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A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
A  factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of  post graduate
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A factorial study of consumer buying behavior of laptops of post graduate

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013), pp. 09-21 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com A FACTORIAL STUDY OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR OF LAPTOPS OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS IN PUNE Vijay.R.Kulkarni M.Com, MBA Assistant Professor Sinhagad Institute of Management & Computer Applications Pune, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT The study is a factorial analysis of consumer buying behavior of Post Graduation students of laptops in the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India. For the purpose of the study Exploratory Research Design is used. Convenience sampling method is adopted for the study. Survey method is used for collecting the data. The data is collected from Post Graduate students in Pune city. A well structured questionnaire is designed for the study and due care is taken to avoid any kind of ambiguity. The sample for the study is 152 respondents. Nominal scale is used for all the variables. The study was conducted during the period 15.09.12 to 31.10.12. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy & Cronbach’s Alpha is used for Scale Reliability. Factor Analysis resulted in five factors viz. 1) Brand and Features 2) Price, Visibility & Service Center 3) Reliability & Responsiveness 4) Store Atmospherics & Assurance and 5) Warranty, Guarantee & After Sales Service Key Words: Buying Behavior, Reliability, Responsibility, Assurance, Warranty & Guarantee 1. INTRODUCTION The invention of Radio and followed by the television changed the lives of the humanity in the last century. Today the introduction of computer technology has transformed the lives of the humanity in general with the speed, quality and density with which the information is being transferred, retrieved and stored resulting in enhancing the efficiency and effectivity. 9
  • 2. International Journal of Management ( (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013) March- With the proliferation of brands and the intensified competition offering me toolaptops the strategy of differentiation has lost its sheen in the lap top industry. Themonopolistic situation as prevailed in the early stages of the evolution of the industry is thething of past. Today the market is highly fragmented and is translated into a level playing .field. In terms of product attributes, there is not much of difference among the equivalentproducts of different brands. It is worth noting that each and every manufacturer ofoffers thesame features like the quality and speed of microprocessors, RAM, wireless connectivity etc.The transformation of the branded laptop product category to a commodity has reduced themanufacturers helpless in their effort to differentiate their products in the minds of the productsconsumers. LAPTOP SALES IN INDIA IN UNITS FOR THE PERIOD 2005-5 TO 2009 5 2009-10(Source: Jaydeep Mukherjee and Mahalingam Sundararajan. HCL: Facing the Challenge ofthe Laptop Market: Management Case) MARKET SHAR OF LAPTOPS SHARE Table 1(Source: Jaydeep Mukherjee and Mahalingam Sundararajan. HCL: Facing the Challenge ofthe Laptop Market: Management Case) 10
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY As a sequel to liberalization, the various reforms introduced by the Government ofIndia resulted in all round growth in the economy. The boom so witnessed generated lot ofemployment opportunities in all the sectors particularly in management comprising of all thedisciplines. Unlike in the past today just a graduation degree is not enough and calls forspecialization so as to qualify and compete for jobs. It will not be out of place if it is statedthat the entry level qualification in the industry is raised from graduation to post graduation.This resulted in sky rocketing of demand for post graduation studies which is aptlydemonstrated from the following table.Table 2. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PUNE UNIVERSITY FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-10 Student Enrolment Undergraduates Colleges 3,41,025 Undergraduates External 50,833 Postgraduate University Departments 6,648 Postgraduate Colleges 56,370 Postgraduate External 55,625 * Source: http://www.unipune.ac.in/university_files/snapshot.htmWhile other sectors like Hospitality, civil aviation, Health care sector, to mention a few,witnessed faster computerization on the other hand education sector though slow initially iscaught up with the trend and today there is emphasis on students owning/using their laptopsin the masters programs for presentations, project work etc..3. