International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN MANAGEMENT (IJM) –       INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- ...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- F...
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A study gender difference in attitude towards

  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN MANAGEMENT (IJM) – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 112-120 IJM© IAEME: : www.iaeme.com/ijm.htmlJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com ©IAEME A STUDY ON GENDER DIFFERENCE IN ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCIENCE Brajraj Singh1, Rakhee Chaudhary1, Rekha Yadav2 and K. Singh1 1. Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyMody Institute of Technology and Science (Deemed University, Exclusively for women), Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India 2. Mody Institute of Education and Research, Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan, India ABSTRACT Attitude is normally considered to be one of the important causes of variation in individual achievement and also a very basis of cognitive development and motivation, as well as several other positive links of success. Invariably, it means a student (she or he) must have a positive attitude towards the study of a particular subject as this influences ones performance and achievement in the subject. However, research studies have indicated that some level of gender inequality exists in attitude towards science and if this trend is allowed to continue, the dream of having adequate talented women to meet the manpower levels needed to support science and technological growth and development might severely be affected. Taking this into consideration, an attempt has been made to investigate whether gender differences still exist in attitude towards science. An attitude towards Science-Questionnaire was administered on approximately 200 students, both male and female who have offered science at Secondary School level. From data analysis involving use of descriptive statistics (mean, SD, and t-test) it was found that there was significant difference between the attitudes of females with respect to males towards science. The results of this study show that there is a significant level of attitudinal differences towards science subjects between male and female students at secondary school level and that might be influencing the enrolment at higher level of studies in science streams. Keywords: Women and Science, attitude towards study science, gender and HR 112
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)INTRODUCTION The studies on gender disparities have been done in both developed and developingcountries. In some of the countries women in institutions of higher learning tend toconcentrate in certain fields of study such as humanities, home economics and arts, thoughmore women have now enrolled in other fields like business and public administration. Theenrolment in the fields such as mathematics and science related fields is however still limited.Low enrollment in mathematics and science fields can be said to result from a number offactors affecting women especially at different levels of schooling. For example traditionaland cultural expectations from different societies in the developing world in particular, seemto have an influence on subject choice and selection especially at secondary school level. In the recent past, the gender differences in attitude towards the study of sciencesubjects namely, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology have received muchattention. Gender interrelates with other social variables in a significant ways, Rennie (1998),Atwater (2000), Rennie (2000). Some of the past studies have reported that boys have morepositive attitude towards science, achieve better and have a higher preferences for Physicsand Chemistry. One of the major factors influencing students’ choice of science subject isgender. According to Whitelaw et al. (2000), sex is probably the most important variablerelated to pupils’ attitudes to science. Many studies for instance, Francis and Greer (1999),Jones et al. (2000), reported that males have more positive attitudes toward science thanfemales. Also, Osborne et al. (2003) stressed that there is still a bias against physical sciencesheld by girls, suggesting that at an individual level the overwhelming majority of girls stillchoose not to opt physical science. In the same vein, Aigbomian (2002) observed that boysperform better than girls in science, technical and mathematical subjects. It is generallybelieved that socio-cultural