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- 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & 6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 141-152 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET ©IAEME COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REMOTE SENSING DATA BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM Sugandhi Midha M.Sc (CS) M.Phil (CS) M.Tech (CS) Lecturer, CMR Institute of Management Studies (CMRIMS), Bangalore, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT In data mining fields, clustering is an important issue. Clustering is a technique to groups objects based on the information found in the data describing the objects. Image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. Some of the image segmentation techniques are edge detection, region growing and clustering etc. But it has the drawbacks like, both region boundary and edge detection based methods often fail to produce accurate segmentation results. To overcome this DBCSAN clustering algorithm was implemented. The problem in DBSCAN algorithm is they require values for input parameters which are hard to determine, to overcome this OPTICS algorithm was implemented. In this method the objects should be processed in a specific order. Rather than having the precise cut off between the categories fuzzy logic uses truth values between 0.0 and 1.0 represents the degree of membership. The Fuzzy rules are used on these algorithms to improve the performance of the clusters. The computational complexity of the above clustering algorithms is very high. To solve these problems, Grid based algorithms are used. Hybrid approaches i.e. combining of grid with DBSCAN and OPTICS can be used to reduce the computational complexity and the calculation amount of data storage. The accuracy and time taken for DBSCAN, OPTICS, GRID, GRID-DBSCAN and GRIDOPTICS were evaluated. Keywords: Cluster, Genetic, DBSCAN, OPTICS, GRID DBSCAN, GRID OPTICS. 1. Introduction There are three interconnected reasons why the effectively of clustering algorithms is a problem. First, almost all clustering algorithms require values for input parameters which are hard to determine, which parameter gives good result. Especially for real-world data sets containing high dimensional objects. Second, the algorithms are very sensible to these parameter values, often 141
- 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME producing very different partitioning of the data set even for slightly different parameter settings. Third, high-dimensional real-data sets often have a much skewed Distribution, means it gives unequal distribution that cannot be revealed by a clustering algorithm using only one global parameter setting [1]. Some of the spatial clustering algorithms are partitioning based, hierarchical based, density based and grid based. The first three clustering methods have some drawbacks e.g. elements in the same cluster might not share enough similarity or the performance may be prohibitively poor. These algorithms have a greater performance for any shape of data collection, but the computational complexity is very high. To enhance the efficiency of clustering, a grid based clustering approach [2] is used which uses a grid data structure. It divides the data into a finite number of cells which form a grid structure on which all of the operations for clustering are performed. The main advantage of the approach is its fast processing time which is typically independent of the number of data objects, yet dependent on only the number of cells. In this project DBSCAN, OPTICS, Grid clustering (STING) algorithms are implemented on the input image. By combining these three clustering algorithms on the same input image a hybrid approach is used to implement a new clustering algorithm GRID_DBSCAN, GRID_OPTICS [3]. By comparing the accuracy and time taken to form clusters by the three algorithms, conclusion can be made which is the best among them. Figure Block Diagram of Flow of Study 142
