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50120140505012

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  • 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 94 APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS ON DELINEATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES OF CHITRADURGA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA Basavarajappa H.T1 , Manjunatha M.C2 , Jeevan L3 1,2,3 Department of Studies in Earth Science, Centre for Advanced Studies in Precambrian Geology, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore-570 006, India ABSTRACT Water is the main source of domestic, engineering, industrial and agricultural uses which affects the surface and groundwater quality and quantity. Geoinformatics encompasses Survey of India (SoI) toposheet, Satellite Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) for mapping & integration of geology, drainage, lineament, soil types, slope category, land use/land cover and other related features in assessing the ground water resources of a region. The present study aims to map, integrate the Geo-informatics application to delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain of Chitradurga District, Karnataka. Efforts have been made to evaluate the groundwater level contour (in meters) using SoI toposheets (1:50,000) and False Color Composite (FCC) images of IRS-1C/1D PAN+LISS-III (2005-06). Slope map is prepared by using (SoI) topomap (year-2001) of 1:50,000 scale. Thematic maps have been prepared by adopting Visual Image Interpretation Techniques (VIIT) and are integrated using Arc GIS v10 software. The resultant composite coverage is used to classify the area into excellent, good, moderate and poor groundwater potential zones based on certain weightages. This study demonstrates the potentiality of Geo-informatics technique in preparation of more consistent and accurate baseline information on groundwater prospects. The final results highlight the favorable conditions of groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain in Chitradurga District, Karnataka, which is a suitable model for exploration in similar geological conditions. Keywords: Geoinformatics, Groundwater prospects, and Chitradurga District. 1. INTRODUCTION Groundwater targeting is a difficult task due to typical hydrological properties of unconfined and fractured aquifers in hard rock terrains. In India, especially around the shear zones of Karnataka, features formed due to polyphase metamorphism, multi & repetitive deformational episodes, unique INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 95 fracture pattern and their chronologies control on the occurrences of groundwater [17]. Factors like geological structures, soil, slope, relief, lithology, intensity of weathering, types of weathered material, thickness of regolith, nature of deposited material, assemblage of different landforms and its control defines the groundwater region [15,16,24,25]. Observing the terrain features like geological structures and analyzing their hydrologic characteristics through both high resolution satellite images and field studies, is possible to identify the potential zones [12,21] through Geoinformatics [20] in groundwater investigation, exploration and exploitation. The groundwater usually occurs at depth in the fractures and fault zone of the crystalline rocks under semi-confined to confined conditions. Major water bearing formations are fractured / weathered gneisses and granite, with thickness of the weathered zone varying from less than a meter near hill slopes and higher altitudes to about 39 m in valleys and low lying areas [19]. Geoinformatics application is an advent hi-tech tool for extraction and integration of information and its utilization for sustainable development on particular regions of the country [2,5], especially in cases where resources lie hidden below the earth’s surface at certain depths, as in the case of groundwater. The paleo-channels of the study are also mapped using satellite data which gives additional information regarding water bearing zones like hidden aquifers, old river course, fractures and valley fills [2,4]. 2. STUDY AREA The study area is largely divided into two major zones namely, eastern vedavathi plains, which includes taluks of Challakere, Hiriyur and Southern part of Molakalmuru and Central hilly forest zone, which includes taluks like Hosadurga, northern part of Molakalmuru and eastern part of Holalkere [10,19]. The slope of the area is from West to East. A Vanivilas Sagar reservoir has built across the Vedavathi near Vanivilaspura in Hiriyur taluk and a canal network provides irrigation facilities. The river Tungabhadra drains the major parts of the study area. A major part of the district lies in Krishna basin and is drained by Vedavathi river. The other streams are Janagahalli, Chikhagari, Swarnamukhi, Garain and Nayakanahalli halla along with 300 tanks in the district providing irrigation facilities [6].
