A realistic estimation of energy saving with renewable energy sources in domestic sector
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A realistic estimation of energy saving with renewable energy sources in domestic sector Document Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 124-130 IJEET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.2031 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com A REALISTIC ESTIMATION OF ENERGY SAVING WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DOMESTIC SECTOR A.Srinivasa Rao1, S.V. L. Narasimham2 and B.Suresh Kumar3 1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam- 530045, India 2 Department of Information Technology, JNT University, Hyderabad-500085, India 3 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam- 530045, India ABSTRACT Electrical energy is the unchallenged prime mover of the modern human life. The demand for the energy is constantly increasing in developing countries like India, where the generation of power is predominantly by fossil fuels. Because of the various disadvantages associated with fossil fuels besides the economic constraints, it is becoming mandatory to switch to alternative sources for energy. In this paper an attempt has been made to use non conventional energy sources at the domestic level that supplements the regular power supply. The houses are trifurcated into low, middle and high income groups based on energy consumption. Solar and wind energies are considered as they are available in plenty in most of the regions in India, and can be installed easily at the consumer’s premises. Key words: renewable energy, photo voltaic energy, wind energy, Micro Power Generation 1. INTRODUCTION India stands fifth in the world with respect to energy consumption with an installed capacity of about 210.936GW [1]. This is still far behind relative to the developed countries around the globe. The demand/supply gap is around 8.2% in India [2], which is hampering the growth of industrial sector and becoming an impediment to the progress of economy. India heavily depends on the import of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas which results in heavy loss of foreign exchange. These sources are fast depleting and hence the prices are 124
  • 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEshooting up affecting the country’s economy adversely. Hence it is essential to vet alternateenergy technologies to tackle the energy crisis. Kennedy et al [4] gave a generic approach tocalculate long term costs and benefits of renewable energy generation. However this limits toimpact on two different units rather than system as a whole. Bergmann et al [5] estimated thecosts of renewable technologies and no approach was made to quantify the costs G. Young et al[6] indicated that photovoltaic generation is cost effective if we wish to power a home which ismore than 2 miles from nearest power line. This literature survey prompted the authors to thinkabout effective generation for domestic applications using renewable energy sources. The IndianRenewable Energy Program is well established under the Ministry of New and RenewableEnergy (MNRE) [3] which is promoting R&D, demonstration projects, subsidy programs etc. inthe area of renewable energy sources along with Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency(IREDA). The key factors that force usage of renewable energy are: • Demand- supply gap • Economic and environment and energy security concerns • Huge untapped potential of renewable energy and reducing cost of generation • Feasibility particularly for domestic and rural electrification This paper addresses the need for usage of available renewable energy sources at the domestic level and associated savings achieved.2. MICRO GENERATION Micro generation refers to the production of low carbon electrical power by domesticconsumers to meet their own requirements. Micro generation technologies include solar basedphotovoltaic systems and small wind turbines which can be installed easily at the premises of theconsumer to supplement the regular grid supply.3. FOCUS ON SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY India receives a good amount of solar radiation as it is located between the equator andtropic of cancer in the Northern hemisphere. The daily incident solar energy ranges from 4 to 7kWh/m2 based on location with about 1500 to 2000 sunshine hours per year [7]. Wind energydepends indirectly on solar radiation as the circulation of air is caused by non uniform heating ofearth’s surface.4. PROBLEM FORMULATION In the present paper a case study is presented to exploit and effectively utilize therenewable energy sources at domestic level to reduce the energy demand from grid, which in turnminimizes the adverse environmental impact. The houses are classified into three types namelylower class(class A), middle class(class B) and higher class( class C) taking the averageconsumption into account and load tables are prepared which are shown in Appendix A. Thehours of usage is estimated based on the sample survey on one feeder in Visakhapatnam. Themonthly and hourly solar and wind energy data is also shown in appendix B which is taken from[8]. Depending on month and time the consumer should connect his loads to the available solarpanel and/or wind generator and remaining loads will be connected to the grid. The bill has beencalculated when loads are connected to renewable energy sources (solar and wind). The bill whenloads are connected to renewable energy sources is savings obtained in the month. The savingsare calculated for the three classes individually. 125