- 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 2. DENSITY BASED SPATIAL CLUSTERING APPLICATION ALONG WITH NOISE Density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is a data clustering based algorithm proposed by Martin Ester, Hans Peter Kriegel, Jörg Sander and Xiaowei Xu in 1996. It is a Hans-Peter density-based clustering algorithm because it finds a number of clusters starting from the estimated density distribution of corresponding nodes. It requires only one input parameter and supports the user in determining an appropriate value for it. It discovers clusters of arbitrary shape. Finally, arbitrary DBSCAN is efficient even for large spatial databases. The present algorithm DBSCAN (Density Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) which is designed to discover the clusters and the noise in a spatial database relies on a density-based notion of cluster: A cluster is defined as a based maximal set of density-connected points. connected DBSCAN Algorithm The DBSCAN algorithm can identify clusters in large spatial data sets by looking at the local density of database elements, using only one input parameter. Furthermore, the user gets a suggestion on which parameter value that would be suitable. Therefore, minimal knowledge of the domain is required. The DBSCAN can also determine what information should be classified as noise or outliers. In spite of this, it’s working process is quick and scales very well with the size of the pite database – almost linearly. By using the density distribution of nodes in the database, DBSCAN can categorize these nodes into separate clusters that define the different classes. DBSCAN can find clusters of arbitrary shape. However, clusters that lie close to each other tend to belong to the same class. If a pixel is found to be a dense part of a cluster, its -neighborhood is also part of that cluster. neighborhood Hence, all pixels that are found within the -neighborhood are added, as is their own neighborhood neighborhood when they are also dense. This process continues until the density-connected cluster is density connected completely found. Then, a new unvisited pixel is retrieved and processed, leading to the discovery of a further cluster or noise. The pixel information’s of the image are extracted into a list l. The algorithm DBSCAN takes input parameters as epsilon Eps and minimum points MinPts. C is the no of clusters. The function getNeighborPixels( ) takes input parameter as pixel p and epsilon Eps and returns a list of pixels of s( the list l which are epsilon neighborhood of pixel P. The function getDistance takes input parameters as two pixels and returns the color distance between those two. The function getDist takes input parameters as two pixels and returns distance between those two. getX( ) and getY( ) returns the x x-y coordinate of the pixel within the image. Algorithm DBSCAN (l, Eps, MinPts) { for each unvisited pixel P in list l{ mark P as visited NeighborPixels = getNeighborPixels(P, eps) if (sizeof(NeighborPixels) < MinPts){ mark P as NOISE }else{ C = next cluster expandCluster(P, NeighborPixels, C, eps, MinPts) } } } expandCluster( P, NeighborPixels, C, eps, MinPts ){ add P to cluster C for each pixel P' in NeighborPixels{ 143
- 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME if ( P' is not visited ){ mark P' as visited NeighborPixels’ = getNeighborPixels(P', eps) If( sizeof(NeighborPixels') >= MinPts ){ NeighborPixels = NeighborPixels joined with NeighborPixels '} Neighb } } If ( P' is not yet member of any cluster) add P' to cluster C } 3. ORDERING POINTS TO IDENTIFY THE CLUSTERING STRUCTURE Ordering points to identify the clustering structure (OPTICS) is an algorithm for finding density-based clusters in spatial data. It was presented by Mihael Ankerst, Markus M. Breunig, Hans-Peter Kriegel and Jörg Sander Its basic idea is similar to DBSCAN, but it addresses one of Peter DBSCAN's major weaknesses: the problem of detecting meaningful clusters in data of varying density. In order to do so, the points of the database are (linearly) ordered such that points which are spatially closest become neighbors in the ordering. Additionally, a special distance is stored for each point that represents the density that needs to be accepted for a cluster in order to have both points hat belong to the same cluster. An important property of many real-data sets is that their intrinsic cluster real data structure cannot be characterized by global density parameters. Very different local densities may be local needed to reveal clusters in different regions of the data space, it is not possible to detect the clusters A, B, C1, C2, and C3 simultaneously using one global density parameter. A global density density-based decomposition would consist only of the clusters A, B, and C, or C1, C2, and C3. f In the second case, the objects from A and B are noise. noise OPTICS Algorithm OPTICS requires two parameters: (Eps) and the minimum number of pixels required to form a cluster (MinPts). It starts with an arbitrary starting pixel that has not been visited and it stores the core-distance and a suitable reachability-distance for each pixel. We will see that this information distance reachability distance is sufficient to extract all density-based clustering with respect to any distance ’ which is s based smaller than the generating distance from this order. This pixel's -neighborhood is