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50120140505011

  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 82 EMPIRICAL STUDY ON OFFLINE VS LIVE MIGRATION Anala M R Department of Computer Science and Engineering, R V College of Engineering Bangalore, India Shobha G Department of Computer Science and Engineering, R V College of Engineering Bangalore, India ABSTRACT Virtualization is a state-of-the-art technology facilitating resource optimizations by providing an environment conducive to execute as many VMs as possible. The proliferation of VMs on a physical server makes the resource management convoluted. This difficulty in managing the resources results in these VMs not to perform optimally and seldom demonstrate poor performance. Often this underperformance may result in the VM to fail and stop working. Hence, it becomes necessary to migrate a VM from a source to a destination. When the migration decision has been taken, it becomes necessary to analyze the performance of applications during migration since all the applications will not exhibit the same performance during migration. The Migration can be conducted offline or live. This paper aims at analyzing the performance of offline and live migration techniques with respect to total migration time, downtime and performance of an application during migration. Keywords: Offline migration; Live migration; Performance; Migration time; Downtime. I. INTRODUCTION The virtualization technology’s main motivation is to run multiple and as many VMs as possible to execute multiple tasks. As and when the number of VMs in a server increases, this surge makes it difficult to manage the resources allocated to these VMs. The difficulty in resource management results in underperformance of VMs. These VMs may collapse and fail to continue to serve. To avoid breaking up of these VMs, it is necessary to migrate a running VM from source host to destination host for balancing the load. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu TYPES OF MIGRATION Migration can be performed on the fly (live migration) or offline. In offline (stop and copy) migration, VM running at the source is suspended and memory image is copied to the destination. Figure 1 illustrates the working of stop and copy migration (offline). The steps i copy migration is to stop VM running at source, migrate VM’s memory image from source to destination and finally to start VM at destination. Live migration is a process of moving the VM from one physical machine to another, on the fly, keeping in mind to be as less disruptive as possible. Ideally, when live migration happens under perfect conditions, it should be seamless i.e. the whole process should happen in an end user agnostic manner. Live migration allows an administrator to take a upgrading without subjecting the system's users to downtime. The goal is for an end user to not notice the effect of live migration. Figure 1 There are many algorithmic approaches to this paper is to discuss pre-copy memory migration [1]. This paper analyzes the live migration performance of pre-copy approach and offline migration for different applications. Figure 2 shows the scenario before live migration and Figure 3, after live migration. Figure 2 illustrates the process of live migration. Here, the memory ima source host is copied to destination host in iterations. When both source and destination synchronized i.e. maintain consistent copies, the VM image at source is destroyed and the VM continues to run in destination as shown in Figure 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 83 performed on the fly (live migration) or offline. In offline (stop and copy) migration, VM running at the source is suspended and memory image is copied to the destination. Figure 1 illustrates the working of stop and copy migration (offline). The steps involved in stop and copy migration is to stop VM running at source, migrate VM’s memory image from source to destination and finally to start VM at destination. Live migration is a process of moving the VM from one physical machine to another, on the keeping in mind to be as less disruptive as possible. Ideally, when live migration happens under perfect conditions, it should be seamless i.e. the whole process should happen in an end user agnostic manner. Live migration allows an administrator to take a virtual machine offline for maintenance or upgrading without subjecting the system's users to downtime. The goal is for an end user to not notice Figure 1: Stop and Copy migration There are many algorithmic approaches to conduct VM memory migration, but the scope of copy memory migration [1]. This paper analyzes the live migration copy approach and offline migration for different applications. Figure 2 shows the re live migration and Figure 3, after live migration. Figure 2: Before migration Figure 2 illustrates the process of live migration. Here, the memory image of VM running at is copied to destination host in iterations. When both source and destination consistent copies, the VM image at source is destroyed and the VM continues to run in destination as shown in Figure 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), performed on the fly (live migration) or offline. In offline (stop and copy) migration, VM running at the source is suspended and memory image is copied to the destination. nvolved in stop and copy migration is to stop VM running at source, migrate VM’s memory image from source to Live migration is a process of moving the VM from one physical machine to another, on the keeping in mind to be as less disruptive as possible. Ideally, when live migration happens under perfect conditions, it should be seamless i.e. the whole process should happen in an end user agnostic virtual machine offline for maintenance or upgrading without subjecting the system's users to downtime. The goal is for an end user to not notice conduct VM memory migration, but the scope of copy memory migration [1]. This paper analyzes the live migration copy approach and offline migration for different applications. Figure 2 shows the ge of VM running at is copied to destination host in iterations. When both source and destination are consistent copies, the VM image at source is destroyed and the VM