  • 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 96 3. LOCATION The study area lies in between 13° 34' to 15° 02' N latitude and 76° 00' to 77° 01' E longitude with a total areal extent of 8,338 sq km (7,70,702 hectares) (Fig.1). It include six taluks namely Challakere, Chitradurga, Hiriyur, Holalkere, Hosadurga and Molakalmuru with general ground elevation of 732 m above MSL. The study area experiences a hot, seasonally dry, tropical savannah climate which receives low to moderate rainfall. 4. CLIMATE & RAINFALL The average annual rainfall in the district is 574 mm (1981-2010) recorded from last three decades. The maximum annual rainfall recorded is 1094mm (2010), while minimum is 345mm (2003). The maximum temperature may rise upto 410 C, while minimum is 170 C; may falls upto 120 C during winter season. SW monsoon (June-Sep) contributes major portion of rainfall about 356.6 mm; NE monsoon (Oct-Dec) contributes 113.5 mm (2008); winter (Jan-Feb) 103.7 mm and summer (Mar-May) 67.6 mm in the study area. Table.1: Taluk wise annual rainfall data of the study area (in mm) Year Challakere Chitradurga Hiriyur Holalkere Hosadurga Molkalmuru Average 1996 757.0 815.0 623.0 560.0 732.0 880.0 727.8 1997 597.0 715.0 482.0 728.0 612.0 632.0 627.6 1998 771.4 673.4 502.2 604.6 666.5 506.6 620.7 1999 432.5 724.5 684.9 740.2 1068.7 887.7 756.4 2000 654.8 765.2 790.3 846.3 898.2 591.8 757.7 2001 584.0 501.0 564.0 573.0 520.0 574.0 552.6 2002 404.0 555.0 655.0 590.0 507.0 392.0 517.1 2003 330.0 384.0 305.0 447.0 366.0 239.0 345.1 2004 387.0 618.0 532.0 703.0 918.0 604.0 627.0 2005 765.0 949.0 877.0 749.0 740.0 628.0 784.6 2006 359.1 496.4 421.7 547.5 593.9 337.0 459.2 2007 560.7 686.0 786.5 644.7 672.3 780.0 688.3 2008 748.7 833.4 658.0 810.0 790.6 540.2 730.1 2009 739.5 853.6 761.8 1148.7 933.8 966.0 900.5 2010 762.6 1166.6 810.1 1455.5 1185.1 1185.1 1094.1 2011 132.0 436.0 363.6 546.1 573 573.0 355.6 Source: Department of Mines & Geology, Chitradurga 5. METHODS & MATERIALS 5.1 Methods Satellite RS and GIS is adopted as a tool for analyzing, integrating the information database to generate thematic maps such as geology, drainage, lineament, soil type, and slope. Geoinformatics techniques are used as an advent hi-tech tool with GIS software’s to map, analyze water resources and its management, development for future purpose [14]. Preparation of various thematic maps and integrating them using Advanced Applied Application (AAA) of various layers providing proper weightages for targeting the Groundwater Prospect Zones (GPZ) of the study area.
  • 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 97 5.2 Materials Table.2 Materials used 6. CROPPING PATTERN The main food crops grown are Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Paddy, Maize; Pulses & seed crops area as Red gram, Horse gram, Green gram, Bengal gram, Ground nut and Tur. The commercial crops such as Sugarcane, Cotton and Tobacco are also grown. The total cultivable land is dryland which covers about 62%. Only about 9% of cropland (63,631 ha) is irrigated. Further, 79% of the irrigated land is dependent on tube wells, 9% each on tanks, canals and 3% on open wells. There are 291 small and large tanks were identified in the study area, which provide irrigation facilities to small stretches of lands. Agriculture in the district is rainfed and mainly dependent on timely and adequate rainfall [6]. Type of Data Details of Data Sources of Data Toposheets 57A/12, 57B/3, 57B/4, 57B/6, 57B/7, 57B/8, 57B/9, 57B/10, 57B/11, 57B/12, 57B/13, 57B/14, 57B/15, 57B/16, 57C/1, 57C/2, 57C/5, 57C/6, 57C/9, 57C/10, 57C/13 (Fig.3) Survey of India (SoI), Bangalore Present work: Thematic maps of Geology, Drainage, Lineament, Soil Slope and Land use/ land cover Scale 1:2,50,000 (Reduced to 1:25,000) *Geological Survey of India (GSI), Calcutta. *National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP), Bangalore. Remote Sensing digital data sets of IRS-1C & 1D LISS-III PAN+LISS-III National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad Date Resolution Date Resolution 2000-01 23.5 m 2005-06 5.8m Rainfall data 30 years rainfall data (1981-2010) MGD, Chitradurga GIS software's Arc View 3.2, Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc GIS v10
