met their expiration date.. The brands that a store offers can contribute tocustomer loyalty. Brands are often linked to certain qualities which the customer often findattractive or repelling. Consumers with pleasant association will often go out of their way justto purchase a specific brand. Brands that are associated with higher quality and statussymbols are also able to attract consumers to specific retailers even though they are moreexpensive than the competing brands.2 Perhaps the most vexing problem facing retailers is thechallenge of getting the right merchandise in the right quantities to the right stores at the timethat customers want it. Beginning with the consumer, Mantrala et al. (2009) examineprevious research and conclude that it is difficult to predict what customers will want becausethey enjoy flexibility. Consumers rarely know what they really want when they buy, and thentheir choices change over time because they often buy now and consume later, As their goalschange (see Puccinelli et al. 2009), they may not actually buy their first choice first. That is,even if a retailer has a consumer’s first choice, he or she might not buy it ultimately. At thesame time, too much choice can be frustrating and confusing, so retailers must balancehaving a wide enough assortment that consumers do not shop elsewhere, but not so wide thatthey are overwhelmed.3 The number of available options can influence consumer choice inmultiple ways. Decades of research suggest that choice increases satisfaction (e.g., Langer 86
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)and Rodin 1976) band that larger assortments increase the likelihood that consumers will find anoption that matches their preferences (Baumol and Ide 1956; Lancaster 1990). People actively seekvariety (see Kahn and Ratner [2005] for a review), whether to satisfy the need for stimulation(Berlyne 1960) or for other reasons, and larger assortments help consumers satisfy these needs.4 Thisstudy has reviewed the major forms of “varied” consumer behavior (i.e., direct and derived) andindicates that each can require a different type of retail assortment strategy. It also presents aframework delineating the major factors and dimensions which define the arena in which retailersmust develop their assortment strategies. Additionally, evidence is presented which indicates that theshape of the utility function for assortment size is bell-shaped for both the consumer and the retailer.Hopefully this paper will increase our understanding of the dynamic interplay between the numerousforms of a consumer’s “varied behavior” (especially variety seeking) and their subsequentimplications for the retailer’s assortment strategies. Rather than treat each of these activities inisolation as has been done in past research, this paper suggests the need for their integration. Viewingthe consumer’s need for varied behavior and assortment size decisions as ‘opposite side of the samecoin’ should lead to more effective marketing strategies by increasing our understanding of eacharea.5 Consumer heterogeneity was also found to influence the effect of assortment on shopper’s storechoice. Unobserved heterogeneity, reflected in the distribution of household level responseparameters, was much greater for assortment than for the other determinants of store choice. Whileshoppers uniformly prefer lower prices and shorter travel distances, our analysis of parameterheterogeneity and assortment elasticities suggests that shoppers prefer different assortmentcharacteristics. Specifically, unlike most consumers, a substantial minority prefer stores that offermore SKU’s/brand, more sizes/brand, and more unique SKU’s but fewer different brands. Ouranalysis of heterogeneity covariance’s reveals that response to assortment is correlated to response totravel distance (r=0.43). Thus, the less importance a household assigns to assortment, the more itvalues conveniences and vice versa. This finding is consistent with the tradeoff promulgated byBamoul and Ide (1956) and Brown (1978). The heterogeneity in assortment response suggests thatretailers should not necessarily match each others’ assortment levels. Ideal assortment levels coulddiffer substantially between retailers depending on the preferences of their customers.6 Together theresults of these experiments all suggest that the congruence or