retrieved, and if it neighborhood contains sufficiently many pixels within or less than -neighborhood, a cluster is started. Otherwise, neighborhood, the pixel is labeled as noise. Note that this point might later be found in a sufficiently sized environment of a different pixel and hence be made part of a cluster. We first check whether the reachability-distance of the current point is larger than the reachability distance clustering-distance ’. In this case, t pixel is not density-reachable with respect to ’ and MinPts the reachable from any of the pixels which are located before the current pixel in the clustercluster-ordering. This is obvious, because if pixel had been density density-reachable with respect to ’ and MinPts from a preceding prece object in the order, it would have been assigned a reachability-distance of at most ’. Therefore, if reachability distance the reachability-distance is larger than ’, we look at the core-distance of pixel and start a new distance distance cluster if pixel is a core object with respect to ’ and MinPts; otherwise, pixel is assigned to NOISE (note that the reachability-distance of the first pixel in the cluster ordering is always UNDEFINED distance cluster-ordering and that we assume UNDEFINED to be greater than any defined distance). If the reachability reachabilitydistance of the current pixel is smaller than ’, we can simply assign this pixel to the current cluster he because then it is density-reachable with respect to ’ and MinPts from a preceding core object in the reachable cluster-ordering. 144
- 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME The pixel information’s of the image are extracted into a list l. The algorithm OPTICS takes input parameters as epsilon Eps and minimum points MinPts. C is the no of clusters. The function getNeighborPixels( ) takes input parameter as pixel p and epsilon Eps and returns a list of pixels of the list l which are epsilon neighborhood of pixel P. The function getDistance takes input parameters as two pixels and returns the color distance between those two. The function getDist takes input parameters as two pixels and returns distance between those two. getX( ) and getY( ) returns the x-y coordinate of the pixel within the image. Algorithm OPTICS (l, Eps, MinPts) { for each unvisited pixel P in list l{ mark P as visited NeighborPixels = getNeighborPixels(P, eps) if (sizeof(NeighborPixels) < MinPts){ mark P as NOISE}else{ C = next cluster expandCluster(P, NeighborPixels, C, eps, MinPts) } } } expandCluster( P, NeighborPixels, C, eps, MinPts ){ add P to cluster C for each pixel P' in NeighborPixels{ if ( P' is not visited ){ mark P' as visited if(p.getCoreDist()!=0 if(p’.getReachDist()!=0) cluster1.add(_p); If( sizeof(cluster1) >= MinPts ){ NeighborPixels = NeighborPixels joined with NeighborPixels ' } } } If ( P' is not yet member of any cluster) add P' to cluster C } 4. GRID-DBSCAN To improve the accuracy of the clustering technique, in this project the hybrid approach is used to combine the DBSCAN and GRID clustering algorithm to create a new clustering algorithm GRID-DBSCAN. The spatial image is divided into rectangular cells. We have several different levels of such rectangular cells corresponding to different resolution and these cells form a hierarchical structure. Each cell at a high level is partitioned to form a number of cells of the next lower level. After construction of the GRID structure clustering on the GRID is done in the following way. To perform clustering on such a grid data structure, users must first supply the density level as input parameter. Using this parameter, a top-down, grid-based method is used to find regions with sufficient density by adopting the following procedure. First a layer within the hierarchical structure is determined. In this project the root layer is selected. For each cell in the 145
- 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME current layer, compute the confidence interval that the cell will relevant to the clustering. A Cell which does not meet the confident level is deemed irrelevant. After finishing the examination of the current layer, the next lower level of the cells is examined and repeated the same process. The only difference is that instead of going through all cells, only those cells that are children of the relevant cells of the previous layer are processed. This procedure continues until it reaches the lowest level layer (bottom layer). At this time regions of relevant cells are processed. In GRID-DBSCAN algorithm the DBSCAN algorithm is used for processing of the relevant bottom cells. In this project all the 6 regions (Agriculture, water, greenery, urban, sea, other) are displayed on the clustering output. So the users no need to give any input parameter. The thresholds are calculated from the pixel information. Algorithm For Grid-DBSCAN The input to this algorithm is the root layer of the Grid structure. G.getG1( ), G.getG2( ), G.getG3( ), G.getG4( ) returns the child grids of the current grid cell G. Algorithm GRID-DBSCAN ( grid G ){ if( G.getG1() == null ){ Apply DBSCAN algorithm on current bottom layer }else if( G.getG1() != null ){ If (G.getG1( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG1().