  • 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 98 7. GEOLOGY The general trend of the schist belt is N 200 W and S 200 E and dipping both in East and West directions varying from 55 to 850 . Several parallel hill ranges are noticed as a schistose rocks of Chitradurga, a major Schist belt of Dharwar Craton. The major rock types are Banded Hematite Quartzite (BHQ), talc, sericite schist, shale, basic metavolcanic rocks, phyllite, quartzites and basement peninsular gneisses, are intruded by dolerite dykes, quartzites, manganese, iron formations and quartz veins. 8. SOIL Soils are essential units in controlling the infiltration of rainwater and surface flow patterns. Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks & minerals; is an essential unit in controlling the infiltration of rainwater and surface flow patterns. Soil moisture consists of organic and inorganic materials, water and air [7]. Mapping different types of soil is carried out using information derived from satellite image [4]. Soil types in the study area are identified as Clayey in and surrounding parts of trijunction of Hiriyur, Chitradurga and Hosadurga taluk; Clayey mixed soil in Molakalmuru, eastern portions of Challakere, and some parts of Holalkere, Hosadurga and Hiriyur taluk; Clayey Skeletal soil in western parts of Challakere, few parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere taluk; Loamy soil in major parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere, Hosadurga taluk and small parts of Molkalmuru; and Rocky land soil is found in central portions of Molkalmuru, Holalkere, few parts of Chitradurga and Challakere taluk.
  • 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 99 9. DRAINAGE Drainage patterns are the reflections of surface and subsurface conditions. Drainage Density is directly related to surface run-off due to fact that more the drainage density, runoff will be higher. The drainage map is prepared using SoI topographical maps on 1:50,000 scale and updated with satellite imagery. The major river ‘Vedavathi’ drains major parts of the study area. It is a tributary of the Tungabhadra river, which ultimately drains into the Krishna river. Vedavathi is formed by the confluence of two streams namely Veda and Avati, which originate in the Bababudan hills of neighboring Chikmagalur district. The river flows with the Tungabhadra running for a few miles along the North-Western boundary. The Vedavathi river enters the district in South-West part and flows in the North-East direction into the Vanivilasa Sagara dam built along Marikanive hills near Hiriyur. Minor parts of the district are irrigated by river and tanks [6]. The study area has varied drainage patterns viz., trellis, rectangle, anastomatic and dichotomic types. 10. RIVERS AND TANKS Precipitation is distinctly assertive in the generation of a drainage pattern. A detailed geospatial analysis has been made in this study to decipher the role of drainage in controlling the occurrence of groundwater. Janagahalla, Suvarnamuki and Garani are the other important streams of the district that drain into the Vedavati. The length of river within the district is 208 km. About 162 major tanks, 135 minor tanks, 5,643 tube-wells have been identified in the District [6].
  • 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 100 11. LINEAMENT Lineaments and fractures play a vital role in controlling the movement and storage of groundwater in hard rock terrain [2,3,18,23]. Lineaments are important in rock formations where secondary permeability and porosity dominate and inter-granular characteristics combine in secondary opening influencing weathering, soil, water and groundwater movement. The lineament map has been prepared using the satellite image. Lineaments were extracted by image processing techniques using Erdas Imagine v.9.2 software and IRS-1D LISS III digital data. Most of the wells, ponds, tanks which falls under the major lineament provides excellent, good, moderate and poor yield. Occurrence and movement of ground water depends on the secondary porosity such as lithological contact and geological structures like unconformities, folds, faults, bedding plains, fracture, joints, shear zones, etc. They provide the pathways for ground water movement and are hydrogeologically very important [4, 22]. Areas with high lineament density are good for groundwater prospect zones [2,9,11].