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 84 Figure 3: After migration II. LITERATURE SURVEY As virtualization gains popularity for large computing environments, management of VMs is becoming an important problem. The efficiency of the platform as well as the performance of applications running on the platform is critically dependent on the characteristics of the applications and the availability of required resources. If the required resources are not available at the source host and the VM is under resource stress situation, then the VM has to be relocated for continued services. The resource reallocation can be achieved using replication or migration. Replication allows creating a replica of a virtual machine on another physical machine. The first study on replication is conducted in [2]. This study compares both replication and migration mechanisms. It concludes that replication is preferred over migration when the CPU usage is high since migration process consumes computational resources. If the CPU usage is relatively low, then the migration mechanism is used.Performance evaluation of both live and non-live migration methods, presented in [3], demonstrates that the performance of processes running on a migrating virtual machine severely declines in virtualized computing environment. The analysis revealed that a host OS communication and memory writing between two hosts are the main reasons for the decline. Live migration is a widely used technique for resource consolidation, fault tolerance, load balancing and power saving. The research is carried out in multiple directions to achieve impressive performance during live migration with respect to performance of an application running in VM, it’s total migration time and the downtime experienced during live migration. The design for migrating OSes running services with liveness constraints using the concept of writable working set is demonstrated in [1]. Improved pre-copy approach using bitmap page to mark frequently updated pages to ensures that frequently updated pages are transmitted only once in the iteration process is introduced in [4]. Post-copy migration [5] defers the transfer of a VM’s memory contents until after its processor state has been sent to the target host. Research is ongoing in the area of improving performance of live migration. The various factors like total migration time, downtime, page dirty rate etc. influences the performance of live migration. The following text discusses the progress of the work towards this direction. Link speed and page dirty rate [6] are the two parameters affecting the live migration performance. The downtime is minimized in [7] using model called memory change Probability Density Function (PDF) of the VM. The performance evaluation on the effects of live migration of virtual machines based on the applications running inside Xen VMs are presented in [8]. Dynamic resource management for virtual machines using live migration techniques in cloud environment is discussed [9]. Migration heuristics are categorized to reduce power consumption and balancing load across physical machines. The impacts of different resource reservation methods on the performance of live migration are investigated in [10]. To improve the resource utilization a new live virtual machine migration strategy is proposed in [11] and using the characteristics of workloads, hotspots are detected. The selection of migrating VM and destination host depends on multi-threshold patterns. To optimize consumption of energy, an approach is proposed to determine the best candidate of migrating VM and also to choose a destination PM. The memory-compression based VM
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu migration approach [12] to compresses memory before migration is used to lessen migration time. The behavior of pre-copy live migration for memory intensive performance of live VM migration is studied [14 application-oblivious models were designed based on workload analysis at hypervisor level to predic the cost of live migration [15]. This study estim and energy. Affinity-aware migration technique [16 considering dynamism in network topology and job communication patterns. III. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS During offline migration, the running VM instance is suspended and a snapshot of this suspended memory image is moved from the source host to the destination host. The copied VM’s memory image is resumed on the destination host and the memory the VM Figure 4: Offline migration’s Total Migration Time(TMT) and Downtime(DT) for different The drawback of offline migration is due to the fact that the services provided by that VM are suspended for an interim duration equal to the total migration time and the total migration time depends on the memory size of the VM of offline migration for different applications. IV. LIVE MIGRATION APPROACHES Offline migration dictates that the currently running VM be suspended and this suspended VM’s memory image be moved from a source host to a destination host. The copied VM’s memory image is resumed on the destination host and the memory the VM used on the source host the other hand, live migration facilitates migration of the VMs from a source host to destination host on the fly. The administrators of data centres use live migration as an essential tool for high availability of resources. Live migration f balancing, and low-level system maintenance. Since live migration is performed on the fly, it results in an impressive performance with minimal service