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  • 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 65 ACCURATE EVENT DETECTION AND SECURE EVENT TRANSMISSION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK 1 Miss.Neha Sarwade, 2 Prof.DineshPatil 1, 2 Dept. of Computer Science & Engg., S.S.G.B.C.O.E.T., Bhusawal ABSTRACT Objective of wireless sensor network is monitoring particular area for event to happen and forwarding event to the destination as soon as possible and in reliable manner. There exists different technique for forwarding the event packet to the destination as soon as event is detected in wireless sensor network. Some method uses single node to forward event packet, some methods uses multiple nodes and some method uses all nodes in particular region where event has happened to forward event packet. In this paper we focus on real time event detection based on concept of clustering of nodes and transformation of detected event in reliable and secure manner. Here we consider single node to forward event to sink. It leads to minimize energy conversion, computation cost of network and also it ensures the reliability and security in event forwarding. Keywords: WSN, Event Detection, Secure Event Transmission. I. INTRODUCTION A network consists of nodes capable of sensing, which can monitor and sense the environment and exchange the information gathered from the monitored field through wireless links, is known as wireless sensor network. Multiple hops are used to forward data to a sink which can be used by sink or is connected to other networks (e.g., the Internet) through a gateway. The nodes are either motionless or in motion. Nodes may be location aware or not. They can be homogeneous or not. The sensor nodes are composed of variety of sensors which senses temperature, sound, vibration, light, humidity, etc. along with processor, memory, radio transceiver, position finding system and power supply. It has capacity to collect sensory information, perform some processing and communicate with connected nodes in the network. Each sensor node collects and route data either to other sensors or back to an external base station. Base station is either fixed node or a INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJCET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 66 mobile node, which can connect the sensor network to an existing communications framework or to the Internet where a user can have access to the data reported. Sensor nodes present in WSN perform main tasks such as performing processing within network on the sensed data by sensing specific event based upon environmental condition. Then WSN forward these sensed data throughout the network and observed data collected from the individual sensor nodes to a sink. In this type of network, sensors communicate with each other using multi-hop wireless communication links and for processing and analysis sensed data will be sent to the sink on behalf of others so it can receive them on time. Sensor nodes are limited in power consumption, computational capacities and memory [2]. WSN should meet reliability, congestion control and energy efficiency to perform these three modules efficiently [5]. The reliability is concerned with how much information is necessary to ensure the occurrence of event in WSN. Congestion control deals with reducing traffic in the network and the energy efficiency in WSN is necessary to increase its lifetime. Different types of applications concerning with monitoring like health environments monitoring, seism monitoring, etc., control applications as object detection and tracking, battle field’s surveillance and emergency situations are supported in WSN. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II briefly reviews related work on event detection and some reliable transmission protocols in a wireless sensor network. Section III introduces the protocol architecture and its operation. The conclusion of the paper is given in section V. II. RELATED WORK Several protocols have been designed for event detection and transmission in wireless sensor network. These protocols include Sink Centric & node centric event detection and Transmission protocols. These sink and node centric protocols are again categorized based on reliability, congestion and energy efficiency. ESRT self-configuring in nature performs the reliable event detection at the sink based on reporting frequency ‘f;. To achieve Optimal Operation state (OOR) ESRT needs to configure frequency ‘f’.[7]. ESRT can detect multiple events concurrently occurring in WSN. Events are independent to each other and the adjustment of frequency for all the sensor nodes at same time will not perform better is the disadvantage. RRRT protocol [8], focuses on two concepts such as event-to- action delay bound in which the application specific deadlines and congestion control mechanism which provide the dual purpose of achieving reliability and conserving energy. First is based on assumptions such as Observed delay-constrained event reliability, Desired delay-constrained event reliability and Delay-constrained reliability indicator (Į): i.e., I= Observed Delay/ Desired Delay. The drawback with RRRT is congestion detection & control mechanism adds extra overhead. SMESRT [9] is a protocol designed for simultaneous multiple reliable event detection. At resource