incongruence between the internalorganization inside the consumer’s heads and the external organization of the assortment provided bythe stores influences how consumers perceive th variety offered. This work contributes to the existingliterature on the application of categorization theory to consumer domains ( e.g., Sujan 1985, Meyers-Levy and Tybout 1989, Goodstein 1003), by examining the role of internal categorizations schemas inthe evaluation of the external structure of an assortment. This work also contributes to the perceivedvariety literature (e.g., Broniarczyk, Hoyer & McAlister 1998, Hoch, Bradlow and Wansink 1999,Kahn and Wansink 2004) that suggests consumer perceptions of variety are dependent on more thanjust the actual number of individual items in the assortment. Retailers should be aware of severalfactors in order to try and get consumers to perceive more variety in their assortments.7 This study, acollaborative efforts with a Dutch retailer, shows that reducing the variety of an item may actuallyboost sales. In this case the retailer offered fewer types of detergent items. While initially loweringsales for the short term, the effort did not lessen sales in the long run. The reduced selection mayhave also aided consumers; they found it easier and quicker to make a selection when the variety wasreduced. The reduced sales are caused initially by former buyers who purchase fewer items in thecategory. But sales losses are offset by new buy new buyers attracted by the streamlined selection.8Assortment is a specific type of product set. A set is any grouping of products or items, and anassortment is a product set in which the items come from the same product category. Althoughconsumers product assortments are claimed to be important for understanding consumer behaviour,they have rarely been studied. There are some related but quite different areas of study, such asstockpiling behaviour. Both stocks and assortments are sets of products from the same productcategory that are owned by a consumer. However, while stocks consist of items that have not yet beenused, and which are perfect substitutes (e.g. stocks of sugar or paperclips), assortments consist ofheterogeneous products, which have the same overall usage goal but different specific applications 87
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)and which are used on and off. Assortments can exist for both durables and nondurables (e.g.assortments of soft drinks or biscuits), and although this study will focus on durable productassortments, it can be easily extended to nondurable assortments9.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESFor the purpose of the study the following objectives are formulated 1. To find out whether the availability of large variety of fruits and vegetables results in Customer Satisfaction and Happiness 2. To find out whether Freshness of the fruits and vegetables results Customers Satisfaction and Happiness. 3. To find out whether chances of getting all the products the customer is planning to buy results in Customers’ Satisfaction and Happiness. 4. To find out whether the happiness due to availability of products results in overall satisfying shopping experience for the customers 5. To find out whether availability of wide variety of national brands results in Customers Satisfaction and Happiness. 6. To find out whether customer satisfaction due to availability of variety and merchandize results in retail store image building in customers mind. 7. To find out whether customers intend to recommend the stores to other customers due to Satisfaction and Happiness due to availability of variety and merchandize.4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY For the purpose of the study Exploratory Research Design is used. The sample size for thestudy is 159 respondents. Convenient Sampling method is used. Interview method is used for thisstudy through intercepts at the convenience stores. A structured Questionnaire with close endedquestions is designed and used. Effort was made to interview respondents across the variousdemographic variables. Nominal scale is used. The study is conducted at Pune during October, 2012Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .749Cronbach Alpha .8055. DATA ANALYSIS TOOLS Based on the data collected through an exhaustive questionnaire the following analysis hasbeen done using appropriate statistical tools like: • Frequencies • Tables/ Percentages • Pie Charts • KMO and Bartletts Test-Test for Sample Adequacy • Cronbach Alpha-Test- Scale Reliability • Chi-Square Test 88