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN BUYING LAPTOPS It is seen that usage of laptops in higher education is increasing by the day.Contemporary Post Graduation students have already got used to the computers in theirgrowing stages. The usage of computer technology has increased over time in educationsector. With colleges/universities providing Wi-Fi facility has added to the usage ofcomputer by faculties as well as students. This eventually resulted in increased usage ofcomputer technology in class room teaching and learning process. Moreover with theamazing speed of storing, transferring and accessing the information students want theinformation anytime, anywhere calling for increased use of the laptops. It is witnessed thatover a period of time the prices of the computers have become affordable to the massescoupled with finance schemes facilitating buying and use of laptops. Because of theportability feature a significant part of laptop usage is for entertainment too. Laptops are self-sufficient product, which come with inbuilt speakers and adequate battery life so that it is notnecessary to plug in additional accessories most of the time; hence the overall cost to theconsumer is perceived to be lesser. Due to its high visibility, the consumers are image andbrand conscious which is reflected in their lap top buying behavior. 11
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) Laptops are purchased more often by Students who buy it for self use and theirobjectives are education coupled with entertainment. In many instances, B Schools provideLap top to the students and the cost of the lap top is factored in the course fees. In case ofindividual purchases, it is the head of the family, typically the father who finances thepurchases or through bank financing with the father paying part of the money. The user(Student) is the core decision maker. The siblings in the family or friends, relatives & fellowstudents in the same age group typically are the influencers regarding the brand, features,source of purchase etc. The student enrolment at Post Graduation level is indicative of theattractiveness of this segment which is large enough to be ignored by the manufacturers in thelaptop category. Moreover current buyers (students) are the same customers who are going tobe making repeat purchases through their careers and passing on the legacy to the nextgeneration.4. LITERATURE REVIEW Kotler defined a brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol, design-make or combinationof these that identifies the maker or seller of the product or service” (Kotler 2008, p. 549).Moreover, consumers often use brands as non-verbal cues to communicate with their friendsgroups. Therefore, they choose brands they feel physically and psychologically comfortablewith (Chernatony and McDonald, 1996). According to Nike, “brands are bigger than theproducts they represent” (cited in Haig 2004, p. 92). Branding itself conveys the quality ofthe product.1 “Everyone knows what customer satisfaction is, until asked to give a definition.Then, it seems, nobody knows.” This quote from Richard Oliver, respected expert andlongtime writer and researcher on the topic of customer satisfaction, expresses the challengeof defining this most basic topic of customer concepts. Building from previous definitions,Oliver offers his own formal definition (p13): Satisfaction is the consumer’s fulfillmentresponse. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself,provides a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment. In less technical terms weinterpret this definition to mean that satisfaction is the customer’s evaluation of a product orservice in terms of whether that product or service has met the customer’s needs andexpectations. Failure to meet these needs and expectations is assumed to result indissatisfaction with the product or service.2 For many people, a trip to the auto dealers meansthe mind numbing hour or two in a plastic chair with same tattered magazines and stalecoffee. But JM Lexus in Margate, Florida, features four massage chairs, in addition to its starbuck’s coffee shop, two putting greens, two customer lounges, and a library. At anothergleaming glass-and-stone Lexus dealership North of Miami, “guests”, as Lexus calls itscustomers, leave their cars with a valet and are then guided by a concierge to a European-Style-coffee bar for offering complimentary espresso, cappuccino, and a selection of pastriesprepared by a chef trained in Rome. “We have customers checking in world –class hotels”,says a dealership executive, “They shop on Fifth Avenue and they expect a certain kind ofexperience.” Lexus knows that good marketing doesn’t end with making a sale. Keepingcustomers happy after the sale is the key to building lasting relationships. Dealers across thecountry have a common goal; to delight customers and keep them coming back. Lexusbelieves that if you “delight the customer, and continue to delight the customer, you will havea customer for life.” And Lexus understands just how valuable a customer can be, it estimatesthat the average lifetime value of a Lexus customer is $600,000. Despite the amenities, fewLexus customers spend much time hanging around the dealership. Lexus knows that the best 12