and religious practices are at the root of this imbalance. In scienceclasses, boys often dominate laboratory equipment, controlling hands-on experiments whilegirls observe and take notes. Also, since the inception Nobel Prize in 1901 until 2011, there are only 16 FemaleNobel Laureates out of 310 Nobel winners in the field of science which is 5.16% which isquiet low than other non science fields. Category Total Laureates Female Laureates % Female winner Physics 105 02 1.9% Chemistry 103 04 3.88% Medicine 102 10 9.8% Other non science fields 239 28 12% Differences remain in boys and girls attitudes toward academic subjects. On average,girls report liking mathematics and science less than boys, and having less confidence in theirability to succeed at these subjects. Girls are more likely to suffer from math anxiety or techanxiety. They tend to perceive these subjects as being less useful in their lives, which maydiminish their achievement motivation in these areas. Hence, fewer girls plan to choosecareers in mathematics, science, or technology. Additionally, whereas boys tend to believetheir success in academics is the result of ability, girls tend to attribute academic successesand failures to luck and other external factors. This attribution of success to factors other thaneffort may lead some girls to feel helpless, particularly in subjects they perceive as maledomains. 113
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Gender differences indicate to areas where student background, attitudes and characteristics significantly affect student performance. Understanding what can influence differences in student performance can help policy makers address quality and equity concerns. In order to identify the source of inequalities, fostering average performance and improving our understanding of how students learn, the study of gender differences are essential. METHODOLOGY A survey model has been used to determine male and female students’ attitudes towards the study of science subjects and about science. Data for the study were collected between Feb. 22, 2012 and Feb. 29, 2012. The questionnaire was distributed to the students during regular class sessions. Participants were instructed to read each item carefully, and then to tick the most desired option from multiple choice questions. The students participating in this exercise in each class completed the questionnaire provided to them. This study includes of approximately 200 boys and girls of Secondary level of academic year 2011-2012 from Nimawat Public school, Fatehpur and Mody School, Lakshmangarh of District Sikar, Rajasthan. SUPPOSITION This research is based on the hypothesis that male students have different attitude towards the study of science subjects namely; Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology than female students. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As the main purpose of this study was to examine differences by gender attitudes towards science, data collected from the participating schools were analyzed by using percentage, mean, and standard deviation for each question on subject related issues and results were presented in Table 1. From critical analysis, we observed that the girls and boys have significant different mean scores towards attitude in most of the subject related issues. In order to test whether these differences represent a real difference between the two groups of students or it was just a chance difference in our collected samples, a t-test was also used and presented in Table 2. A comparative study was performed on Pro- and Ant- attitudes on each subject related issue and presented in Fig. 1. Table 1: Subject related issues and analysis of responsesItem Item Description Subject % % Result No. Girls Boys I enjoy studying There is a remarkable difference in the Physics 7 211. _______ enjoyment of Physics and Mathematics in Chemistry 4 6 comparison to others among Boys and Mathematics 36 24 Girls. Almost 3 times more Boys enjoyed Biology 50 48 Physics than girls on the other hand 8% more girls enjoyed Mathematics than None 4 1 boys. 114