constrained sensor nodes minimum functionality is required and at the elected cluster head (CH) of the event payload control component is needed. It has dual aim of less traffic at the sink and conserving energy. SMESRT sent only one packet to the sink by combining all payloads at the CH. The event’s CH is notified by sink with the reporting frequency for next time interval with the acknowledgement for that packet. The main drawback is assignment of different reporting frequency leads to extra overhead. The main objective of CODAR is to improve reliability and the reducing delay of the data transmitted by critical nodes through congestion avoidance [10]. It utilizes congestion parameters into routing decision. It works in a distributed manner as it needs control data only from neighboring nodes Each node in event occurring region broadcasts its location and Relative Success Rate (RSR) value using control packets during a fixed interval [9]. The RSR helps to mitigate congestion by
  • 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 67 choosing lightly congested nodes. Disadvantages of CODAR are not suitable for large number of critical nodes and less energy efficient. The LTRES is distributed source rate control mechanism performs the congestion control based on the node- end source rate adaptation mechanism and Node-end Distributed Source Rate Adaptation. It is designed to achieve dynamic ESF requirements with congestion control LTR data transport requirements are event sensing fidelity and network congestion level. The sink calculates the Event- sensing Fidelity level (ESFE) and sends the event sensing reliability measure to the Enodes. Based on this Enodes, update their source rate in order to ensure the congestion control [11]. To provide congestion control LTRES uses a loss rate based lightweight ACK mechanism. The main disadvantages of LTRES Less energy efficient due to source rate adaptation mechanism. DST involves Time Critical Event First (TCEF) scheduling mechanism to meet the application specific delay bounds at the sink node .The DST mainly involves two mechanisms 1) Reliable and Real-time event transport mechanism: DST performs real- time event detection under event-to-sink delay bound. Event transport delay and event processing delay are important components of event -to-sink delay bound [12], and 2) Congestion control and detection mechanism. In this for any sensor node whose packet storing capacity overflows due to uncontrolled incoming packets is said to be congested and it informs the sink congestion condition by a Congestion Notification (CN) bit the event packet header. The disadvantage of DST is the reporting frequency rate adjustment mechanism leads to overhead. The OEDSR, as an event is detected, the nodes near the event become active which are inactive before event is detected. Active nodes start forming sub-networks and this formation saves energy because only particular part of the network is active in response to an event [13]. The best link cost factor of all nodes in range to the Cluster Head (CH) or relay node is calculated in order to select route. Route does not take a longer or cyclic path to the Base Station. There could be more than one route created from the CHs in the subnet to the BS so the traffic get merged into a single optimal path through the selection of relay nodes common to the CHs Advantages are reduces overhead, minimizes number of hops, and communication due to flooding. Disadvantage is more number of hops needed. ሺܴܶሻଶ focuses on heterogeneous reliability requirements of both sensor– actor and actor–actor communication. The ሺܴܶሻଶ protocol uses the new idea of event-to-action delay bound which is the sum of the event transport delay, event processing delay, and action delay [14]. The ሺܴܶሻଶ 2 protocol operation is based on two states namely Start-Up state and Steady State: It consists of four sub states namely increase, decrease, hold and probe. The disadvantage of ሺܴܶሻଶ is the configuration adjustment nature of ሺܴܶሻଶ leads to extra delay. ERP is node centric based on the spatial locality condition and make use of an implicit acknowledgement (iACK) mechanism with region-based selective retransmissions [20]. It introduces in-network data processing, where the data packets are being pre-processed at the nodes before forwarding them further. The disadvantage with ERP is less energy efficient. Vicinity triangulation, event determination, and border sensor selection are three procedures in COLLECT. In the vicinity triangulation procedure same kind of sensor to construct particular region of attributes, named logical triangle to accurately identify the event region [15].An ATR packet is sent by an ordinary node when it detects an event consists of the ID of the sensor node, location of sensor, the attribute detected, and the timestamp to its neighbors when it detects the event attribute. Based on this information the sensor nodes participate in the vicinity triangulation [6]. In event determination procedure within its logical triangles a sensor node locally determines the existence of the event according to its sensor data and received messages from the different kinds of sensors and the border selection procedure aims to select the border sensors to stand for the event boundary [18]. The main disadvantage with COLLECT is it cost-effective because of no need of sensor redeployment. REAR supports a multi- path routing by establishing two disjoint routing paths. A Source node broadcasts a multi-path route request message (MREQ) in order to find a routing path for a destination node. Then next nodes