  • 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 101 12. SLOPE Slope is an essential aspect for surface water flow, has a bearing over the infiltration possibilities. Gentle slope encourage more recharge than a steep slope. The slope aspect information has been derived from SoI top maps on 1:50,000 scale (20 m contour interval) using [1] guidelines on slope categories. Higher degree of slope results in rapid runoff and increased erosion rate occur with feeble recharge potential [13]. The values are grouped into 7 classes viz., nearly level (0-1%) noticed in Molkalmuru, northern parts of Challakere, and small parts of Holalkere, Hosadurga & Hiriyur; very gently sloping (1-3%) occurs at small parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere; gently sloping (3-5%) observed at few parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere & Hosadurga; moderately sloping (5-10%) covers major parts of the district; strongly sloping (10-15%) noticed at small parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere, Hosadurga & Holalkere; moderately steep to steep sloping (15-35%) noticed major parts of the study area; and steep (>35%) occurs at small parts of Molakalmuru, Chitradurga, Holalkere, Hosadurga and Hiriyur.
  • 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 102 Table.3. Month-wise Groundwater level contour data in meters (2001) S l Observation Well Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Averag e Challakere taluk 1 Challakere 14.314 76.6492 7.45 9.15 9.3 9 9.35 9.3 9.5 9.9 6.9 5.1 5.6 6.2 8.07 2 Parasurampura 14.257 76.8837 12 13.3 13.3 13.5 12.8 10. 14. 15. 15. 11. 10. 10.3 12.7 3 Talaku 14.447 76.683 10.1 10.3 10.7 11.5 11.9 12. 13. 13. 13. 9.9 9.8 10.5 11.5 4 Kammathmari 14.233 76.6621 8.35 9.15 9.85 9.75 10.5 9.5 10. 10. 10. 5.2 7.3 7.95 9.13 5 Thimmannanai 14.137 76.824 5.8 6.4 6.65 6.5 7.05 6.1 9.4 10. 8.7 6.8 6.4 6.7 7.23 6 Budnahatti 14.366 76.656 9.4 9.6 9.75 11.5 11.3 11. 12. 12. 10. 5.7 6.0 7.05 9.76 7 Dodderi 14.255 76.6792 9.6 9.7 9.75 10.2 11.3 11. 12. 12. 10. 9.6 9.8 9.6 10.5 8 Purlehalli 14.285 76.7986 4.4 5.15 5.6 5.95 8.2 8.9 9.7 10. 8.2 2.7 2.8 2.05 6.2 9 Nagagondahall 14.375 76.8215 6.45 6.7 6.4 7.3 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.7 6.4 4.8 5.1 6.05 6.54 1 Mylanahalli 14.444 76.8244 12.1 12.3 12.4 12.2 13.0 13. 15. 15. 12. 11. 10. 11.4 12.7 1 Obalapura 14.470 76.927 15.0 15.7 17 17.7 17.5 21. 24 25. 22. 6.3 5 5.8 16.0 1 Kaparahalli 14.164 76.692 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.2 8.55 8.5 10. 11. 10. 3.9 5 5.1 7.33 Chitradurga taluk 1 Bharamasagara 14.370 76.1927 25.9 26.0 26.8 28.8 30.2 30. 29. 29. 31. 30. 31. 32.6 29.5 1 Turuvanur 14.402 76.441 19.7 20.5 20.8 21.3 21.8 24. 25. 27. 22. 21. 22. 23.2 22.6 1 Medakaripura 14.23 76.439 2.22 3.65 4.6 3.7 5.1 4.1 5.5 5.3 5.5 2.5 4.9 7.45 4.56 1 Kallahalli 14.249 76.5179 10.6 11 14 11.7 10.7 12. 14 14. 14. 12. 10. 11.3 12.2 1 Bhahadurgatta 14.433 76.1779 20.0 23.6 25.8 28.5 28.6 28. 29. 27. 29. 28. 28. 29.8 27.4 1 Vijapura 14.291 76.2825 16.1 15.8 16.7 17 17.2 17. 16. 16. 17. 16. 16. 16.8 16.7 1 Belagatta 14.312 76.4556 19.9 20.9 23.2 23.8 28.6 28. 33. 33. 32. 22. 26. 29.8 27.0 2 Bommakkanah 14.371 76.5117 5.1 5.2 5.8 5.3 5.75 6.6 7 8 6.0 4.7 5.2 4.9 5.8 2 Chikkagondana 14.333 76.3331 15.9 15.6 16.7 16.9 17.5 18. 19. 18. 17. 16. 17. 17.7 17.2 2 Guddarangavv 14.289 76.396 25.7 25.9 26.1 26.5 26.9 27. 27. 26. 26. 23. 24. 24.7 26.0 Hiriyur taluk 2 Gollahalli 14.122 76.6544 3.29 3.69 3.94 4.09 4.19 5.0 5.3 6.2 5.2 2.1 2.3 3.19 4.07 2 Bharamagiri 13.927 76.4972 9.3 9.4 10.1 10.4 11.1 13. 15. 10. 7.7 9.1 9.4 9.75 10.4 2 Bagganadu 13.866 76.6924 8.75 8.55 8.8 9.15 14.1 13. 16. 15. 15. 