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A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
A  slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for
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A slotted e shaped stacked layers patch antenna for

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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME11A SLOTTED E-SHAPED STACKED LAYERS PATCH ANTENNA FOR5.15-5.85 GHZ FREQUENCY BAND APPLICATIONSUma Shankar Modani1, Gajanand Jagrawal21(Govt. Engg. College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India)2(Govt. Engg. College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India)ABSTRACTThe design of a slotted E-shaped microstrip patch antenna for wideband operation hasbeen presented in this paper. It has been demonstrated that by adding slots to E-shapedrectangular patch and applying stacked layers technique for broad banding, widebandoperation can be satisfactorily achieved which is suitable for WiMax, WLAN, high- speednetworks and other wireless communication systems operating in 5.15-5.85GHz frequencyband. The ANSOFT HFSS software has been used for designing the antenna. The patchelement is being placed on Roger RO4350 substrate of 1.6mm height with relativepermittivity of 3.66 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.004. The antenna is coaxial probe feeded.High performance characteristics and good return loss values for 5.15-5.85 GHz frequencyband have been obtained for the proposed antenna. The development of the design andparametric study has also been presented in this paper.Keywords: Slotted patch, E-shaped, WiMax, WLAN, Stacked layers.1. INTRODUCTIONMicrostrip patch antennas are widely used in wireless communications due to theirinherent advantages of low profile, less weight, low cost, and ease of integration withmicrostrip circuits [1]. However, the main disadvantage of microstrip antennas is the smallbandwidth. Many methods have been proposed to improve the bandwidth. These include theuse of a thick substrate and cutting slots in the design [2-6]. Improvement of broaderbandwidth becomes an important need for many applications such as for high speednetworks.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June, 2013, pp. 11-23© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME12Recently, high-speed wireless computer networks have attracted the attention ofresearchers, especially in the 5-6 GHz band (e. g. WiMax and IEEE 802.11a Indoor andOutdoor WLAN). Such networks have the ability to provide high- speed connectivity (>50Mb/s) between notebook computers, PCs, personal organizers and other wireless digitalappliances. Although current 5 GHz wireless computer network systems operate in the 5.15-5.35 GHz band, future systems may make use of the 5.72-5.85 GHz band in addition to the5.15-5.35 GHz band, for even faster data rates.Many novel antenna designs have been proposed to suit the standard for high-speedwireless computer networks. Some approaches resulted in the probe-fed U-slot patchantennas [7-11], the E- shaped patch antennas [12-19].In this paper, a slotted E-shaped patch antenna with an air gap of 1mm insertedbetween ground plane and the substrate to improve the bandwidth, which was introduced in[13], has been presented with the parametric study. The various parameters of the design havebeen varied and their effects on return loss have been studied. The technique of stacked layerstructure using an air box sandwiched between substrate and ground has been reported in [20-23]. Ansoft HFSS which is the industry standard simulation tool for 3D full-waveelectromagnetic field simulation based on Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used forsimulation purposes [24], [25].2. ANTENNA DESIGNThe side view of the proposed antenna structure has been shown in Fig. 1. The broadbanding technique of stacked layers is used to improve the bandwidth. An air box of height1mm is inserted between substrate and the ground. The Roger RO4350 of 1.6mm thicknesshaving relative permittivity of 3.66 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.004 has been used assubstrate. The substrate and ground size has been considered as 33.2mm x 27.2mm. Theantenna is probe feeded. The feeding method is easy to fabricate but difficult to modelaccurately and have low spurious radiation and narrow bandwidth of impedance matching[26]. The location of the feed element with respect to the patch also plays a role in theantenna performance. The patch geometry has been shown in Fig. 2. The optimizeddimensions of the patch to cover the required bandwidth are listed in TABLE I. The tworectangular slots, one in each upper and lower edge of the main E-shaped patch have beenintroduced and two rectangular slot strips symmetrical and parallel to the y-axis have beencut from the main patch. The two square slots are embedded at the two corners of the leftedge of the patch. All these slots have been included in the design to achieve the desiredantenna performance. The feed point is located at (-1mm, -7mm).Fig. 1 Proposed antenna structure