downtimes. This section discusses pre copy approach to achieve live migration. A. LIVE MIGRATION USING PRE This section discusses the idea behind pre migration of virtual machines, the hypervisor is responsible to copy all the memory pages from the source host to the destination host while the VM is still running on the source host. The frequently updated pages, known as dirty pages are re rate of re-copied pages is not less than page dirtyi International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 85 ] to compresses memory before migration is used to lessen migration time. copy live migration for memory intensive applications is analyzed in [13 live VM migration is studied [14] under different levels of resource availability. Two oblivious models were designed based on workload analysis at hypervisor level to predic ]. This study estimates the cost of live migration based on performance aware migration technique [16] allocates resources to virtual machines considering dynamism in network topology and job communication patterns. ANALYSIS OF OFFLINE MIGRATION During offline migration, the running VM instance is suspended and a snapshot of this suspended memory image is moved from the source host to the destination host. The copied VM’s memory image is resumed on the destination host and the memory the VM used on the source host is freed. Offline migration’s Total Migration Time(TMT) and Downtime(DT) for different application The drawback of offline migration is due to the fact that the services provided by that VM are duration equal to the total migration time and the total migration time depends on the memory size of the VM as shown in Figure 4. This section discusses the performance of offline migration for different applications. APPROACHES ration dictates that the currently running VM be suspended and this suspended VM’s memory image be moved from a source host to a destination host. The copied VM’s memory image is resumed on the destination host and the memory the VM used on the source host the other hand, live migration facilitates migration of the VMs from a source host to destination host on the fly. The administrators of data centres use live migration as an essential tool for high availability of resources. Live migration facilitates high availability, fault management, load level system maintenance. Since live migration is performed on the fly, it results in an impressive performance with minimal service downtimes. This section discusses pre copy LIVE MIGRATION USING PRE-COPY APPROACH This section discusses the idea behind pre-copy approach for live migration. During live migration of virtual machines, the hypervisor is responsible to copy all the memory pages from the ource host to the destination host while the VM is still running on the source host. The frequently updated pages, known as dirty pages are re-copied. The recopying of dirtied pages is continued till the copied pages is not less than page dirtying rate. When the rate of re-copied pages is less than International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ] to compresses memory before migration is used to lessen migration time. applications is analyzed in [13]. The ] under different levels of resource availability. Two oblivious models were designed based on workload analysis at hypervisor level to predict ates the cost of live migration based on performance ] allocates resources to virtual machines During offline migration, the running VM instance is suspended and a snapshot of this suspended memory image is moved from the source host to the destination host. The copied VM’s memory used on the source host is freed. Offline migration’s Total Migration Time(TMT) and Downtime(DT) for different The drawback of offline migration is due to the fact that the services provided by that VM are duration equal to the total migration time and the total migration time . This section discusses the performance ration dictates that the currently running VM be suspended and this suspended VM’s memory image be moved from a source host to a destination host. The copied VM’s memory image is resumed on the destination host and the memory the VM used on the source host is freed. On the other hand, live migration facilitates migration of the VMs from a source host to destination host on the fly. The administrators of data centres use live migration as an essential tool for high acilitates high availability, fault management, load level system maintenance. Since live migration is performed on the fly, it results in an impressive performance with minimal service downtimes. This section discusses pre copy copy approach for live migration. During live migration of virtual machines, the hypervisor is responsible to copy all the memory pages from the ource host to the destination host while the VM is still running on the source host. The frequently copied. The recopying of dirtied pages is continued till the copied pages is less than
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu page dirty rate, the VM in source host is stopped and the remaining dirtied pages are copied to the destination host. The VM is resumed at the destination host. The difference in time when the VM on the source host stops and VM at the destination host resumes is called downtime. The steps involved in live migration of VMs using pre-copy approach are detailed below. Step1: Preparation Initially, a request is issued to migrate a VM from the source host to confirming the availability of resources. Once the availability of resources at destination host is confirmed, a VM of required size is reserved. If the required resources are not found at the destination host, the VM simply continues to run on the source host unaffected. In the first iteration, all pages are transferred from the source host to the destination host. The pages that are transferred initially is called as the working set. Successive