3.8 3.8 6.95 10.4 2 Hiriyur 13.941 76.6169 4.9 5.85 7 6.25 7.15 7 8 8.5 7.7 4.6 5.4 7.3 6.64 2 Balenahally 14.021 76.6437 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 Maradihalli 14.131 76.5276 9.7 10.1 10 10.4 10.6 10. 11 11. 11. 10. 10. 10.6 10.6 2 Hariyabbe 14.056 76.8159 20 20.9 23.7 23.8 25.1 28. 29. 32. 30. 19. 19. 20 24.4 3 Yelladakere 13.785 76.568 2.85 3.1 3.5 3.35 3 3.2 3.4 4.5 2.5 2.3 2.9 3.25 3.16 3 Yalakuranahall 14.061 76.4541 6.45 7.1 7.2 7.45 7.7 8.2 8.4 9.5 8.4 8.0 7.8 8.1 7.87 3 Guilahalu 14.048 76.5628 3.5 4.6 4.75 5.4 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.7 8.7 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.93 Holalkere taluk 3 Horakedevapur 14.031 76.3286 5.9 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8 7.3 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.47 3 Kummanaghatt 14.031 76.2967 - - - - - - - - - - 2.9 4.2 3.55 3 Arehallihatti 14.034 76.1373 4.85 5.35 5.9 5.9 5.95 6.1 6.3 7 6.4 5.5 6 6.35 5.97 3 Amruthapura 14.137 76.2446 16.8 18.2 18.2 17.9 18.1 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 17. 18.2 18.1 3 Sasauhala 14.196 76.116 16.1 17.0 18.7 18.0 17.2 17. 16. 16. 15. 14. 15. 15.6 16.5 3 Hirekandavadi 14.187 76.198 20.2 20.6 22.1 20.9 24.0 23 20. 19. 18. 17. 18. 19.2 20.3 3 Chitrahalli 14.109 76.2668 37.7 37.7 38.7 37.9 39.1 40. 30. 38. 40. 37. 39. 40.8 38.2 4 Arehallihatti 14.034 76.1373 3.95 4.8 4.8 5.15 5.15 5.4 5.7 6.5 5.6 4.8 5.4 6 5.28 Hosadurga taluk 4 Kalkere 13.701 76.3182 4.45 6.6 6.95 7.62 8.1 8.3 9.7 11 10. 7.8 8.1 7.8 8.09 4 Heggere 13.604 76.4393 - - - - - - - 10. 5.7 5.5 6 6.4 6.84 4 G.Nerlakere 13.783 76.4686 2.11 2.21 2.41 2.21 2.41 3.1 3.5 4.1 2.5 1.1 2.5 3.31 2.64 4 Madadakere 13.886 76.3863 1.2 1.7 1.95 4.5 2.5 2.9 3.0 4.5 1.7 1.0 1.6 1.9 2.39 4 Seeranakatte 13.886 76.4268 2.4 2.55 2.85 5 4.6 4.7 3.2 7.8 4.2 4.1 2.2 3 3.9 4 Narasipura 13.880 76.3002 1.15 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.85 2 2.8 3 2.5 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.72 4 Belagur 13.623 76.2902 4.1 4.4 4.45 4.45 4.6 7.1 6.1 7.2 7.2 6.3 6.4 7.6 5.84 4 Ajjakammasag 13.762 76.3878 3.5 4.95 5 6.95 7.25 5.2 6.5 7.4 4.7 3.5 4.1 4.85 5.34 Molakalmuru taluk 4 B.G.Kere 14.592 76.6744 19.4 23.9 24.1 23.5 22.7 23. 23. 23. 21. 14. 11. 11.9 20.2 5 Rampura 14.881 76.7827 27.2 27.4 27.5 27.8 28 38. 29. 31. 30. 30. 30. 30.4 29.9 Source: NRDMS, Zilla Panchayat, Chitradurga
  • 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 103 13. WATER TABLE The water table refers to the elevation of water surface in wells which cover only the shallow depth region of the aquifer zone [8]. Groundwater recharge is mainly by direct infiltration of water, however, in some places adjacent to the river and canal irrigated areas, groundwater is recharged through infiltration of irrigation water. There are about 47 numbers of dug wells and 12 piezometers observed in the study area for groundwater contour level monitoring. Lift irrigation covers an area of 2,55,896 ha and surface flow irrigation covers an area of 2,45,766 ha [6]. In a period of 12 years (1996-2008), the obtained data have been analyzed for seasonal and annual fluctuations [6]. The resultant composite coverage is classified into four groundwater prospects such as excellent, good, moderate, and poor prospect zones. 14. INTEGRATION To overcome with the situation, the existing dugwells may be deepened and deep dugwells may be converted into dug-cum-borewells to increase the yield. Selections of site for bore well should be done only on scientific methods as the yield of bore wells are site specific [6]. Groundwater potential zones are controlled by various factors and the given weightages of each factor differs from place to place. Preparation of various thematic maps and integrating them using the data of various layers with proper weightages will certainly provide the opportunity for target identification. Integration of various thematic maps such as geology, drainage, lineaments, river & tanks, soil types, slope aspects are prepared from geoinformatics tools along with limited field survey data. Each of the thematic