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME13Fig. 2 Slotted E-shaped patch geometryTABLE IDIMENSIONS OF THE OPTIMIZED PATCHParametersDimensions(mm)L1 23.6W1 17.6W2 16.2W3 1.4L2 3L3 7.6L4 5W4 5L5 3L6 1.5L7 1W5 6W6 13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANTENNA DESIGNThe proposed antenna design is a modified standard rectangular patch. The varioussteps in the designing of the antenna shape have been shown in Fig. 3. In step 1, a rectangularpatch has been designed to resonate at 5.2 GHz by using standard equations given in [1]. Thefeed point is located at (-1mm, -7mm). In step 2, two rectangular shaped patches of L2*W2have been removed from the right edge of the main patch. These rectangular patches havebeen cut at a distance of L2 from both the top and bottom edges of the main patch. This stephas resulted in E-shaped design. In step 3, two vertical strips each of L5*W6 dimensionshave been removed from the top and bottom edges of the patch at a distance of 2.8mm fromthe left edge of the patch. In next step, two horizontal strips each of L7*W5 dimensions have
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME14been removed from the patch at a distance of 2.3mm from the left edge of the patch. In finalstep, two rectangular patches of L6*W3 dimensions have been removed from two left edgecorners of the patch. The final design has resulted in required lower and higher cut offfrequencies as well as the bandwidth. The return loss plots of all the steps have been shown inFig.4.Fig.3 Development of the designFig.4 Return loss plots for various steps in development of the designTABLE IIIRESULTS OF RETURN LOSS PLOTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE DESIGNDesign Step fr[GHz] fL[GHz] fH[GHz] Bandwidth[MHz]Step 1 5.2318 5.020 5.461 441Step 2 5.3273 5.145 5.542 3975.8591 5.778 5.925 147Step 3 5.2727 5.063 5.484 4215.8318 5.785 5.880 095Step 4 5.2591 5.058 5.467 4095.7909 5.729 5.8540 125Step 5 5.36825.143 5.8580 7155.7636
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME154. PARAMETRIC STUDYThe slots W3, W4, L4, W5, L5, W6, L6, L7, and feed point location are set asvariables and their effects on the impedance bandwidth have been studied. The study hasbeen carried out for the final design as obtained after the step 5 in the development of thedesign. The patch design parameters are varied about the optimized values shown in Table I.Fig.5 shows the effect of changes in W3 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. All the results in these figures show that this antenna has two resonantfrequencies: f1 and f2. As shown in Fig.5, with the increase in W3, f1and f2 increase and withdecrease in W3, f1 and f2 both decrease and also the bandwidth.Fig.5 Return loss plots for variations in W3Fig.6 shows the effect of changes in L4 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. As shown in Fig.6, when L4 is increased then both resonant frequency f1and f2 are decreased. When L4 is decreased then f1 is decreased but f2 is increased. Thebandwidth is also reduced as L4 is decreased.Fig.6 Return loss plots for variations in L4
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME16Fig.7 shows the effect of changes in W4 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. When W4 is increased then only one resonant frequency is remainingand bandwidth is also reduced. As shown in Fig.7, when W4 is decreased, then f1 isdecreased, f2 increased and bandwidth is also reduced.Fig.7 Return loss plots for variations in W4Fig.8 shows the effect of changes in L5 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. When L5 is increased then both resonant frequencies f1 and f2 aredecreased and bandwidth is also reduced. When L5 is decreased then also both resonantfrequencies f1 and f2 are decreased. When L5 is decreased then it does not cover the entirefrequency band from 5.15GHz to 5.85 GHz.Fig.8 Return loss plots for variations in L5
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME17Fig.9 shows the effect of changes in W5 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. when W5 is increased then both resonant frequency f1 and f2 aredecreased and is not cover the frequency band from 5.15 GHz to 5.85GHz. When W5 isdecreased then f1 is decreased and f2 is increased but bandwidth is reduced.Fig.9 Return loss plots for variations in W5Fig.10 shows the effect of changes in L6 while keeping all the other parameters sameas shown in Table I. In both cases, when L6 increased and decreased then bandwidth isreduced. Fig.11 shows the effect of changes in W6 while keeping all the other parameterssame as shown in Table I. When W6 is increased then the antenna does not cover thefrequency band from 5.15GHz to 5.85GHz. When W6 is decreased then bandwidth isreduced. Fig.12 shows the effect of changes in L7 while keeping all the other parameterssame as shown in Table I. When L7 is increased then both resonant frequencies f1 and f2 aredecreased. When L7 is decreased then bandwidth is reduced. Fig.13 shows the return lossplots for different feed locations. As shown in Fig.13 we get optimized result in step5.Fig.10 Return loss plots for variations in L6