iterations copy only the dirtied working set. The VM at the source host is suspended and the network traffic is redirected to the destination host. At the end of this stage, there is a consistent suspended copy of the VM at both the source host and the destination host. T and is resumed in case of failure. Step2: Migration After receiving a consistent OS image from the source host, a handshaking takes place between the destination and the source hosts, the responder. The source host discards the original VM and the destination host becomes the primary host. The logical steps that are followed during the preparation and migration are summarized in Figure 5. During pre-migration process, the destination host is examined for availability of resources. Once the resource availability is confirmed, the required resource for VM is reserved at the destination host. Preparation includes pre for resource availability to run the VM. In reservation stage, the resources for the new incoming VM are reserved at the destination host. Then the source VM is stopped and dirty pages are copied to the destination host. Migration is committed when the destination host’s VM is synchronized with VM running at the source host. Once the destination host receives the consistent copy of the VM running at the source host, the VM at source host is stopped and the VM at the destination hos Figure 5: Time line diagram for pre International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 86 page dirty rate, the VM in source host is stopped and the remaining dirtied pages are copied to the destination host. The VM is resumed at the destination host. The difference in time when the VM on e source host stops and VM at the destination host resumes is called downtime. The steps involved copy approach are detailed below. Initially, a request is issued to migrate a VM from the source host to the destination host after confirming the availability of resources. Once the availability of resources at destination host is confirmed, a VM of required size is reserved. If the required resources are not found at the ntinues to run on the source host unaffected. In the first iteration, all pages are transferred from the source host to the destination host. The pages that are transferred initially is called as the working set. Successive iterations copy only the dirtied working set. The VM at the source host is suspended and the network traffic is redirected to the destination host. At the end of this stage, there is a consistent suspended copy of the VM at both the source host and the destination host. The copy at the source host is still considered to be the primary After receiving a consistent OS image from the source host, a handshaking takes place between the destination and the source hosts, the destination being the initiator and source the responder. The source host discards the original VM and the destination host becomes the primary host. The logical steps that are followed during the preparation and migration are summarized in migration process, the destination host is examined for availability of resources. Once the resource availability is confirmed, the required resource for VM is reserved at the destination host. Preparation includes pre-migration process where the destination host is examined for resource availability to run the VM. In reservation stage, the resources for the new incoming VM are reserved at the destination host. Then the source VM is stopped and dirty pages are copied to the is committed when the destination host’s VM is synchronized with VM running at the source host. Once the destination host receives the consistent copy of the VM running at the source host, the VM at source host is stopped and the VM at the destination hos Time line diagram for pre-copy approach International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), page dirty rate, the VM in source host is stopped and the remaining dirtied pages are copied to the destination host. The VM is resumed at the destination host. The difference in time when the VM on e source host stops and VM at the destination host resumes is called downtime. The steps involved the destination host after confirming the availability of resources. Once the availability of resources at destination host is confirmed, a VM of required size is reserved. If the required resources are not found at the ntinues to run on the source host unaffected. In the first iteration, all pages are transferred from the source host to the destination host. The pages that are transferred initially is called as the working set. Successive iterations copy only the dirtied pages from the working set. The VM at the source host is suspended and the network traffic is redirected to the destination host. At the end of this stage, there is a consistent suspended copy of the VM at both the he copy at the source host is still considered to be the primary After receiving a consistent OS image from the source host, a handshaking takes place destination being the initiator and source the responder. The source host discards the original VM and the destination host becomes the primary host. The logical steps that are followed during the preparation and migration are summarized in migration process, the destination host is examined for availability of resources. Once the resource availability is confirmed, the required resource for VM is reserved at the tination host is examined for resource availability to run the VM. In reservation stage, the resources for the new incoming VM are reserved at the destination host. Then the source VM is stopped and dirty pages are copied to the is committed when the destination host’s VM is synchronized with VM running at the source host. Once the destination host receives the consistent copy of the VM running at the source host, the VM at source host is stopped and the VM at the destination host is activated.