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)2. Level of difficulty Physics 37 8 There is a reversal trend in Physics and (toughest subject) Chemistry 17 42 Chemistry as difficulty level is concerned. Mathematics 30 32 Almost 75% more girls feel that Physics Biology 14 15 is difficult for them on the other hand 60% more boys feel difficulty in None 3 1 Chemistry.3. I would like to do Physics 4 18 This study shows a clear trend that Boys more _______ in Chemistry 3 10 are more inclined towards Physical future. Mathematics 42 41 Sciences (PCM) and Girls are more Biology 38 30 inclined towards Biological sciences or in other subjects than science. 14% & 7% more Boys want to do Physics and Chemistry respectively in future on the other hand 8% & 13% more Girls want to None 14 1 do Biology or other subjects.4. It is waste of time Physics 26 14 This study shows that 12% more Girls are performing Chemistry 18 25 interested in performing Physics experiments in Mathematics 39 38 experiments while 7% more Boys are ________when we Biology 11 20 interested in performing chemistry can read them up in experiments. Overall Girls are less the textbooks. None 7 1 interested in performing experiments.5. I admire people who Physics 14 21 More Boys admire people who have good have good Chemistry 7 11 knowledge of Physics and Chemistry on knowledge of _____ Mathematics 46 41 the other hand more Girls admire people Biology 29 24 who have good knowledge of None 5 3 Mathematics and Biology.6. I do not always like Physics 30 3 30% Girls are not interested in attending to be in class during Chemistry 26 42 Physics lessons which too high in ________ Mathematics 23 31 comparison to 3% Boys while in other Biology 13 18 science subjects more number of Boys None 9 6 less interested in attending lessons.7. ______laboratory Physics 65 27 Significant no. (39%) of girls feel bored practical are very Chemistry 21 38 in Performing Physics experiment on the boring. Mathematics 0 0 other hand 17-18% more Boys feel bored Biology 7 25 in performing Chemistry and Biology None 7 10 experiment.8. Do you feel YES 43 48 There is no significant difference among derivations are No 51 49 Girls and Boys regarding opinion on boring? UNCERTAIN 6 3 derivations.9. I like solving _____ Physics 12 27 Significant more Boys like solving problems Chemistry 9 14 problem of Physics and Chemistry, while Mathematics 58 45 more Girls like solving Mathematics and Biology 17 13 Biology. None 4 110 ______ is difficult, Physics 34 18 Girls feel difficulty in handling Physics when it involves Chemistry 42 68 apparatus while boys in chemistry. There handling apparatus Biology 10 7 is no significant difference among girls and boys in handling apparatus of Biology. None 15 7 115
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)11. There are too many Physics 15 27 There are too many facts to learn in Physics facts to learn in ____ Chemistry 25 24 and Biology for Girls but for Boys in Mathematics 9 21 Mathematics. There is no significant Biology 49 28 difference among girls and boys about learning the facts in Chemistry. None 3 012. I study ______ mainly Physics 18 8 More % of Girls study science (PCB) mainly to pass examination Chemistry 17 30 to pass examination. This study shows that Mathematics 41 46 overall more number of girls are less Biology 19 14 interested in studying science. None 6 113. _______textbooks are Physics 35 3 For more girls Physics textbooks are difficult too difficult to Chemistry 21 39 to understand but for boys Chemistry, understand Mathematics 28 38 Mathematics and Biology textbooks. Biology 10 14 None 7 614. _____ helps me to be Physics 18 28 For boys PCM helps more to be able to reason able to reason well Chemistry 9 18 well while for girls Biology helps to be able to Mathematics 24 28 reason well. This study also testify the results Biology 45 23 of item no. 3 None 5 315. ____ is not as Physics 41 10 For girls Physics is not as interesting as other interesting as other Chemistry 27 41 science subjects but for similar % of boys science subjects Mathematics 12 28 (41%) Chemistry is not as interesting as other Biology 14 18 science subjects. None 7 316. I think every Physics 6 18 Boys have more stress on Physics while Girls secondary school Chemistry 4 8 on Biology. Mathematics is subject upon student should be Mathematics 55 51 which both Girls and Boys gave almost equal made to study - Biology 26 21 stress. ________ None 9 117. I like to help other Physics 7 24 Human being readily agreed to help in the students with _______ Chemistry 3 10 area in which he feels himself much problems Mathematics 50 35 confident. This study shows that Boys like to Biology 39 31 help other students in Physics and Chemistry Problems but Girls are reluctant. Similarly Girls feel much comfortable than Boys to help None 2 0 other in Mathematics and Biology.18. I very often think Physics 20 35 More Girls often think about ideas on Biology about the topics and Chemistry 14 23 and more boys think about ideas on Physics ideas which I learn in Mathematics 17 14 and Chemistry. There is not much significant _______ Biology 48 27 difference among Boys and Girls regarding None 2 1 ideas on Mathematics.19. Studying _______is Physics 25 4 More Girls says that studying Physics is waste waste of time Chemistry 32 56 of time means least important subject for them Mathematics 18 14 while for more Boys studying Chemistry and Biology 9 20 Biology is waste of time. Mathematics is None 17 6 equally important for both.20. I always sleep during Physics 37 3 Here ‘sleep’ represent lowest level of _______lessons Chemistry 34 46 enjoyment. 37% Girls least enjoy Physics in Mathematics 12 28 comparison to just 3% Boys. On the other Biology 9 15 hand 46 %, 28% boys least enjoy Chemistry and Biology respectively in comparison to None 9 7 34%, 9% Girls. 116