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } If(G.getG2( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG2().GRID_CLUTERING ( );} If( G.getG3( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG3().GRID_CLUTERING ( );} If( G.getG4( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG4().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } } 5. GRID-OPTICS To improve the accuracy of the clustering technique, in this project the hybrid approach is used to combine the OPTICS and GRID clustering algorithm to create a new clustering algorithm GRID-OPTICS [3]. The spatial image is divided into rectangular cells. We have several different levels of such rectangular cells corresponding to different resolution and these cells form a hierarchical structure. Each cell at a high level is partitioned to form a number of cells of the next lower level. After construction of the GRID structure clustering on the GRID is done in the following way: - To perform clustering on such a grid data structure, users must first supply the density level as input parameter. Using this parameter, a top-down, grid-based method is used to find regions with sufficient density by adopting the following procedure. First a layer within the hierarchical structure is determined. In this project the root layer is selected. For each cell in the current layer, compute the confidence interval that the cell will relevant to the clustering. Cells which do not meet the confident level are deemed irrelevant. After finishing the examination of the current layer, the next lower levels of the cells are examined and repeated the same process. The only difference is that instead of going through all cells, only those cells that are children of the relevant cells of the previous layer are processed. This procedure continues until it reaches the lowest level layer (bottom layer). At this time regions of relevant cells are processed. In GRID-OPTICS algorithm the OPTICS algorithm is used for processing of the relevant bottom cells. In this project 146
- 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME all the 6 regions (Agriculture, water, greenery, urban, sea, other) are displayed on the clustering output. So the user no needs to give any input parameter. The thresholds are calculated from the pixel information. Algorithm for Grid-OPTICS GRID-OPTICS ( grid G ){ if( G.getG1() == null ){ Apply OPTICS algorithm on current bottom layer }else if( G.getG1() != null ){ If (G.getG1( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG1().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } If(G.getG2( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG2().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } If( G.getG3( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG3().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } If( G.getG4( ) satisfy threshold ){ G.getG4().GRID_CLUTERING ( ); } } 6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 6.1 Kappa Statistics Cohen's kappa coefficient [16] is a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement or interannotator agreement for qualitative (categorical) items. It is generally thought to be a more robust measure than simple percent agreement calculation since κ takes into account the agreement occurring by chance. 6.2 Calculation Cohen's kappa measures the agreement between two raters who each classify N items into C mutually exclusive categories. The first mention of a kappa-like statistic is attributed to Galton The equation for κ is: k= Pr( a ) − Pr(e) , 1 − Pr(e) Where Pr(a) is the relative observed agreement among raters, and Pr(e) is the hypothetical probability of chance agreement, using the observed data to calculate the probabilities of each observer randomly saying each category. If the raters are in complete agreement then κ = 1. If there is no agreement among the raters other than what would be expected by chance (as defined by Pr(e)), κ = 0. 6.3. Interpreting Kappa Here is one possible interpretation of Kappa: Poor agreement = Less than 0.20 Fair agreement = 0.20 to 0.40 147