  • 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 68 having received the MREQ message continuously forward it after checking their own energy value. More the energy of node more quickly it forwards to other node than less energy node. REAR when establishes routing paths considers current energy levels of sensor nodes. Nodes having high energy value can be selected in terms of energy efficiency during establishing a routing path from source node to destination node. Therefore, REAR can extend wireless sensor network's lifetime by acquiring two energy efficient routing path. If data transmission to next hope fails the node sends an error message packet to the source node. Then error message received by the source node resends it with a second path and thus the reliability of data transmission is guaranteed [16]. The Disadvantage with REAR is the use of queues adds to extra overhead. In EEDP Simple Decision Rule (SDR) is used to take decision that is whether the event has happened or not after each sensor node senses the event in event occurring region .By using Composite Decision Rule (CDR) makes further accurate decision [5].The event reliability is achieved by using a method called dynamic multi-copy scheme. The disadvantage only one decision node sends the event packet to the sink so less reliable. The SWIA protocol allows the sensor node to send the next packet after receiving an acknowledgement (ACK) packet for the already sent packet. The SWIA protocol makes the use of implicit acknowledgement [17]. The mechanism exploits the broadcast nature of wireless sensor network. In this mechanism after transmitting the packet sensor node listens to the channel transmission of packets and thus reduces network traffic. Disadvantage is providing some delay in the network performance [5]. To perform energy-efficient routing in an event driven wireless sensor networks EELLER uses hierarchical routing. In this the low energy nodes senses the event and high energy nodes are used to send the information [18]. The EELLER mainly consists of two phases constructing expressways and cluster formation and data communication. Expressways consist of chains of CHs as the routing hops. To construct expressway hop by hop a heuristic approach is used, in which cluster heads are selected based on a calculated Link Factor parameter. Link Factor is a function of energy and distances to the BS and previous hop. Then, they join the expressway and form their clusters. During the second phase of EELLER, after data aggregation and removing redundancy by the cluster heads it provides a better data transmission. Disadvantage of EELLER is less reliability. The IQAR protocol uses a distance-based aggregation tree approach that collects data from all the activated nodes and its objective is to detect event in a sensor network [19]. The information quality is concerned with the accuracy of the information of event. In this data is detected and collected by each sensor node about an event independently and makes a per-sample binary decision it 0 or 1. In a wireless sensor network event detection and reliable packet forwarding is important. In RETP [1], cluster head forward the event when event occurred. After this number for event forwarding nodes is restricted by n/2(for even number of nodes) or n-1/2(for odd number of nodes) called as multi- transmission. So it helps to energy consumption, cost of computation in the network as well as it ensures the reliability in event forwarding. Its disadvantage is data is sent to multiple nodes, due to which network energy is consumed more. III. PROPOSED SYSTEM In above section we have considered different protocols some uses all nodes to send information to sink or node, some uses multiple nodes and some uses single node. We can modify RETP protocol [1], which consider multi-transmission for transmitting event. We propose new protocol which uses single node to send data to other sensor node after event is detected. This Protocol is node centric i.e. nodes will take decision about event. It includes following procedures.
  • 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 69 1. Real Time Event Detection (RTED) A cluster is formed by the nodes those are nearer to that event as an event occurs, which helps to save energy. Each node ensures its detection base on the sensed value and threshold value, according to the environment a particular threshold say ݄ܶ is assigned to each sensor node and then check whether the sensed value ܵ‫ݒ‬ with ݄ܶ, whether sensed value is less than threshold value, this is termed as local decision based on single decision rule [5].Composite Decision Rule (CDR) [5] is used for accurate event detection. In this procedure data aggregation is taking place in nodes in the event coverage area. A cooperate decision is made among the number of nodes say decision made nodes. The final decision is made among the Cluster Heads. If ܵ௩ ൐ ܶ௛it can be ensure that an event has happened a) Single Decision Rule: ݊௠ ௜ ൌ ൜ 1 ݂݅ ܵ௩ ൐ ܶ௛ 0 ݂݅ ܵ௩ ൏ ܶ௛ ……….. (1) Where ܱ௠ ௜ is observed value at each sensor ݉ of node i. b) Composite Decision Rule[5]:A cooperates decision is made among the number of nodes say decision made nodes as follows ∆௜ ൌ ൜ 1 ݂݅ ݊ଵ ௜ ‫ר‬ ݊ଶ ௜ ‫ר‬ … ‫ר‬ ݊|ெ| ௜ ൌ 1 0 ܱ‫݁ݏ݅ݓݎ݄݁ݐ‬ …….. (2) The final decision is made among the CHs as follows by using composite decision rule. ‫ܪܥ‬௜ ൌ ൜ 1 ݂݅ ݊ଵ ௜ ‫ר‬ ݊ଶ ௜ ‫ר‬ … ‫ר‬ ݊|ெ| ௜ ൌ 1 0 ܱ‫݁ݏ݅ݓݎ݄݁ݐ‬ ….. (3) If the final decision in each ‫ܪܥ‬௜ =1, then we can say that an event has happened and this decision is based on the overhearing of packets from their neighborhoods. 