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME18Fig.11 Return loss plots for variations in W6Fig.12 Return loss plots for variations in L7Fig.13 Return loss plots for variation in feed locations
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME195. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONFig. 14 shows the return loss plot of the proposed antenna with optimized parametersas shown in Table I. The lower -10dB frequency at 5.15GHz and upper -10dB frequency at5.85GHz have been obtained which covers the entire range of WiMax and WLANapplications. In fact, there are two bands resonating at 5.35GHz and 5.75GHz which arestagger coupled to result in such response. Fig. 15 presents the E-plane and H-plane radiationpatterns which are almost omnidirectional in shape. The maximum gain of 4.7dB has beenobtained in both the planes. The smith chart has been shown in Fig. 16. Fig. 17 shows the 3Dpolar plot obtained at 5.5GHz. Fig. 18 shows the variations in the gain with respect tofrequency. It has revealed that the gain performance of the proposed antenna is satisfactorywithin the desired frequency range. The other parameters such as peak directivity, peak gainand radiation efficiency are shown in TABLE III.3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00Freq [GHz]-25.00-20.00-15.00-10.00-5.000.00ReturnLoss(dB)XY Plot 31-10.0096 -10.0974MX2: 5.1507MX1: 5.8547Fig. 14 Return loss plot of the optimized antenna design-5.20-2.400.403.209060300-30-60-90-120-150-180150120m1m2Name Theta Ang Magm1 -90.0000 0.0000 4.7212m2 -92.0000 -2.0000 4.7310Curve InfodB(GainTotal)Phi=0degdB(GainTotal)Phi=90degFig. 15 E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns
  • 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME205.002.001.000.500.205.00-5.002.00-2.001.00-1.000.50-0.500.20-0.200.00-0.000102030405060708090100110120130140150160170180-170-160-150-140-130-120-110-100 -90 -80-70-60-50-40-30-20-10Fig. 16 Smith chartFig. 17 3D polar plot at 5.5GHz3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00Freq [GHz]-4.00-3.00-2.00-1.000.001.002.003.004.005.006.00dB(GainTotal)XY Plot 34Fig. 18 Gain v/s frequency curve
  • 11. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME21TABLE IIIIOTHER SIMULATED RESULTSParameters SimulatedResultsPeak Directivity 1.6208Peak Gain 1.5965Radiation Efficiency 0.9856. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKA novel compact slotted E-shaped microstrip patch antenna has been designed forWiMax, WLAN and other high-speed wireless communication systems operating within5.15GHz to 5.85GHz frequency band. The simulated results have demonstrated satisfactoryradiation performance of the antenna across the entire operating frequency range. Thesefeatures are very useful for worldwide portability of wireless communication equipment. Theproposed antenna design will be helpful for antenna design engineers to design and optimizethe antennas for other wireless applications. The future works include fabrication of theantenna, measurements of antenna performance parameters with the industry standardequipments and comparison of simulated and measured results.REFERENCES[1] Balanis, C.A., 2005. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. 3rd Edn., John Wiley,Hoboken, ISBN: 047166782X, pp: 1117.[2] Yoharaaj, D. Azmir and Raja Syamsul, “A New Approach for Bandwidth EnhancementTechnique in Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Applications,” RF and MicrowaveConference, 2006. RFM 2006. International, 2006, Page(s): 205 – 209.[3] Rafi, G. and L. Shafai, “Broadband microstrip patch antenna with V-slot,” IEE Proc.Microw. Antenna Propag., Vol. 151, No. 5, 435–440, October 2004.[4] K. Karuna Kumari and Dr. P.V.Sridevi, “Performance Evaluation of Circular MicrostripPatch Antenna Array with Different Dielectric Substrate Materials” InternationalJournal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 236 - 249, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[5] M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Design and Development of Triple Band Omni-directional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna” International Journal ofElectronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[6] Islam, M. T., M. N. Shakib, and N. Misran, "Multi-slotted microstrip patch antenna forwireless communication," Progress in Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 10, 11-18, 2009.[7] Lee, K. F., K. M. Luk, K. F. Tong, S. M. Shum, T. Huynh, and R. Q., “Experimentaland simulation studies of the coaxially fed U-slot," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng., pt. H, Vol.144, 354-358, Oct. 1997.