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESISFor the purpose of the study the following Hypothesis are formulatedHypothesis 1Ho: Availability of large variety of fruits and vegetables does not result in Customer Satisfaction andHappinessH1: Availability of large variety of fruits and vegetables results in Customer Satisfaction andHappinessHypothesis 2Ho: Freshness of the fruits and vegetables does not result in Customers Satisfaction and Happiness.H1: Freshness of the fruits and vegetables results in Customers Satisfaction and HappinessHypothesis 3Ho: Chances of getting all the products the customer is planning to buy does not result in CustomerSatisfaction and Happiness.H1: Chances of getting all the products the customer is planning to buy results in CustomerSatisfaction and Happiness.Hypothesis 4:Ho: Customers Happiness due to availability of products does not contribute to overall positiveshopping experience for the customersH1: Customers Happiness due to availability of products contributes positively to overall shoppingexperience for the customersHypothesis 5:Ho: Availability of wide variety of national brands results in Customers Satisfaction and Happiness.H1: Availability of wide variety of national brands results in Customer Satisfaction and Happiness.Hypothesis 6:Ho: Customers do not intend to recommend the stores to other customers due to Satisfaction andHappiness due to availability of variety and merchandizeH1: Customers intend to recommend the stores to other customers due to Satisfaction and Happinessdue to availability of variety and merchandizeHypothesis 7:Ho: Overall satisfaction based on shopping experience due to availability of variety and merchandizedoes not result in image building of the storeH1: Overall satisfaction based on shopping experience due to availability of variety and merchandizeresults in image building of the store. 89
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)7. DATA ANALYSIS Table No. 1. Demographic Profile of Respondents (Source: Field Survey) Parameters Frequency % Parameters Frequency % Gender Mother Tongue Male 48 30.2 Marathi 103 64.8 Female 111 69.8 Hindi 30 18.9 Total 159 100.0 Gujrathi 8 5.0 Age Malayalam 3 1.9 20-25 49 30.8 Kannada 4 2.5 26-35 52 32.7 Telugu 1 .6 30-45 42 26.4 Sindhi 1 .6 46-55 13 8.2 Punjabi 3 1.9 55-65 2 1.3 Marwari 4 2.5 65+ 1 .6 Bengali 2 1.2 Total 159 100.0 Total 159 100.0 Type of Family Occupation Joint 57 35.8 Student 27 17.0 Nuclear 102 64.2 House wife 24 15.1 Total 159 100.0 Employee 83 52.2 1-2 21 13.2 Doctor 17 10.7 3-4 83 52.2 Engineer 4 2.5 5-6 33 20.8 Retired 4 2.5 7-8 8 5.0 Total 159 100.0 9-10 8 5.0 No of Earning Members 10+ 6 3.8 1 38 23.9 Total 159 100.0 2 97 61.0 No of Children 3 18 11.3 0 42 26.4 4 6 3.8 1 63 39.6 Total 159 100.0 2 40 25.2 Income PM (000’S) 3 8 5.0 20-50 K 66 41.5 4 4 2.5 51-70K 36 22.6 5+ 2 .1.2 71-90 K 16 10.1 Total 159 100.0 91-110 K 12 7.5Educational Qualification 110-130K+ 29 18.2 HSC 9 5.7 Total 159 100.0 Graduate 32 20.1 Social Status Post Graduate 85 53.5 Middle Class 86 Post Graduate + 33 20.8 Higher Middle 54 34.0 Total 159 100.0 Upper Lower 4 2.5 Upper Middle 14 8.8 Upper Upper 1 .6 Total 159 100.0 Which one of the following stores you visited last? Spencers 22 13.8 D.Mart 16 10.1 Reliance Fresh 23 14.5 Big Bazaar 71 44.7 More 13 8.2 Any Other 12 7.5 Kmart 2 1.3 Total 159 100.0 90
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Table No. 2 Descriptive Statistics Mini Maxi Std. N Range mum mum Mean Deviation VarianceAvailability of large variety of 159 6 3 9 6.22 1.698 2.882fruits & vegetablesFreshness of the fruits and 159 6 3 9 6.15 1.635 2.673vegetablesChances of getting all the products 159 6 3 9 6.40 1.567 2.456I am planning to buyAvailability of wide variety of 159 6 3 9 6.42 1.600 2.561national brandsHappiness due to availability of 159 6 3 9 6.42 1.576 2.485products I needImage building 159 4 4 8 6.72 .880 .774Intention to recommend the store 159 6 3 9 6.81 1.499 2.247to othersOverall satisfaction based on 159 6 3 9 7.01 1.389 1.930shopping experienceSource: Field Survey Table 3. ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.Availability of large Between Groups 78.538 6 13.090 5.281 .000variety of fruits & Within Groups 376.758 152 2.479vegetables Total 455.296 158Freshness of the fruits and Between Groups 88.309 6 14.718 6.697 .000vegetables Within Groups 334.068 152 2.198 Total 422.377 158Chances of getting all the Between Groups 89.663 6 14.944 7.613 .000products I am planning to Within Groups 298.375 152 1.963buy Total 388.038 158Availability of wide Between Groups 124.148 6 20.691 11.214 .000variety of national brands Within Groups 280.456 152 1.845 Total 404.604 158Happiness due to Between Groups 88.618 6 14.770 7.385 .000availability of products I Within Groups 303.986 152 2.000need Total 392.604 158Satisfaction of getting all Between Groups 11.420 6 1.903 2.610 .020the products during the Within Groups 110.844 152 .729visit results in image Total 122.264 158building of the storeIntention to recommend Between Groups 188.809 6 31.468 28.789 .000the store to others Within Groups 166.147 152 1.093 Total 354.956 158 91
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)The Table value of F @.05 Significance level & df 6/152 is 2.12. The calculated value of Fis more than the Table value as can be seen from the Table for all the ExperienceCharacteristics. Therefore it can be inferred that the Sample Means are different. Table No. 4 Results of Chi Square Test Pearson DF Signi- Table Alternate Alternative Hypothesis (P =0.05) Chi- Ficance Value Hypothesis Square (2 sided)H1a: Availability of large variety of fruits 64.164a 36 .003 51 Accepted& vegetables * Overall satisfaction based onshopping experienceH1b: Freshness of the fruits and vegetables 80.865a 36 .000 51 Accepted* Overall satisfaction based on shoppingexperienceH1c: Chances of getting all the products I 89.008a 36 .000 51 Acceptedam planning to buy * Overall satisfactionbased on shopping experienceH1d: Availability of wide variety of national 119.328a 36 .000 51 Acceptedbrands * Overall satisfaction based onshopping experienceH1e: Happiness due to availability of 95.299a 36 .000 51 Acceptedproducts I need * Overall satisfaction basedon shopping experienceH1f: Satisfaction of getting all the products 48.205a 24 .002 36.42 Acceptedduring the visit results in image building ofthe store * Overall satisfaction based onshopping experienceH1g: Intention to recommend the store to 261.550a 36 .000 51 Acceptedothers * Overall satisfaction based onshopping experienceFindings 1. Availability of large variety of fruits and vegetables results in Customer Satisfaction and Happiness’ 2. Freshness of the fruits and vegetables ‘results in customer Satisfaction and Happiness. 3. Chances of getting all the products the customers intend to buy results in Customer Happiness and Satisfaction. 4. Customers Happiness due to availability of products contributes to overall shopping experience 5. Availability of wide variety of national brands results in Customer Happiness and Satisfaction. 92
  9. 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) 6. Due to satisfaction as a result of getting all the products customers tend to recommend the stores to others. 7. Overall satisfaction based on shopping experience due to availability of variety and Merchandize leads to building positive store image in the minds of the customers8. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS FOR RETAILERS The research study makes a systematic effort to fulfil the research objectives. Theretail industry in India is on upswing. Government of India finally got through with entry ofglobal retailers in multi brand retailing in the country with reservations from some States forthe entry of multi brand retailing. However sooner or later all states will give in and multibrand retail will have pan India presence. With their matured experience in managing allaspects of retailing with excellence, ensuring low cost structures and supply chainmanagement skills, the retailers are going to carve out a niche for themselves in India in shortspan of time. This in addition to the neighbouring kirana stores is going to pose severechallenges to the organized retailers. It is a proven fact that Customer satisfaction cannot beviewed in isolation but calls for integrated approach. Other things being equal consistentavailability of merchandize variety and assortments are going to be the cornerstone forsuccess for the retailers. Indian retailers