2. Reliable & Secure Transmission (RST) The new protocol performs real-time event detection and secure transmission by setting a timer for each node. In most of the techniques single nodes or multiple nodes or all nodes in the event region is sending event packet to the sink. If multiple or all nodes are sending packets to sink causes congestion in the network and the new protocol performs real-time event detection and secure transmission by setting a timer for each node. In most of the techniques single nodes or multiple nodes or all nodes in the event region is sending event packet to the sink. If multiple or all nodes are sending packets to sink causes congestion in the network and more energy will be consumed. In order to improve the event packet reliability and less network energy consumption it can be possible to send event packet by one sensor node to the sink. With the drawback of more network energy consumption in multiple or all nodes by which event will be sent may not be trustworthy which will leads to loss of important events. And no security will be provided to event packet, so it may possible that during transmission event may be steal by some intruder. Proposed algorithm is as shown in Figure. For routing packets technique call PROPHET is used, for link failure dual link technique and for encrypting alarm packet Advanced Encryption Standard is used. PROPHET Approach[21]: In this routing method for event transmission, successful data delivery rate will be maximized and transmission delay will be minimized. PROPHET finds out the routing path for delivering packets by computing packet delivering capability. A weighted function
  • 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 70 consisting of evaluations of nodes buffer size, power consumption, location of node, popularity of node, and the predictability value to calculate deliverability in PROPHET. Figure 1: Proposed Algorithm V. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT 1. Simulation Setup We have used JAVA for performing simulation. The simulation parameters we have used as shown in following table I. TABLE I: Simulation Parameters Parameters Values Simulation Time 30secs Monitoring Area 900X300 Number of Nodes 20 Communication Range 50 Number of Nodes in the Cluster 5 Number of CHs in the Cluster 1 Accurate Event Detection Probability 0.92 Length of packet 50B Here performed simulation on a WSN in which data is collected from nodes and data is reported to the sink. A total of 20 nodes are considered with a single sink in network. If for example Event is detected, nodes A, B and C have been formed as one cluster and CH is randomly chosen and aggregation of data is taking place in CH here B is CH for event packet transmission and the data aggregation is taking place among. We proposes new algorithm by RST as follows: Input: The observations node i, ‫݋‬௜ Output: The decision of node i, ‫݋‬௜ While t ≤ T do 1: Set a decision timer T. 2: Broadcasting is performed by CH, perform data aggregation. 3: Now CHs will generate the eventpacket and forward to the sink through packet forwarding node (PFN). 4: CH encrypt event packet and for forwarding it uses probabilistic routing approach as PROPHET. 5: When PFN receives alarm packet from CHs, forward packet to sink PROPHET approach. 6: End if 7: End While When timer T expires, it will keep silent and continue event observation.
  • 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 71 2. Simulation Results 1) Energy Efficiency: Protocol has been used clustering concept which helps to increase the energy efficiency of the network. In this the data aggregation is taking place only in single node. Neither all the nodes nor some nodes participating in the network at the same time, this leads to decrease the excess energy utilization. Figure 1 shows comparison of network energy with RETP and with proposed protocol. Output is generated according to our simulations. It may vary on multiple executions. Figure 1: Energy Efficiency 2) Delivery Ratio: The packet delivery ratio is defined as total number of event packet received by sink node to the total number of event packet send by the source nodes or CHs. The DR with and without proposed technique under various channel conditions is as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Delivery Ratio