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)21. I don’t like doing - Physics 37 4 This study also shows disinterest towards the ______ assignments Chemistry 19 42 subject and to solve the new problem which Mathematics 24 30 actually they have to attempt in assignments. Biology 14 24 37% Girls in comparison to only 4% Boys are not interested in doing Physics assignments on the other hand 42% Boys in comparison to 19% Girls are not interested in doing None 7 0 Chemistry assignments.22. ___ will help me to Physics 7 24 More Boys and Girls have opinion that get a better job when I Chemistry 1 7 Mathematics is more important than other leave school Mathematics 62 52 science subject to secure job. For Physics, Biology 24 17 Chemistry and Biology their opinion is None 5 0 different.23. I would like a career Physics 5 28 Highest number of Girls and boys want which involves Chemistry 0 10 Mathematics based job but 28% Boys in _____________ Mathematics 55 42 comparison to 5% Girls are interested Physics Biology 27 20 based job. No girls is interested in Chemistry based job. The trend is reversed in Biology 27% Girls in comparison to 20% Boys prefer None 13 0 Biology for their career.24. ___ is too complicated Physics 34 6 Physics and Mathematics are complicated for for most students to Chemistry 25 37 Girls; Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology understand Mathematics 35 44 are complicated for Boys. Biology 2 13 None 5 125. _____ is more Physics 20 21 This study shows feelings of different genders important for boys Chemistry 7 11 are different. Girls feel that 54% Girls in than for girls Mathematics 54 30 comparison to 30% Boys feel that Biology 12 38 Mathematics is more important for boys than for girls on the other hand 38% Boys in comparison to 12% Girls feel that Biology is None 7 0 more important for boys than for girls.26. I have difficulty Physics 33 1 33% Girls in comparison to 1% Boys feel that understanding the Chemistry 31 46 scientific terms of Physics are difficult. 46% words and expressions Mathematics 17 23 in comparison to 31% Girls feel scientific used in ______ Biology 16 30 terms of Chemistry are difficult. For scientific terms of Biology 30 % Boys in comparison to None 4 0 16% Girls feel difficult.27. I find it difficult when Physics 33 7 33% Girls feel Physics and 42% Girls feel I am asked to use what Chemistry 18 32 Mathematics is difficult in interpreting after I have learned to solve Mathematics 42 48 learning. On the other hand Boys have more new problems in Biology 3 11 difficulty in interpreting Chemistry and Mathematics. Highest number of Boys and Girls both feel that Mathematics is more None 5 1 difficult to interpret.28. I am not sure what I Physics 17 11 Boys and Girls both have opinion that they do am doing half the time Chemistry 21 28 not know the objective while doing the Mathematics 38 45 problems of Mathematics. Biology 12 15 None 13 029. We have to do too Physics 20 14 56% Girls & 31% Boys feel that Biology much writing in Chemistry 14 38 require more writing on the other hand 38% science Mathematics 3 15 Boys feel that Chemistry require more writing Biology 56 31 work. None 7 1 117
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Table 2 : Mean, Standard Deviation and t-test resultsSubject Pro Subject Anti Subject Girls Boys T Girls Boys T Mean SD Mean SD Test Mean SD Mean SD TestPhysics 0.991 5.657 2.451 3.718 2.041 5.525 11.882 1.901 5.742 2.007Chemistry 0.535 4.30 1.17 3.713 1.032 4.109 8.214 6.873 8.937 1.54Mathematics 4.446 15.29 3.732 8.60 0.39 4.218 14.371 5.113 7.525 0.53Biology 3.396 11.26 2.521 6.90 0.63 2.782 14.288 3.59 5.576 0.52 Fig. 1 Results on Pro- and Anti- attitudes on each subject related issue AATS Physics 70 40 PATS Physics 60 % Girls % % Boys Response (%) 50 Response (%) 40 20 30 20 10 0 0 PATS questionnaire AATS questionnaire PATS Chemistry AATS Chemistry 25 % Girls 80 % Girls % Boys 70 % Boys 20 60 Response (%) Response (%) 15 50 40 10 30 20 5 10 0 0 PATS questionnaire AATS questionnaire PATS Mathematics % Girls AATS Mathematics 70 60 % Girls % Boys % Boys 60 50 50 Response (%) Response (%) 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 PATS questionnaire AATS questionnaire % Girls PATS Biology AATS Biology 60 60 % Boys % Girls 50 % Boys 50 Response (%) Response (%) 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 PATS questionnaire AATS questionnaire 118