- 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Moderate agreement = 0.40 to 0.60 Good agreement = 0.60 to 0.80 Very good agreement = 0.80 to 1.0 7. EXPERIMENT RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Original Image DBSCAN GRID DBSCAN GRID OPTICS OPTICS OPTICS DBSCAN Kappa Coefficient Time 02:02:39:660 0.6299 Kappa Coefficient 0.7116 16 * 16 0.8991 02:02:28:060 Grid OPTICS Grid DB SCAN 8*8 Time 32 * 32 0.901 8*8 0.9026 16 * 16 0.9083 0.9083 32 * 32 0.9083 Accuracy analysis of discretization in WEKA by using 5 bins DBSCAN 0.5234 OPTICS GRID 0.6374 GRIDDBSCAN GRIDOPTICS 0.674 0.8378 0.8436 Best fitness values in genetic algorithm DBSCAN with GA OPTICS with GA 0.045647 GRID-DBSCAN with GA 0.029049 0.49758 148 GRID-OPTICS with GA 0.99575
- 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Comparison of Clustering Output Figure: Clustering Output for DBSCAN and OPTICS (1 – 5) 149
- 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure: Clustering Output for GRID, GRID DBSCAN and GRID OPTICS (1 – 5) 150
- 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 09766367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 8. CONCLUSION In the density based clustering, the OPTICS clustering algorithm gives good result compared to DBSCAN clustering algorithm for the same input parameters and it was done for different input parameters. OPTICS is a generalization of DBSCAN to multiple ranges, effectively replacing the ɛ parameter with a maximum search radius that mostly affects the performance. The grid structure for the input image was implemented to perform the clustering. The statistical information for each gird of the image was calculated. It has much less computational cost than other approaches. The I/O cost is low since only the grid data structure is stored in memory. Both of these will speed up the processing of clustering. In addition, it offers an opportunity for parallelism. All these advantages benefit from the hierarchical structure of grid cells and the statistical information associated with them. There are different types of grid sizes, which includes 8*8 and 16*16, and 32*32. In that 32*32 grid size gives good result compared to other grid sizes. The DBSCAN and OPTICS Clustering Algorithms is compared with the hybrid Algorithms GRID-DBSCAN and GRID-OPTICS for the same input image. It also implies that accuracy has been improved for hybrid algorithms. Finally GRID-OPTICS given high performance compared to previous clustering algorithms. From the table 10.7 image 5 and image 7 gives good performance in GRID-OPTICS with GA compared to DBSCAN with GA, OPTICS with GA, GRID with GA, GRID-DBSCAN with GA. Because for image5 and image 7 there is a more distance between the pixels that’s why when we combined with the genetic algorithm the performance was improved. For the remaining images due to combining of DBSCAN and OPTICS with GRID clustering performance was improved here only. Fuzzy logic proved to be an excellent choice for Image classification applications since it mimics human control logic. It uses an imprecise but very descriptive language to deal with input data more like a human operator. Fuzzy rules are very helpful in clustering techniques for better classification. That’s why these fuzzy rules are used for classification of class information for the input images in different clustering techniques. In this project an unsupervised discretization is used in WEKA for accuracy calculation, it splits the whole range of numbers in intervals with equal size. The number of bins was taken as 5, 15, 25.In that discretization using 25 bins given good result compared to 5 and 15 bins. And also it was done for 25, 20, 15 bins but it doesn’t get a more difference in results. So finally discretization using 25 bins given good results for all clustering algorithms. This project is being implemented on a single image. The future enhancements can be implemented on image datasets. In GRID clustering algorithm all the bottom grid cells size are unique; this can be extended to variable cell size and it forms a hierarchical structure. The density based methods DBSCAN, OPTICS methods will be extended to other density based methods like DENCLUE (Clustering Based on Density Distribution Functions. Along with CPU time taken and accuracy, other parameters can be taken for comparison of the algorithms. REFERENCES [1] [2] Mihael Ankerst, Markus M. Breunig, Hans-Peter Kriegel, Jörg Sander.”OPTICS: Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure”. Proc. ACM SIGMOD’99 Int. Conf. on Management of Data, Philadelphia PA, 1999 Changzhen Hu, Jiadong Ren, and Lili Meng, “CABGD:An Improved Clustering Algorithm Based on Grid-Density”. Fourth International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control, Pages 381-384, 2009. 151
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