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu V. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS This section discusses the empirical analysis on performance of applications during offline and live migration, addresses the impacts of different parameters that affect the offline and live migration performance using pre- copy approach on xen virtualizat • DOWNTIME Figure 6 The downtime in offline migration is more compared to live migration as illustrated in Figure 6. This is due to the fact that the services provided by the VM in offline migration are suspended f an interim duration equal to the total migration time. However in pre copy migration it is suspended only in the final iteration. The reduction in amount of service downtime is achieved using live migration. The downtime in offline migration increases w is equal to total migration time. In live migration, downtime may or may not increase with increase in VM’s size, but depends on the rate at which memory pages are dirtied. Figure 6 shows the downtime for live and offline migration which indicates that in offline migration downtime increases with VM size, but in live migration it may or may not. • TOTAL MIGRATION TIME The total migration time in offline migration depends only on the size of VM but in live migration total migration time depends on the size of VM and application behaviour as shown in Figure 7. The total migration time in live migration is at least equal to total migration time of offline migration. Figure 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Downtimeinsec International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 87 ANALYSIS OF OFFLINE AND LIVE MIGRATION This section discusses the empirical analysis on performance of applications during offline and live migration, addresses the impacts of different parameters that affect the offline and live copy approach on xen virtualization platform. Figure 6: Offline vs live downtime The downtime in offline migration is more compared to live migration as illustrated in Figure 6. This is due to the fact that the services provided by the VM in offline migration are suspended f an interim duration equal to the total migration time. However in pre copy migration it is suspended only in the final iteration. The reduction in amount of service downtime is achieved using live The downtime in offline migration increases with increase in size of VM since the downtime is equal to total migration time. In live migration, downtime may or may not increase with increase in VM’s size, but depends on the rate at which memory pages are dirtied. Figure 6 shows the and offline migration which indicates that in offline migration downtime increases with VM size, but in live migration it may or may not. TOTAL MIGRATION TIME The total migration time in offline migration depends only on the size of VM but in live on total migration time depends on the size of VM and application behaviour as shown in Figure 7. The total migration time in live migration is at least equal to total migration time of offline Figure 7: Offline vs live total migration time 512 1024 2048 LIVE OFFLINE Memory in MB International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), This section discusses the empirical analysis on performance of applications during offline and live migration, addresses the impacts of different parameters that affect the offline and live The downtime in offline migration is more compared to live migration as illustrated in Figure 6. This is due to the fact that the services provided by the VM in offline migration are suspended for an interim duration equal to the total migration time. However in pre copy migration it is suspended only in the final iteration. The reduction in amount of service downtime is achieved using live ith increase in size of VM since the downtime is equal to total migration time. In live migration, downtime may or may not increase with increase in VM’s size, but depends on the rate at which memory pages are dirtied. Figure 6 shows the and offline migration which indicates that in offline migration downtime increases The total migration time in offline migration depends only on the size of VM but in live on total migration time depends on the size of VM and application behaviour as shown in Figure 7. The total migration time in live migration is at least equal to total migration time of offline
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu • PERFORMANCE OF APPLICATIONS The performance of applications during live migration is better than offline migration as shown in Figure 8. This is due to the fact that service downtime in live migration is lower than in offline migration. Figure 8 VI. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LIVE MIGRATION • MEMORY VS DOWNTIME As shown in Figure 9 the downtime is not directly proportional to the size of VM, but it also depends on the application behaviour. That is, the downtime depends on the ra pages are dirtied, apart from the size. Figure 9 • CPU VS DOWNTIME Figure 10 illustrates that the increase in CPU will not change the downtime; it can be concluded that the change in amount of computational resources downtime. Figure 10: TMT and DT of VM vs Computational resource 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Performance 0 50 100 150 Timeinsec International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 88 PERFORMANCE OF APPLICATIONS The performance of applications during live migration is better than offline migration as shown in Figure 8. This is due to the fact that service downtime in live migration is lower than in Figure 8: Performance of application PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF LIVE MIGRATION MEMORY VS DOWNTIME As shown in Figure 9 the downtime is not directly proportional to the size of VM, but it also depends on the application behaviour. That is, the downtime depends on the rate at which memory pages are dirtied, apart from the size. Figure 9: Memory vs downtime Figure 10 illustrates that the increase in CPU will not change the downtime; it can be concluded that the change in amount of computational resources does not have any impact on the TMT and DT of VM vs Computational resource 7-ZIP COMPRESSION (MIPS) RAMspeed (MB/sec) (Integer) PyBench (milliseconds) Cache Bench (MB/s) Witout mig With mig OFFLINE Applications 32 31 32 31 32 32 Openssl postGreSQL 2048 MB 1024 MB 512 MB Applications International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), The performance of applications during live migration is better than offline migration as shown in Figure 8. This is due to the fact that service downtime in live migration is lower than in As shown in Figure 9 the downtime is not directly proportional to the size of VM, but it also te at which memory Figure 10 illustrates that the increase in CPU will not change the downtime; it can be does not have any impact on the
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu • CPU VS TOTAL MIGRATION TIME Figure 11 Computational resource has no impact on total migration time and downtime assuming that there are sufficient computational resources available to initiate live migration. demonstrates that the total migration time does not depend on the computati instead, depends on the size of the memory. As we can see even when computational resources are added by keeping memory resources constant the total migration time remains nearly constant. • MEMORY VS TOTAL MIGRATION TIME Memory resource has an impact on total migration time. As shown in Figure 12, as and when there is an increase in size of VM, the total migration time also increases. Increase in cap value will not alter the total migration time. Figure 12: Memory vs total migrtaion with • APPLICATION’S PERFORMANCE WITH AND WITHOUT MIGRATION There is a performance degradation of an application when it is migrated. The amount of degradation differs with different application. As shown in Figure 13 the Openssl application shows lower performance degradation compared to any other application. 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 Migrationtime-sec International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 89 CPU VS TOTAL MIGRATION TIME Figure 11: Total migration time vs resources Computational resource has no impact on total migration time and downtime assuming that there are sufficient computational resources available to initiate live migration. demonstrates that the total migration time does not depend on the computational resources and instead, depends on the size of the memory. As we can see even when computational resources are added by keeping memory resources constant the total migration time remains nearly constant. MEMORY VS TOTAL MIGRATION TIME as an impact on total migration time. As shown in Figure 12, as and when there is an increase in size of VM, the total migration time also increases. Increase in cap value will Memory vs total migrtaion with varying CPU resources APPLICATION’S PERFORMANCE WITH AND WITHOUT MIGRATION There is a performance degradation of an application when it is migrated. The amount of degradation differs with different application. As shown in Figure 13 the Openssl application shows lower performance degradation compared to any other application. 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 VCPU=1,RAM=1GB VCPU=2,RAM=1GB VCPU=1,RAM=2GB VCPU=2,RAM=2GB VCPU=1,RAM=512MB VCPU=2,RAM=512MB Cap Value in % International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), Computational resource has no impact on total migration time and downtime assuming that there are sufficient computational resources available to initiate live migration. Figure 11 onal resources and instead, depends on the size of the memory. As we can see even when computational resources are added by keeping memory resources constant the total migration time remains nearly constant. as an impact on total migration time. As shown in Figure 12, as and when there is an increase in size of VM, the total migration time also increases. Increase in cap value will varying CPU resources APPLICATION’S PERFORMANCE WITH AND WITHOUT MIGRATION There is a performance degradation of an application when it is migrated. The amount of degradation differs with different application. As shown in Figure 13 the Openssl application shows