need to take cognizance of the same and gear up toensure customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements of products and services onan ongoing basis. Merchandize variety and assortment are differentiating and essential feature because ofwhich the retailers are known for. Therefore it is a critical element of the retailer’s strategy toidentify with the target markets needs, choose the right product/sales mix which aligns withthe organizational objectives. The variety, range and assortment are necessary requirementsfor the customers to patronize a particular retail store. Customers may visit a new store as atrial visit but their conversion to repeat and regular customers largely depends on the retailerssuccess in making quality merchandize variety and assortment and differentiate the offeringsfrom the other retailers on an ongoing basis.Ensuring customer satisfaction is the necessary basic but only satisfaction is not the end initself but on the contrary it is a new beginning in the customer-retailer relationship. For theretailer to survive and grow the retailers needs to have clientele which is dedicated andcommitted. Hence in order to achieve their objectives of growth and profits retailers need tofactor in these objectives in their strategies, indentify the needs of their target customers, andconsistently ensure that the customer’s needs are met better than the competitors and createand retain a whole generation of dedicated and loyal customers for the life time.9. REFERENCES1. Preneet singh, Harry Groenevelt & Nils Rudi, Product variety and supply chain structures.http://faculty.insead.edu/rudi/personal/documents/ProductVarietySupplyChainstructures.pdf2. Chapter4.Store choice and store loyalty.Ujdigispace.uj.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10210/302/Cahpteer4.pdf?sequence3. Journal of Retailing Volume 85, Issue 1, March 2009, Pages 1-14, Enhancing the RetailCustomer Experience. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022435909000025 93
  10. 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)4. Aner Sela, Jonah Berger & Wendy Liu*. Variety, Vice, and Virtue: How Assortment SizeInfluences Option Choice. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc. ● Vol. 35 ● April20095. Moshe Handelsman and J.Michael Munson: On Integrating Consumer Needs for Varietywith Retailer Assortment Decisions. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, 1985Pages 108-1126. Richard A. Briesch, Pradeep K. Chintagunta & Edward J. Fox.http://efox.cox.smu.edu/personal/assortment .pdf7.Andrea Morales, Barbara E. Kahn, Leigh McAlister, Susan M. Broniarczyk: Perceptions ofAssortment and Variety. The Effects of Congruency between Consumers’ Internal andRetailers ‘External Organization. https://mercury.smu.edu.sg/rsrchpubupload/Kahn B_PerceptionsAssortmentsVariety.pdf8.Laurens M.Sloot, Dennis Fok & Peter.C Verhoef: The Short-and Long-Term Impact of anAssortment Reduction on Category Sales.https://www.msi.org/publications/publication.cfm?pub=910Etrca9. Van Herpen & Rik Pieters. The Evaluation of Consumers’ Product Assortments. EuropeanAdvances in Consumer Research Volume 4 Pages 89-96.http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceeding.aspx?Id=1112110. C.R.Kothari. Research Methodology, Methods & Techniques by, Second revised edition,2010, New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India.12. Schiff man & Kanuk, Consumer Behaviour, 9th Edition, , Pearson.13. Anantnarayan & Jayashree Nimagadda. A Hand Book of Research Process, -2009 edition,Macmillan Publishers India Limited, New Delhi, India.14. S.C.Gupta, Fundamentals of Statistics, sixth revised and enlarged edition, 2010, HimalayaPublishing House, Mumbai, India.15. Richard I Levin & David.S. Rubin, Statistics for Management, Seventh edition, PearsonEducation.16. Vijay.R.Kulkarni, “A Comparative Study Of Customer Perceptions Of Store Atmospherics OfSpencer’s Vs Reliance Fresh” International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,pp. 370 - 380, Published by IAEME.17. Dr. S.Muthumani, Dr. S.Dhinesh Babu and Dr. N.Kannan, “Retail Shopping BehaviourOf Consumers In Trichy City”, International Journal of Marketing & Human ResourceManagement (IJMHRM), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 - 10, Published by IAEME. 94

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