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)CONCLUSIONSAll the items of the questionnaire either show enjoyment, liking, pleasure, satisfaction, easy,important in life etc. like feeling towards the subjects are categorized as Pro AttitudeTowards Subject (PATS), and disliking, difficult, uninspiring, unimportant in life etc. likefeeling are categorized as Anti Attitude Towards Subject (AATS). These data have, thereforebeen analyzed by separating the items in every subject and graphs are plotted separately forPATS and AATS opinion.The findings of this study showed that there were significant differences between girls andboys in terms of “enjoyment of different science subjects”, “ level of difficulty in eachsubject” etc.• PATS Physics graph shows that boys in comparison to girls have more positive attitude towards Physics where as AAT S Physics graph shows more negative attitude of girls towards Physics.• PATS chemistry graph shows that girls are less interested in chemistry in comparison to boys, on the other hand from AATS Chemistry graph the level of difficulty towards chemistry among the girls is also not too high.• For Mathematics, both PATS and AATS scenario are almost same. It means that there is no significant attitudinal difference towards Mathematics among girls and boys.• From PATS Biology graph girls have more interest in Biology than boys, on the other hand AATS graph shows that even Biology is not too difficult for boys.• The t-test results clearly show that there is a highly significant difference in attitude towards Physics and Chemistry among girls and boys, whereas in Mathematics and Biology difference in attitude merely significant.Since the development of attitudes toward science is a complex function of cultural,biological, psychological, educational and social factors, it is recommended that an integratedapproach should be adopted for investigating gender and developmental differences inattitudes toward sci In order to arrest this situation, necessary efforts must be put in place toensure that opting of science subjects at school level are not only to pass examination to fulfilthe requirements for entry into engineering, medical or any such professional programmes ofstudies but to continue the studies in these disciplines at higher level as well.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe gratefully acknowledge the Director, Col. P C Sharma and Mr. Deepak Kumar Bugaliaof Nimawat Secondary school, Fatehpur, and Ms. Renu Seghal, Principal Mody School fortheir support and input at early stages of this exercise. We would also like to thank the Dean,Faculty of Engineering and Technology, MITS for the use of facilities to complete this work.REFERENCES[1] Rennie.L.J. (1998). Gender equity: Toward clarification and research direction for science teacher education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35, 951-961.[2] Rennie.L.J. (2000). Equity in science education: Gender is just one variable: reply to Atwater, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 391-393. 119
  9. 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)[3] Atwater, M. M. (2000). Females in science education: White is the norm and class, language, lifestyle, and religion are nonissues, Journal of research in Science Teaching, 37, 386-387.[4] Whitelaw S., Milosevic L., Daniels S. (2000), Gender behaviour and achievement: A preliminary study of pupil perceptions and attitudes. Gender and Education,12(1): 87 – 113.[5] Francis L., Greer J (1999), Measuring attitudes towards science among secondary school students: The affective domain. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(1): 877- 896.[6] Jones G., Howe A., Rua M. (2000), Gender differences in students’ experiences, interests, and attitudes towards science and scientists. Science Education, 84(1):180-192.[7] Osborne J., Simon S., Collins S (2003), Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(1):1049- 1079.[8] Aigbomian D.O. (2002), Science for All: Implication for the Teacher and National Development: 14th Inaugural Lectures of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, Benin City: Ambik Press. 120

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