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 90 Figure 13: Performance of applications with and without migration • TOTAL MIGRATION TIME—BASE LINE CASE WITH APPLICATION The previous attempts conclude that the total migration time is directly proportional to the size of the VM. These analyses have some loopholes. For example, applications like Openssl and RAMspeed each occupy VM of size 512 MB but the total migration time is 49 and 206 respectively. From this it can be concluded that the total migration time not only depends on the size of VM but also on application behaviour. Figure 14: TMT in offline and live migration Figure 14 shows the comparison of total migration time of live and offline migration. The minimum time the live migration takes to migrate a VM is equivalent to the time taken to migrate the same VM using offline migration. • TOTAL TRANSFERRED DATA VS APPLICATIONS The amount of data transferred during migration may not be directly proportional to the size of the VM but it also depends on the nature of the application. The size of VM serving applications 1 and 3 is 512 MB while size of VM serving application 4 is 2 GB. From Figure 15 it can be concluded that the total transferred data for application 1and 3 is more than the application 4. This indicates that the size of the VM is not the only factor to decide the total transferred data, but also depends on the nature of the application. 0 50 100 150 200 250 OPENSSL (signal per second) PostgreSQL (Transactions per second) Loopback TCP Performance (sec) Parallel BZIP Compression (sec) Threaded I/O Tester (MB/s) Witout mig With mig Performance Applications 0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 live TMT offline TMT Migrationtimeinsec Applications
  10. 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issu Figure 15: Migrated data in offline and live migration VII. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This section discusses about the findings drawn from experimental analysis. The previous attempts show that the memory size influences downtime and migration time. They also discuss that total migration time and downtime increase with increase in VM size. fail(have not been able) to compare the amount of data transferred during migrating a VM. The analysis of previous work conclude the following o Memory resource has an impact on total migration time and total migration time increases increase in memory. o Memory resource has an impact on downtime and downtime increases with increase in memory. o Total migration time depends on link bandwidth. The current work has been able to derive the following: o Computational resource has no impact o Computational resource has no impact on downtime. o Nature of the application influences downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred during live migration. o The total migration time in offline migration is analysed migration time for live migration. o The performance degradation of an application during migration also depends on the nature of the application. All applications do not exhibit the same level of degradation. o Downtime depends on memory size and application behaviour This paper discussed the performance analysis of offline and live migration techniques. The offline and live migration techniques using precopy is analyzed for various parameters like total migration time, downtime, application’s performance during migration and amount of data transferred. It illustrates that the performance degradation during migration is dependent on type of the application. In offline migration amount of data transferred during migration of the VM but in live migration the amount of data transferred during migration depends on the nature of the application. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 91 Migrated data in offline and live migration DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This section discusses about the findings drawn from experimental analysis. The previous attempts show that the memory size influences downtime and migration time. They also discuss that total migration time and downtime increase with increase in VM size. The previous attempts fail(have not been able) to compare the amount of data transferred during migrating a VM. The analysis of previous work conclude the following Memory resource has an impact on total migration time and total migration time increases Memory resource has an impact on downtime and downtime increases with increase in Total migration time depends on link bandwidth. The current work has been able to derive the following: Computational resource has no impact on total migration time. Computational resource has no impact on downtime. Nature of the application influences downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred during live migration. The total migration time in offline migration is analysed and this would be the minimum total migration time for live migration. The performance degradation of an application during migration also depends on the nature of the application. All applications do not exhibit the same level of degradation. depends on memory size and application behaviour This paper discussed the performance analysis of offline and live migration techniques. The offline and live migration techniques using precopy is analyzed for various parameters like total downtime, application’s performance during migration and amount of data transferred. It illustrates that the performance degradation during migration is dependent on type of the application. In offline migration amount of data transferred during migration depends on the size of the VM but in live migration the amount of data transferred during migration depends on the International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), This section discusses about the findings drawn from experimental analysis. The previous attempts show that the memory size