  • 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Appendix A CLASS WISE LOAD TABLES CLASS A TIME LABLE WATTAGE MONTH 18-22 L1 40 1-12 18-24 F1 60 1-12 1-6 F1 60 1-12 10-12 TV 100 1-12 17-21 TV 100 1-12 18-24 BL1 10 1-12 1-6 BL1 10 1-12 18-21 L2 40 1-12 18-22 L3 40 1-12 CLASS B ROOM TIME LABLE WATTAGE MONTH Bed room 18-21 L1 40 1-12 18-24,1-6 F1 60 1-12 22-24,1-6 BL1 10 1-12 Hall 10-13,16-22 TV 100 1-12 10-13,16-22 F2 60 1-12 18-22 L2 40 1-12 Kitchen 6-9,12-13,18-21 L3 40 1-12 8-9,12-13,20-21 F3 60 1-12 7-8 MIX 450 1-12 Motor 6-7,16-17 M 750 1-12 Bath Room 6-8,18-22 L4 40 1-12 Surroundings 18-22 L5 40 1-12 22-24,1-6 BL2 10 1-12 CLASS C ROOM TIME LABLE WATTAGE MONTH Bed Room1 18-21 L1 40 1-12 18-22 L2 40 1-12 18-24.1-6 F1 60 1-12 18-24,1-6 BL1 10 1-12 Bed Room2 18-22 L3 40 1-12 18-24,1-6 F3 60 1-12 14-15,20-24 AC1 2400 1-12 1-4 AC1 2400 1-12 18-24,1-6 BL2 10 1-12 Verandah 18-24,1-6 L4 40 1-12 Guest Room 16-21 F4 60 1-12 16-21 L5 40 1-12 18-21 L6 40 1-12 Hall 10-13,16-22 F5 60 1-12 18-22 L7 40 1-12 18-22 L8 40 1-12 12-14,18-22 TV 100 1-12 Kitchen 8-9,20-22 F6 60 1-12 7-8,18-22 L9 40 1-12 7-8 MIX 450 1-12 1-24 Fr 1000 1-12 126
  • 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Appendix BWIND TABLE Month Jan Feb March Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Wattage/Hour 207 230 227 165 348 563 668 461 358 185 282 340SUN TABLE: Wattage available Month/Time 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 January 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 February 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 March 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 April 25 50 125 275 375 450 500 450 400 350 250 100 25 May 25 50 125 275 375 450 500 450 400 350 250 100 25 June 25 50 125 275 375 450 500 450 400 350 250 100 25 July 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 August 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 September 0 25 75 225 300 350 400 375 350 275 125 25 0 October 0 15 25 75 150 250 350 300 250 200 100 50 0 November 0 15 25 75 150 250 350 300 250 200 100 50 0 December 0 15 25 75 150 250 350 300 250 200 100 50 0UNIT COST TABLE Units per month Unit cost (Rs) 0-50 1.45 51-100 2.80 101-200 3.60 201-300 5.75 301-500 6.75 >500 7.25 The algorithm for proposed method: 1. Input choice of Class of Load. 2. Input Load data, Wind energy data, solar energy data and cost per unit. 3. Calculate Gi= Wi + Si Where Gi = Renewable energy generation at ith hour, Wi = Wind energy generation at ith hour, Si = Solar energy generation at ith hour. 4. If Li < Gi , Energy saving is Li kwh. Where Li = Load at ith hour. 5. Calculate Cost of Energy saving Ci = Li * (Cost/unit) Where Ci = Cost of Energy saving at ith hour. 6. If Gi < Li , Energy saving is Gi kwh. 7. Calculate Cost of Energy saving Ci = Gi * (Cost/unit). 8. Plot graph for Load curve, Energy savings in Kwh and Cost of Energy savings in Rs. 127
  • 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME5. RESULTS A software has been developed using MATLAB for calculating the savings obtainedby use of renewable energy sources in a given month. The load curves are plotted based onthe classification of houses. Table 1 gives the energy savings estimated with the use ofrenewable energy. Graphs are also plotted for every month with respect to savings in KWHand saving in INR for each classification. Figure 1, 2 and 3 presents the typical load curve,energy and cost savings of class A, B and C houses respectively. The accuracy of theestimation solely depends on the data assumed and hence the method is highly flexible andcan be tailored to suit any local conditions. Table 1: Energy savings with renewable generation Type of Energy Energy % Energy Cost saving House consumption generated by Saving per year renewable (KWH) sources (INR) (KWH) Class A 686.2 645.8470 94.11 1010.2 Class B 1974.7 1392.9 70.53 3276.4 Class C 18721 3873.5 20.69 20032 Figure 1: Load and saving of Class A house 128
  • 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Figure 2: Load and saving of Class B house Figure 3: Load and saving of Class C house 129
  • 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME6. CONCLUSION It is observed that the percentage energy savings with the available solar and windpowers is 94.11, 70.53 and 20.69 in the case of Class A, class B and Class C housesrespectively. The authors feel that by shifting partially to renewable energy sources will makeIndia to attract foreign investments to herald green energy revolution in India.REFERENCES1. Electricity sector in India: Wikipedia2. A report by central electricity authority, India in April 20123. www.mnre.gov.in4. Kennedy,2005, wind power planning: assessing long term costs and benefits, energy policy 33, 1661-16755. Bergmann, A., Hanley, N., Wright, R., 2006. Valuing the attributes of renewable energy investments. Energy Policy 34, 1004–1014.6. G.Young et.al “Cost effectiveness of photovoltaics” renewable electricity solutions. www. Renewable electricity.com7. Solar power in India: Wikipedia8. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy, A renewable energy resource web site (release 6.0) sponsored by NASA9. Avneet Hira, Vandana Kansal, TK Jindal, Jimmy Kansal and Ashwagosha Ganju, “Harnessing Wind Energy In Cryospheric Regions” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 313 - 319, Published by IAEME.10. Mr. Laith O. Maheemed, D.S. Bankar and Dr. D.B. Talange, “Power Quality Improvement Of Wind Energy Conversion System Using Unified Power Quality Conditioner” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 288 - 302, Published by IAEME.11. Dr.S.M.Ali, K.K.Rout and Bijayini Mohanty , “Application Of Renewable Energy Sources For Effective Energy Management” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 18 - 31, Published by IAEME. 130