  • 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 104 maps is assigned a weightage grades and ranking from 1 to 4, (1 represents Excellent, 2-Good, 3- Moderate and 4-poor groundwater prospects). The excellent groundwater prospect zones are noticed in and along the major parts of Vedavathi river basin, good prospect zones are noticed adjacent to the major rivers Vedavathi, Janagahalla, Swarnmukhi halla and Nayakanahalli halla sub-basins, moderate prospect zones occupies the weathered & fractured zones of granites, gneisses and schists whereas poor prospect zones occupies rocky slopes and hilly mountains. 15. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Factors such as low crop productivity, water shortage and scarcity (drinking & irrigation) leads to degradation of water resources in the Chitradurga District. Loss of vegetation cover, over grazing and inappropriate cultivation practices in water catchment areas have led to silting of water bodies such as tanks and dams, resulting in a loss of water storage capacity and reduction of groundwater recharge. Soil erosion and loss of soil fertility, silting of water bodies and low water percolation rates, excessive groundwater extraction, overgrazing, and over harvesting of forests are all factors that result in low crop and water scarcity. The only way to increase and sustain crop and water supply (for drinking and irrigation) is through conserving natural resources and enhancing their capacity to provide higher levels of environmental services especially during summer. Environmental services include recharging groundwater, increasing rain water percolation,
  • 12. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 105 conserving water, increasing the supply of fresh water for drinking, increasing the area irrigated, reducing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, conserving biodiversity and reclaiming degraded crop. Geology, drainage, lineament, soil, slope aspects have been studied to evaluate the excellent, good, moderate and poor groundwater prospects. Groundwater occurs under phreatic condition in the weathered rock formations of the ‘Peninsular Gneissic Group’ of rocks comprising of weathered & fractured granites, gneisses and schists. The thickness of weathered zone varies from less than a meter near hill slopes and higher altitudes to approximately about 39m in valleys and topographic low areas. At depth, the groundwater occurs in the fractures and fault zone of these crystalline rocks under semi-confined to confined conditions. The main source of ground water occurring in the district is through precipitation and return flow from applied irrigation [6]. 16. CONCLUSIONS Ground water is one of the main sources for the district. Vedavathi, a tributary of Tungabhadra flows through the district. Apart from the river, reservoir, tanks are extensively used for water storage. Metamorphic schistose rocks, weathered & fractured granitic gneisses are the major water bearing formations in the study area. Methods like crop rotations in the fields and construction of Artificial Recharge Structures (ARS) in suitable sites may also help in the groundwater recharge. At depth, the groundwater occurs in the fractures and fault zone of crystalline rocks under semi-confined to confined conditions. The main source of groundwater occurring in the study area in through precipitation and return flow from applied irrigation.