influences downtime and migration time. They also discuss that The previous attempts fail(have not been able) to compare the amount of data transferred during migrating a VM. Memory resource has an impact on total migration time and total migration time increases with Memory resource has an impact on downtime and downtime increases with increase in Nature of the application influences downtime, total migration time and amount of data and this would be the minimum total The performance degradation of an application during migration also depends on the nature of This paper discussed the performance analysis of offline and live migration techniques. The offline and live migration techniques using precopy is analyzed for various parameters like total downtime, application’s performance during migration and amount of data transferred. It illustrates that the performance degradation during migration is dependent on type of depends on the size of the VM but in live migration the amount of data transferred during migration depends on the
  11. 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 92 REFERENCES [1] C. Clark, K. Fraser, S. Hand, J. G. Hansen, E. Jul, C. Limpach, I. Pratt, and A. Warfield, “Live migration of virtual machines”, 2nd conference on Symposium on Networked Systems Design & Implementation - NSDI’05, Volume 2, USENIX Association, CA, USA, 2005, Pages 273–286. [2] Gast´on Keller and HananLutfiyya, “Replication and Migration as Resource Management Mechanisms for Virtualized Environments”, 6th International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems, DOI: 10.1109/ICAS.2010.27, 2010, Pages:137-143. [3] Yosuke Kuno, Kenichi Nii, Saneyasu Yamaguchi, “A Study on Performance of Processes in Migrating Virtual Machines”, 10th International Symposium on Autonomous Decentralized Systems, ISBN: 978-1-61284-213-4, DOI: 10.1109/ISADS.2011.79, 2011, Pages: 567-572. [4] Fei Ma, Feng Liu, Zhen Liu, Live Virtual Machine Migration based on Improved Pre-copy Approach, IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences (ICSESS), 2010, Pages: 230 – 233. [5] Michael R. Hines, Umesh Deshpande, and Kartik Gopalan, “Post-copy live migration of virtual machines”ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems, Volume 43 Issue 3, July 2009, Pages 14-26 ACM New York, NY, USA, doi:10.1145/1618525.1618528. [6] Sherif Akoush, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, Andrew W. Moore, Andy Hopper, “Predicting the Performance of Virtual Machine Migration”, IEEE InternationalSymposium on Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2010, Pages:37 – 46. [7] Fereydoun Farrahi Moghaddam, Mohamed Cheriet, Decreasing Live Virtual Migration Down-Time Using a Memory Page Selection Based on Memory Change PDF, International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC), 2010, DOI: 10.1109/ICNSC.2010.5461517. Pages: 355 – 359. [8] William Voorsluys, James Broberg, Srikumar Venugopal, and Rajkumar Buyya, Cost of Virtual Machine Live Migration in Clouds: A Performance Evaluation, in CloudCom, 2009, pp. 254-265. [9] Mayank Mishra, Anwesha Das, Purushottam Kulkarni, Anirudha Sahoo, Dynamic resource management using virtual machine migrations Communications MagazineIEEE, Volume: 50 , Issue: 9 Page(s): 34- 40 . [10] Kejiang Ye, Xiaohong Jiang, Dawei Huang, Jianhai Chen, Bei Wang, Live Migration of Multiple Virtual Machines with Resource Reservation in Cloud Computing Environments, IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, 2011 Page(s): 267 - 274 . [11] Chuan, Chen , A new live virtual machine migration strategy, 2012 Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME), 2012 International Symposium on , Page(s): 173 - 176, Volume: 1, Aug. 2012. [12] Hai Jin, Li Deng, Song Wu, Xuanhua Shi, Xiaodong Pan,Live Virtual Machine Migration with Adaptive Memory Compression, Cluster Computing and Workshops, 2009. CLUSTER '09. IEEE International Conference on, 2009-Sept. Page(s): 1 – 10. [13] Khaled Z. Ibrahim, Steven Hofmeyr, Costin Iancu, Eric Roman, Optimized Pre-Copy Live Migration for Memory Intensive Applications, SC '11 Proceedings of 2011 International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis, Article No. 40 , ACM New York, NY, USA ©2011 , ISBN: 978-1-4503-07710 doi>10.1145/2063384.2063437 [14] Yangyang Wu Ming Zhao, Performance Modeling of Virtual Machine Live Migration, IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing 2011, USA.
  12. 12. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 82-93 © IAEME 93 [15] Haikun Liu, Cheng-Zhong Xu, Hai Jin, Jiayu Gong, Xiaofei Liao, Performance and Energy Modeling for Live Migration of Virtual Machines, HPDC '11 Proceedings of the 20th international symposium on High performance , distributed computing, ISBN: 978-1-4503- 0552-5, Pages 171-182, ACM , NY, USA. [16] Jason Sonnek, James Greensky, Robert Reutiman and Abhishek Chandra, Starling: Minimizing Communication Overhead in Virtualized Computing Platforms Using Decentralized Affinity-Aware Migration, 39th International Conference on Parallel Processing Pages IEEE Computer Society Washington, 2010, DC, USA. [17] Dr. Narayan A. Joshi, “Load Balancing in Cloud using Process Migration”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 5, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 230 - 238, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.

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