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)dealership visit is the one that you never make. So it builds customer pleasing cars to start with-high-quality cars that need little servicing. In its “Lexus Covenant”, the company vows that itwill make, “the finest cars ever built.” In survey after industry surveys, Lexus rates at or near thetop in quality. Lexus has topped the list in seven of the last nine annual J.D. Power andAssociates Initial Quality Study Ratings.3 Social factors such as education, preferences, incomelevels, and other cultural factors influence demand patterns in the different regions and thereforeaffect how a company operates in each region. The education and income level of users affectsthe brand perception of the computer manufacturers. Due to standardization among WindowsPCs, switching costs are low and therefore competition is driven by pricing instead of productdifferentiation. Apple, on the other hand, competes on product differentiation by promotingpremium products rather than low prices.4All things being equal, (value proposition, productfeatures) the branded products give customers a reason to buy. This is a big advantage overunbranded products because customers will infer a level of quality from the branded products thatfacilitate their purchase decision. Two primary customer advantages result from brandassociations. First, customers process, store and retrieve product information by brand, which is abig advantage for strong brands. People are more likely to connect information with a brand theyknow rather than sort through information on unfamiliar brands. For example, consumersgenerally don’t consider checking accounts form all banks; rather, they consider the brandedproduct such as Bank of America’s checking or another brand they know. A second benefit isthat strong brands generate a more positive attitude towards the product. Customers, generallyhave more upbeat thought about a powerful brand than a week brand or generic product.55. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The laptop product category is achieved highest degree of standardization of components,features and attributes this product category is lost the ability to differentiate in its productofferings. This is the biggest challenge being faced by the industry. The only strategies that areleft at their disposal are either expanding their product assortment or make their offerings moreand more attractive to the target market. This therefore calls for an ongoing in depth study of theconsumer behavior- internal drives and motives of the target market that influence their buyingdecision process of laptops6. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE To find out the factors which impact the buying behavior of Post Graduate students whilebuying a Laptop?7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY For the purpose of the study Exploratory Research Design is used. Conveniencesampling method is adopted for the study. Survey method is used for collecting the data. Thedata is collected from Post Graduate students in Pune city. A well structured questionnaire isdesigned for the study and due care is taken to avoid any kind of ambiguity. The sample for thestudy is 152 respondents. Nominal scale is used for all the variables. The study was conducted inPune city. The study was conducted during the period 15.09.12 to 15.10.12. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy .908 Reliability Statistics Cronbachs Alpha .944 13
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)8. DATA ANALYSIS FACTOR ANALYSIS Table 3 Communalities Initial ExtractionBrand 1.000 .532Processor 1.000 .683Trendy 1.000 .621Aesthetics 1.000 .749Weight 1.000 .524Life of Battery 1.000 .710RAM 1.000 .613Warranty & Guarantee 1.000 .643After Sales Service 1.000 .717Variety 1.000 .657Availability 1.000 .724Price 1.000 .781Discount offers 1.000 .665Accessories 1.000 .566Location of Store 1.000 .474Store Atmospherics 1.000 .737Quality of Sales Person 1.000 .692Assurance-Employees Knowledge and ability to Inspire Confidence 1.000 .602Visual Display and Merchandizing 1.000 .721Availability of Spare Parts 1.000 .605Service center 1.000 .590Ease of Payment terms 1.000 .615Reliability of the Brand 1.000 .733Relation Focus of the Brand 1.000 .749Responsiveness-Willingness to help Customers and Provide Prompt 1.000 .804ServiceSatisfaction and Value from the Brand 1.000 .728Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. 14
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) Table 4 Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Rotation Sums of Squared Initial Eigen values Squared Loadings Loadings Cumu CumuCompo % of Cumulative % of lative % of lativeNent Total Variance % Total Variance % Total Variance % 1 11.077 42.603 42.603 11.077 42.603 42.603 4.158 15.994 15.994 2 1.912 7.356 49.959 1.912 7.356 49.959 3.684 14.169 30.162 3 1.633 6.279 56.238 1.633 6.279 56.238 3.453 13.283 43.445 4 1.381 5.313 61.551 1.381 5.313 61.551 3.163 12.166 55.610 5 1.232 4.738 66.289 1.232 4.738 66.289 2.776 10.678 66.289 6 .967 3.719 70.008 7 .845 3.249 73.257 8 .732 2.817 76.074 9 .669 2.574 78.647 10 .632 2.431 81.078 11 .560 2.153 83.231 12 .492 1.892 85.123 13 .480 1.847 86.970 14 .432 1.662 88.632 15 .409 1.573 90.204 16 .342 1.317 91.521 17 .309 1.190 92.712 18 .300 1.155 93.866 19 .279 1.073 94.940 20 .258 .994 95.934 21 .215 .826 96.760 22 .210 .808 97.568 23 .185 .712 98.279 24 .159 .613 98.892 25 .153 .590 99.482 26 .135 .518 100.00 15