  • 13. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 106 The resultant composite coverage is classified into four groundwater prospects such as excellent, good, moderate, and poor zones are delineated based on the given weightage grades and ranking from 1 (Excellent), 2 (Good), 3 (Moderate) and 4 (Poor). The data derived from the Satellite and topographic studies have brought out the factor that land use/land cover should be managed properly for natural resources. Satellite Remote Sensing provides a wide range of information in a synoptic and temporal manner for mapping and monitoring of groundwater prospect zones in the most time and cost effective manner. Geographic information systems have thus become the most effective modern day tools for extraction and integration of information and its utilization, especially in sub-surface resources. It is found that the geo-informatics application using criterion based weightages, as adopted, will certainly help in deciphering the groundwater potentials in general, especially in typical hard rock terrain in South India. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Authors are indepthly acknowledged Prof. S. Govindaiah, Chairman; DoS in Earth Science, University of Mysore, Mysore-06; Prof. R. Nagendra, Anna University, Chennai; NRDMS, Zilla Panchayat, Chitradurga; NRSC-Bhuvan, Hyderabad; CGWB, Bangalore and UGC-MRP, New Delhi for financial support. REFERENCE 1. AIS & LUS, (1990). Watershed atlas of India, department of Agriculture and co-operation. All India soil and land use survey, IARI campus, New Delhi. 2. Basavarajappa H.T, Dinakar S, Satish M.V and Honne Gowda H (2008). Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds of river Suvarnavathi Catchment, Chamarajanagara District, Karnataka using GIS, Remote Sensing and GIS Applications, Edited Volume, University of Mysore, Vol.1, No.1, Pp.45-53. 3. Basavarajappa H.T, Pushpavathi K.N. Balasubramanian A and Manjunatha M.C, (2012). Mapping and Integration of Geology and Geomorphological Landforms of Mysore district, Karnataka, India using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Frontiers of Earth Science Research, Proceeding/Edited Vol.1, No.1, Pp.164-175. 4. Basavarajappa H.T, Dinakar S, Satish M.V, Nagesh D, Balasubramanian A and Manjunatha M.C (2013). Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones in Hard Rock Terrain of Kollegal Shear Zone (KSZ), South India, using Remote Sensing and GIS, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering (IJEE), Cafet-Innova, Hydrology & Water Resource Management- special issue, Vol.6, No.5, Pp: 1185-1194. 5. Basavaraj Hutti and Basavarajappa H.T (2014). "Assessment of river basin for engineering restoration in Ghataprabha catchments using Geo-informatics applications" International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367 (Print), 0976- 6375 (Online), I.F: 6.1302, Vol:5, Issue:1, Pp: 94-102. 6. CGWB, (2007). Groundwater information booklet, Chitradurga District, Karnataka, Central Groundwater Board, South Western Region, Bangalore, Pp: 1-21. 7. CGWB, (2008). Central Groundwater Board, Groundwater information booklet, Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka south western region, Bangalore. 8. Davis S. N. & DeWiest, R. J. M, (1970). Hydrogeology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA.