  • 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 72 V. CONCLUSION Technique proposed in this paper performs accurate event detection and reliable and secure event packet transmission. By a procedure called Real Time event detection (RTED) accuracy is achieved and reliable and secure transmission is achieved by a method called Reliable and Secure Transmission (RST). With local broadcasting of messages the accurate decision is made among nodes and Real time event detection is achieved and to improve the reliable& secure transmission single node is used, which improves network performance. REFERENCES [1] Krishna Priya.K.C, Sebastian Terence “RETP: Reliable Event Transmission Protocol in wireless Sensor Network” (ICECCN 2013). [2] Akyildiz, W.Su, Y. Sankarasubramanian, and E. Cayirci, “A survey on sensor networks”, IEEE Communication. Mag., vol.40, no.8, pp. 102-114, August, 2002. [3] Yuyan X, Byrav R and Yong W, “Providing Reliable Data Transport for Dynamic Event Sensing in WSN”, IEEE, 2008. [4] Muhammad AdeelMahmood, WintsonSeah, “Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges Ahead”, ELSEVIER JOURNEL, February 8, 2012. [5] Lulu L, Deyun G, Hongke Z, Oliver W.W.Y, “Energy Efficient Event Detection Protocol in Event-Driven WSN,” IEEE Sensor Journal, vol.12, no.6, pp. 2328-2337, June.2012. [6] Krishna Priya.K.C and Sebastian Terence, “A survey on event detection and transmission protocol in an event driven WSN”, IJCA, November, 2012. [7] O. B. Akan and I. F. Akyildiz, “ESRT: Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking,vol. 13, no. 05, pp. 1003-1016, 2005. [8] DeepaliVirmani,Stabirjain, “Reliable Robust and Real-Time Communication Protocol for Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IJITKM, vol.4, pp. 595-601, Dec.2011. [9] HafizurRahman, DebajyotiKarmaker, Mohammad Saiedur, Rahman, Nahar Sultana, “SMESRT: A Protocol for Multiple Event-To-Sink Reliability in WSN”, IJET, vol.1, no.1, pp. 9-14, October. 2011. [10] Mohammad M, IqbalGonda, Jordar K, “CODAR: Congestion and Delay Aware Routing to Detect Time Critical Events in WSNs”, IEEE, 2011. [11] Y. Xue, B. Ramamurthy and Y. Wang, “LTRES: A loss-tolerant re-liable event sensing protocol for wireless sensor networks", Computer Communications, vol. 32, no. 15, pp. 1666 -1676, 2009. [12] V. C. Gungor and O. B. Akan, “DST: delay sensitive transport in wireless sensor networks", In Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Computer Networks (ISCN), Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 116-122, 16-18 June 2006. [13] Sibila R, Sarangapani J, Vittal R, “OEDSR: Optimized Energy-Delay Sub-network Routing in WSN”, IEEE, pp. 330-335, 2011. [14] Vehbi C.G, Ozgur B.A, Ian F.Akyildiz, “A Real-Time and Reliable Transport (RT)2 Protocol for WSN and Actor Networks”, IEEE/ACM Transactions On Networking, vol.16, no.2, pp. 359-370, April 2008. [15] Kuei-Ping S, Sheng-Shih W, Pao-Hwa Y, Chau-Chieh, “CollECT: Collaborative Event detection and Tracking in Wireless Heterogenous Sensor Networks”, IEEE (ISCC ’06), 2006. [16] Kee-Young S, Junkeun S, JinWon K, Misun Yu,, PyeongSooMah, “REAR: Reliable Energy Aware Routing Protocol for WSN”, ICACT, Feb.2007.
  • 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 65-73 © IAEME 73 [17] M. Mar oti, “Directed od-routing framework for wireless sensor networks", In Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Conference on Middleware (Middleware), Toronto, Canada, pp. 99- 114,18-22 October 2004. [18] Ali M, FazardT, Fazard T, Mohammad H.Y.M, Mohsen T.H, “EELLER: Energy-Low Latency Express Routing for WSNs”, IEEE, vol.3, pp.334-339, 2010. [19] Hwee-Xian T, Mun-Choon C, Wendong Xiao, Peng-Yong Kong, Chen-Khong T, “Information Quality Aware Routing in Event-Driven Sensor Networks”, IEEE INFOCOM, 2010. [20] M. A. Mahmood and W. K. G. Seah, “Event Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks", In Proceedings of the seventh International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISS-NIP), Adelaide, Australia, pp. 01-06, 06-09 December 2011. [21] Anders Lindgren, AvriDoria, OlovSchel´en, “Probabilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks” Division of Computer Science and Networking, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Lule°a University of Technology, SE-97187, Lule°a, Sweden. [22] R.Rajasree and Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “A Review on Routing Protocols and Non Uniformity with Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 348 - 354, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [23] Revathi Venkataraman, K.Sornalakshmi, M.Pushpalatha and T.Rama Rao, “Implementation of Authentication and Confidentiality in Wireless Sensor Network”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 553 - 560, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [24] Sachin Gajjar, Mohanchur Sarkar and Kankar Dasgupta, “Performance Analysis of Clustering Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 107 - 116, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [25] Preetee K. Karmore, Supriya S. Thombre and Gaurishankar L. Girhe, “Review on Operating Systems and Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 331 - 339, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [26] Neeraj Tiwari, Rahul Anshumali and Prabal Pratap Singh, “Wireless Sensor Networks: Limitation, Layerwise Security Threats, Intruder Detection”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 22 - 31, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [27] Priti Bhardwaj and Rahul Johari, “Routing in Delay Tolerant Network using Genetic Algorithm”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 590 - 597, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [28] Wategaonkar D.N and Deshpande V.S., “On Improvement of Performance for Transport Protocol using Sectoring Scheme in WSN”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 275 - 281, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.