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) Table 5 Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 4 5Brand .581Processor .715Trendy .550 .542Aesthetics .620 .504Weight .601Life of Battery .683RAM .612Warranty & Guarantee .621After Sales Service .560 .500Variety .767Availability .791Price .769Discount offers .649Accessories .705Location of Store .582Store Atmospherics .561 -.575Quality of Sales Person .640Assurance-Employees Knowledge .599and ability to Inspire ConfidenceVisual Display and Merchandizing .658Availability of Spare Parts .575Service center .616Ease of Payment terms .536Reliability of the Brand .656Relation Focus of the Brand .703Responsiveness-Willingness to help .709Customers and Provide PromptServiceSatisfaction and Value from the .796BrandExtraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.a. 5 components extracted. 16
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) Table 6 Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 2 3 4 5Brand .661Processor .693Trendy .755Aesthetics .816Weight .631Life of Battery .725RAM .517Warranty & Guarantee .693After Sales Service .768Variety .519AvailabilityPrice .549 .541Discount offers .636Accessories .501Location of Store .508Store Atmospherics .815Quality of Sales Person .743Assurance-Employees Knowledge .686and ability to Inspire ConfidenceVisual Display and Merchandizing .701Availability of Spare Parts .688Service center .670Ease of Payment terms .590Reliability of the Brand .770Relation Focus of the Brand .751Responsiveness-Willingness to help .786Customers and Provide PromptServiceSatisfaction and Value from the .622BrandExtraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a. Rotation converged in 10 iterations. 17
  • 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) TABLE OF FACTOR ANALYSIS Table 7Factor Name Eigen Value% Statements Loading Value VarianceBrand & Features 11.077 42.603 Brand .661 1.912 7.356 Processor .693 1.633 6.279 Trendy .755 1.381 5.313 Aesthetics .816 1.232 4.738 Weight .631 .967 3.719 Life of Battery .725 .845 3.249 RAM .517 Total 19.047 73.257 4.798Price, Visibility & .632 2.431 Variety .519Service .492 1.892 Price .549 .480 1.847 Discount offers .636 .432 1.662 Accessories .501 .279 1.073 Visual Display and .701 Merchandizing .258 .994 Availability of Spare Parts .688 .215 .826 Service center .670 Total 2.788 10.725 4.264Reliability & .210 .808 Ease of Payment terms .590Responsiveness .185 .712 Reliability of the Brand .770 .159 .613 Relation Focus of the Brand .751 .153 .590 Responsiveness-Willingness to .786 help Customers and Provide Prompt Service .135 .518 Satisfaction and Value from the .622 Brand Total .842 3.241 3.519Store Atmospherics & .409 1.573 Location of Store .508Assurance .342 1.317 Store Atmospherics .815 .309 1.190 Quality of Sales Person .743 .300 1.155 Assurance-Employees .686 Knowledge and ability to Inspire Confidence Total 1.36 5.235 2.752Warranty, Guarantee .732 2.817 Warranty & Guarantee .693& After Sales Service .669 2.574 After Sales Service .768 Total 1.401 5.391 1.461 18
  • 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)9. DISCUSSION1. Brand & Features Brand image refers to the graphic memory of the brand. It involves the targetcustomer’s interpretation of the products features, usage, benefits and also about themanufacturing organization. It is the customer’s inner feelings and the way relate when theyhear about the brand. Therefore the first and the foremost challenge facing the manufacturersare to consolidate the brand in the minds of the customers. This calls for increasing the valueproposition and excitement of the brand by incorporating newer and newer features in theproducts. To survive and grow in this challenging and highly competitive environmentcompanies need to have highly innovative approach, keep a keen eye on the changing needsand expectations of the consumers and at the same time build strong relationships with all thestakeholders including the consumers who prove to be valuable contributors to new ideas,product improvements to meet the ever changing needs of the customers. This will eventuallylead to strengthening & successfully leveraging the brand.2. Price, Visibility & Service Center Laptop being a high value/high involvement product for the student’s, price becomesa very critical aspect of lap top decision making process. Having lost the ability todifferentiate due to high degree of standardization, other things being equal, the manipulationof price of the lap tops by innovating creative and exciting sales promotions is a potent tool inattracting and stimulating immediate purchases by the customers. Since the customers usingthe lap tops are very conscious of the brand and its visibility it calls for increasing visibilityof the laptop brand through creative and exciting visual display and merchandizing in thestores. Spares and after sales service is part of a product (augmented) which are required bythe customers once they start using the product. A technology product like laptop, in theabsence of spares and well equipped service center is no more a usable product and hencespares and service center assumes high significance for this product category. In the event ofbreakdown quick availability of spares and availability of service center is called for withoutwhich the customer cannot use the product and would definitely result in post purchasedissonance.3. Reliability & Responsiveness Reliability refers to ability to perform the promised service dependably and