  • 14. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 107 9. Dinakar S, Basavarajappa H.T, Nagesh D, Satish M.V and Honnegowda H (2008). Mapping of ground water potential zones through RS and GIS in Yelandur Taluk, Remote Sensing and GIS Applications, Edited Volume, University of Mysore, Vol.1, No.1, Pp.168-178 10. Ganesh Babu, (2013). A note on the floristic diversity and ethno-botany of Chitradurga District, Expert Committee, Honorable National Green Tribunal (South Zone), Bangalore, Pp:1-40. 11. Haridas V.R., Aravindan, S., Girish, G., (1998). Remote sensing and its applications for groundwater favorable area identification. Quarterly Journal of GARC, Vol.6, Pp: 18-22. 12. Lokesha, N., Gopalakrishna, G.S., Honne Gowda, H., Gupta, A.K., (2005). Delineation of groundwater potential zones in a hard rock terrain of Mysore district, Karnataka using IRS data and GIS techniques. Journal Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol.33 (3), Pp: 405- 412. 13. Magesh, N.S., Chandrasekar, N., Soundranayagam, J.P., (2011). Morphometric evaluation of Papanasam and Manimuthar watersheds, parts of Western Ghats, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu India: a GIS approach. Environmental Earth Science, Vol. 64, Pp: 373 - 381. 14. NRSA, (1995). National rural drinking water mission methodology, A manual for preparation of groundwater prospects maps. 15. Obi, R., Chandra, G. P., Mouli, K., Srivastav, S. K., Srinivas, C. V., & Maji, A. K., (2000). Evaluation of groundwater potential zones using remote sensing data—a case study of Gaimukh watershed, Bhandara district, Maharashtra. Journal of the Indian Society and Remote Sensing, Vol. 28(1), Pp: 19–32. 16. Pradeep Kumar, G.N. Srinivas, P. Jaya Chandra K. and Sujatha P., (2010). “Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones using Remote sensing and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Kumapalli Vagu Basin in Andhra Pradesh, India”, International Journal of Water Resource and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 2(3), Pp: 70- 79. 17. Ramasamy, S. M. and Bakliwal, P. C., (1985). Application of digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral data for regional geomorphological mapping in parts of central Rajasthan. Proc. 6th Asian Conf. on Rem. Sens., Hyderabad, India, Pp: 182-188. 18. Ramasamy, SM., Nagappan, N. and Selvakumar, R., (2005). Fracture Pattern Modeling and Ground water Hydrology in Hard Rock Aquifer System, Central Tamil Nadu, India. SM. Ramasamy (ed.) Remote Sensing in Water Resources. Rawat Publication, Pp: 121-136. 19. Ravikumar P, Deljo Davis, Sharika Mathew, Somashekar R.K and Prakash K.L (2014). Spatio-temporal Variation in Radon Concentration in Groundwater with Respect to Rock Types: A Case Study from Chitradurga District, Karnataka, Journal Geological Society of India, Vol.83, Pp:156-164. 20. Rokade VM, Kundal P, Joshi AK, (2007). Groundwater potential modeling through remote sensing and GIS: a case study from Rajura Taluka, Chandrapur District, Maharashtra. J Geo Soc Vol. 69, Pp: 943–948. 21. Samuel Corgne., Ramata Magagi., Michel Yergeau, Daouda Sylla., (2010). An integrated approach to hydro-geological lineament mapping of a semi-arid region of West Africa using Radarsat-1 and GIS. Remote Sensing of Environment. Vol.114, Pp: 1863–1875. 22. Sankar, K., Jegatheesan, M.S and Balasubramaniam A., (1996). Geo-electrical resistivity Studies in the Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu. Jour. of Applied Hydrology. Vol. 9, No.1 & 2, Pp: 83-90. 23. Subash Chandra, Benoit Dewandel., Sushobhan Dutta, Shakeel Ahmed., (2010). Geophysical model of geological discontinuities in a granitic aquifer: Analyzing small scale variability of electrical resistivity for groundwater occurrences. Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol.71, Pp: 137–148.
  • 15. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME 108 24. Suja Rose R.S. and Krishnan N,(2009). “Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Potential using Remote Sensing and GIS in the Kanyakumari and Nambiyar Basins, India”, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No.4, Pp: 681-692. 25. Vijith H., (2007). “Groundwater Potential in the Hard Rock Terrain of Western Ghats: A Case Study from Kottayam District, Kerala using Resourcesat (IRS-P6) data and GIS Techniques”, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol.35, No.2, Pp: 163-171. 26. Neeraj D. Sharma, Dr. J. N. Patel, “Experimental Study of Groundwater Quality Improvement by Recharging With Rainwater” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 10 - 16, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 27. Mohammed Hashim Ameen and Dr. R. K. Pandey, “Delineation of Irrigation Infrastructural, Potential and Land Use/ Land Cover of Muzaffarnagar By Using Remote Sensing and Gis” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 1 - 11, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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