  • 12. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME22[8] Lee, K. F., et al., “Experimental and simulation studies of the coaxially fed U-slotsrectangular patch antenna,” IEE Proc. Microw. Antenna Propag., Vol. 144, No. 5, 354–358, October 1997.[9] H. F. AbuTarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy and R. Nilavalan,“Triple Band Double U-SlotsPatch Antenna for WiMAX Mobile Applications”, the 14th Asia-Pacific Conference onCommunications , Japan, October 2008.[10] H. F. AbuTarboush and H. S. Al-Raweshidy, “A Connected E-Shape and U-ShapeDual-Band Patch Antenna for Different Wireless Applications”, the SecondInternational EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, July, 2008.[11] Weigand, S., G. H. Huff, K. H. Pan, and J. T. Bernhard, “Analysis and design of broad-band single-layer rectangular U slot microstrip patch antennas,” IEEE Transactions onAntenna and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 3, 457–468, March 2003.[12] Yang, F., X.-X. Zhang, X. Ye, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Wide-band E-shaped patchantennas for wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol. 49,No. 7, 1091-1100, July 2001.[13] Uma Shankar Modani and Gajanand Jagrawal, “A Novel Slotted E-Shaped PatchAntenna for WiMax and WLAN Applications”, IEEE International Conference onAdvanced Research in Engineering and Technology Publication Year: 2013, Page(s):238 – 240.[14] Anurag Sharma, Ramesh Bharti and Archana Agarwal, “Enhanced Bandwidth SlottedMicrostrip Patch Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics and CommunicationEngineering & Technology (IJECET), volume 4, issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 41-47, ISSN 0976 – 6464(print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(online).[15] B. K. Ang and B. K. Chung, " A Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5–6GHz Wireless Communications," Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 75,397–407, 2007.[16] Govardhani Immadi, K. Swetha, M.Venkata Narayana,M.Sowmya and R.Ranjana, "Design of microstrip patch antenna for WLAN applications using Back to Backconnection of Two E-Shapes," International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012, pp. 319-323.[17] Elangovan, G. and J. Rajapaul Perinbam, “Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Antenna forWireless Sensor Networks,” American Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (1): 89-92, 2012.[18] Ge, Y., K. P. Esselle, and T. S. Bird, “E-Shaped patch antennas for high-speed wirelessnetworks," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat.,” Vol. 52, No. 12, 3213-3219,December 2004.[19] Yu, A. and X. X. Zhang, “A method to enhance the bandwidth of microstrip antennasusing a modified E-shaped patch,” Proceedings of Radio and Wireless Conference,261–264, Aug. 10–13, 2003.[20] Ayoub, A. F. A., “Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas with air substrates,”Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 17, No. 12, 1665–1817, 2003.[21] Vanishree S B, P.A.Ambresh, G.A.Bidkar, R.M.Vani and P.V. Hunagund, “NovelDesign of a Low Cost Microstripline-fed Shorted Patch Antenna for CommunicationApplications”, al Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), pp. 235-239.
  • 13. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME23[22] G. Drossos, Z. Wu and L. E. Davis, "The air gap effect on a microstiip-coupledcylindrical dielectiic resonator antenna," Microw. and Opt, Techn. Lett., vol 20, pp.36-40, Jan. 1999.[23] Modani, U.S.; Modani, S.G.; “Swastika-shaped patch antennas for 5.8GHz WLANCommunications,” International Journal of Operation Research and Optimization, July-December 2011, Vol.2, No. 2, pp. 455-460, ISSN-(Print) 0975-3737, (Online) 2231-4741[24] HFSS, Ansoft Corporation, http://www.ansoft.com/products/hfss/.[25] Ansoft HFSS V11 User’s Guide, 2009. HFSS, Ansoft Corporation, Pittsburgh, USA.[26] B. Jyothi, B.T.P.Madhav, V.V.S. Murthy, P. Syam Sundar, VGKM Pisipati, "Comparative Analysis of Microstrip Coaxial Fed, Inset Fed and Edge Fed AntennaOperating at Fixed Frequency," International Journal of Scientific and ResearchPublications, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012 1 ISSN 2250-3153.[27] Amit Kumar Gupta, R.K. Prasad and Dr. D.K. Srivastava, “Design and Development ofDual E-Shaped Microstrip patch Antenna for Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement”,International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology(IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 34 - 42, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online:0976 –6472.[28] Tauheed Qamar, Naseem Halder, Mohd. Gulman Siddiqui and Vishal Varshney,“Simulation and Analysis of Slot-Coupled Patch Antenna at Different Frequenciesusing Hfss”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 1 - 7, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464,ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.[29] Nagraj Kulkarni and S. N. Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Inverted U - Slot Triple BandTunable Rectangular Microstrip Antenna For Wlan Applications”, International Journalof Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3,Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1 - 9, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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