accuratelyand Responsiveness refers willing to help customers and provide prompt service. In contrastto FMCG products the customers when they invest considerably in buying technological andcomplex products like Laptop the basic expectation is that the brand they purchase performsat least to the extent as promised by the manufacturers. A laptop, for students is a prizedpossession and their genuine expectation is that they get bailed out when faced with problemswith the lap top they are using. For the students it is not only a computer but an educationaland entertainment tool and hence if the laptop does not function at the least as per thepromises made by the manufacturer and also poor response to the customer problems by theorganizations may result in dissatisfaction and creating a dejected and frustrated customer.Hence it calls on the part of the laptop manufactures to ensure that the product performs atthe least to the extent of promises made by them and strive to give better value to thecustomers compared to the competitors and also need to resolve customer’s problemsspeedily. 19
  • 12. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)4. Store Atmospherics & Assurance Stores atmospherics is an integration of various elements like layout, design,illumination, display and merchandizing, colors, sounds/music, hygiene and cleanliness,perfumes, fellow shoppers, fixtures and fittings, behavior of sales and service personnel etc.An enticing store atmospherics impacts the senses of the customer favorably and motivateshim to stay longer on the floor of the store, thereby increase the probability of sale and cancontribute in building a positive image of the brand in the minds of the customers. Today’scustomer compared to the customer in the gone by era looks forward to enticing and pleasingstore atmospherics resulting in good buying experience. Assurance refers to thestore/organizations employee’s knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire trust andconfidence. Laptop being a technology product, customers looks forward to helping, caring,knowledgeable and confidence inspiring employees who can help the customers in taking aright buying decision. It therefore calls on the part of the laptop manufacturers to ensure thattheir own stores or stores of the franchisees are inviting and attractive enough to entice andmotive the customers. Further it is required to train personnel having interface with thecustomers in behavioral, sales and customer management skills so that customer confidencein the personnel is enhanced.5. Warranty, Guarantee & After Sales Service While buying a laptop the customers are investing heavily. Warranty and guaranteeare the part of the product (augmented), the provision of which enhances confidence of thecustomers and they are contended with the knowledge that in case the product fails due tofailure of components having warranty and guarantee they get compensated for the loss. Inreal life such a situation seldom arises but mere provision of warranty and guarantee satisfiesand puts the customers at ease. Laptop being technology product, in the event of anyfunctional issues, definitely calls for availability of instant service facility within customer’seasy reach. It therefore calls on the part of the organizations to make available servicefacilities so that customers are put at ease, are satisfied and continue to use the productsthrough their life time.10. REFERENCES 1. http://www.ukdissertations.com/dissertations/management/consumer-buying- behaviour.php 2. Zeithaml, Bitner & Gremler: Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm. McGraw-Hill Irwin 3. Consumer_markets_and_consumer_buyer_behavior.pdf www.studentsbaraza.com/uploads/9/7/3/0/9730120/consumer_markets_and_consume r_buyer_behavior.pdf) 4. Aditya Shah, Abhinav Dalal. The Global Laptop Industry pdf 5. Greg W. Marshall and Mark.W.Johnston. Marketing Management.pp.312-313 McGraw-Hill Irwin. New York 6. Zeithaml, Bitner & Gremler: Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm. McGraw-Hill Irwin 7. C.R.Kothari. Research Methodology, Methods & Techniques by, Second revised edition, 2010, New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India. 8. Schiff man & Kanuk, Consumer Behaviour, 9th Edition, , Pearson. 20
  • 13. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013) 9. Anantnarayan & Jayashree Nimagadda. A Hand Book of Research Process, -2009 edition, Macmillan Publishers India Limited, New Delhi, India. 10. S.C.Gupta, Fundamentals of Statistics, sixth revised and enlarged edition, 2010, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, India. 11. Richard I Levin & David.S. Rubin, Statistics for Management, Seventh edition, Pearson. 12. Vijay.R.Kulkarni, “A Study of Impact of Merchandise Variety and Assostment on Shopping Experience of Customer Sin Convenience Stores in Organized Retail in India, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 85 - 94, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510, Published by IAEME. 13. Vijay.R.Kulkarni, “A Study of Impact of Music on Customer Buying Behavior in Retail, Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 152 - 159, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510, Published by IAEME. 21

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