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Digital watermarking knowledge is a leading edge research field and it mainly focuses on the ...

Digital watermarking knowledge is a leading edge research field and it mainly focuses on the
intellectual property rights, hides data and embedded inside an image to show authenticity or proof
of ownership, discovery and authentication of the digital media to protect the important documents.
Digital watermarking can help to verify ownership, to recognize a misappropriate person and find the
marked documents. One of the significant technological actions of the last two decades was the
attack of digital media in a complete range of everyday life aspects.
Digital data can be stored efficiently with a very high quality and it can be manipulated very
easily using computers. In addition digital data can be transmitted in a fast and inexpensive way
through data communication networks without losing quality. According to the necessary study of
digital image watermarking, the digital watermarking model consists of two modules, which are
watermark embedding module and watermark extraction and detection module.

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    50120130406038 50120130406038 Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 347-354 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET ©IAEME COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING BASED ON EMBEDDING AND EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE Mrs. Rashmi Soni1, Dr. M.K. Gupta2 1 2 Research Scholar, Department of CSE, AISECT University, Bhopal Research Supervisor, AISECT University & Professor, Department of ECE, MANIT, Bhopal ABSTRACT Digital watermarking knowledge is a leading edge research field and it mainly focuses on the intellectual property rights, hides data and embedded inside an image to show authenticity or proof of ownership, discovery and authentication of the digital media to protect the important documents. Digital watermarking can help to verify ownership, to recognize a misappropriate person and find the marked documents. One of the significant technological actions of the last two decades was the attack of digital media in a complete range of everyday life aspects. Digital data can be stored efficiently with a very high quality and it can be manipulated very easily using computers. In addition digital data can be transmitted in a fast and inexpensive way through data communication networks without losing quality. According to the necessary study of digital image watermarking, the digital watermarking model consists of two modules, which are watermark embedding module and watermark extraction and detection module. Keywords: Digital watermarking, Digital image watermarking, Embedding, Extraction. 1. INTRODUCTION The digital data can be transmitted in a fast and cheap way through data communication networks not including losing quality. Digital media offer numerous different advantages over analog media. The quality of digital audio, images and video signals are superior to that of their analog counterparts. Editing is easy because one can allow the exact discrete locations that need to be changed. Copying is easy with no loss of information and a copy of a digital media is related to the original. In case of watermarking, the digital multimedia distribution over World Wide Web, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are more in risky than ever due to the possibility of unlimited copying. This difficulty can be handled by hiding some ownership data into the multimedia data, 347
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME which can be extracted afterwards to prove the ownership, a concept called “watermarking”. Everyday, in general, a lot of data is embedded on digital media or spread over the internet. This data, which include still images, video, audio, or text are stored and transmitted in a digital format can be easily copied without loss of quality and well distributed [1]. The protection of intellectual property rights has become more and more important. Information stored in digital format because of simplicity of reproduction, retransmission and even manipulation allows a pirate either to get rid of a watermark and go against a copyright or to transmit the same watermark after changing the data to copy the proof of authenticity [6]. The design of techniques for preserving the ownership of digital information is in the beginning of the development of upcoming multimedia services. 1.1 Digital Image Watermarking Proof of ownership of data is done by embedding copyright statements. Embedding Watermarking Detection Data, Signature Data, Signature ID etc ID etc Fig1.1 Block Diagram of Digital Image Watermarking As shown in figure1.1 for watermarking, embedding and detection mainly consist of a key, digital data, signature id etc in which a key and digital data embeds watermarked digital data and a key and digital data detects watermark. An existing scheme for still image watermarking in spatial domain is studied. Watermark is embedded and retrieval of embedded watermark is easy in this way. Cryptography can be used which ensures confidentiality, authenticity and integrity. To explain the above figure of digital image watermarking more accurately, which consists of elements of watermarking system that uses watermark signal, that passes through embedder which is communicated with respect to channel & finally detection is done. Digital watermarking technology, is directly related to information security, information hiding, cryptography and authentication technologies, is a cutting edge research area of the international academic research in current years. Currently, the quick development of network of information and e-commerce make digital watermarking technology very important for all types of digital products protection, and its use is becoming increasingly more widespread. All these place higher demands for people to plan an enhanced watermarking algorithm. It must be common that digital watermarking technology requirements to be mutual with these disciplines and technologies so as to oppose all kinds of attacks and structure integrated solutions for digital products copyright protection. The requirement for this type of technology can be predictable to grow extremely as businesses request to declare some control over their property on the “freeness” Internet. Digital image watermarking methods can be modeled as communication method involving an embedder and detector as shown in Figure1.2. 348
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME Cover Image Watermarked signal Watermark embedder Stego image Watermark detector Detected watermark signal Fig1.2 Basic Watermarking Method 2. VARIOUS DIGITAL WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES 2.1 Related to Document Watermarking techniques can also be divided into four categories, according to the type of document to be watermarked, as follows: a) Image Watermarking: Image is watermarked using a main image, original mage and finally image is then watermarked. This is used to hide the special information into the image and to later detect and extract that special information for the author‘s ownership. b) Audio watermarking: This application area is one of the most popular and happening issue due to internet music, MP3. c) Video watermarking: This adds watermark in the video stream to classify video applications. It is the development of image watermarking. This method requires real time extraction and robustness for compression. d) Text watermarking: This adds watermark to the PDF, DOC and other text file to prevent the changes made to text. The watermark is inserted in the font shape and the space between characters and line spaces. e) Graphic watermarking: It embeds the watermark to 2D or 3D computer generated graphics to indicate the copyright. 2.2 Related to Human Perception According to the human perception, the digital watermarks can be divided into 4 different types: Visible watermark, Invisible-Semi fragile watermark, fragile watermark, robust watermark. a) Visible watermark: This is a secondary transparent overlaid into the primary image. The information is visible in the picture. Typically, the information is text or a logo, which identifies the owner of the media. b) Invisible watermark: There is technology available which can insert information into an image which cannot be seen. We cannot prevent the theft of our images this way, but we can prove that the image that was stolen was ours, which is almost as good. 349
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME c) Robust watermark: Embedded invisible watermarks. It prevents image processing or attacks without affecting embedded watermark. It is against challenging based attack (e.g. noise addition to images), mainly used in copy protection application. d) Fragile Watermark: The fragile watermark is embedded in such a way that any manipulation or modification of the image would change or destroy the watermark. Fragile watermarks are destroyed by data manipulation, mainly used for tamper detection. e) Semi Fragile Watermark: This is sensitive to signal modification containing feature of both robust and fragile watermarks which provide data authentication. This, in nature, is robust against user-level operation (e.g. image compression). 2.3 Related to Application Domain According to application domain, source-based watermarks are desirable for ownership identification or authentication where a single watermark identifies the owner. A source based watermark could be used for authentication and to determine whether a received image or other electronic data has been tampered. The watermark could also be destination based where each distributed copy gets a single watermark identifying the particular buyer. The destination based watermark could be used to trace the buyer in the case of illegal reselling. This is used in fingerprinting. 2.4 Related to Watermarking Domain Based on their embedding domain, watermarking schemes can be classified as follows: a) Spatial Domain: The watermarking system directly alters the main data elements (like pixels in an image) to hide the watermark data. Spatial domain digital watermarking algorithms directly load the raw data into the original image [2]. Spatial watermarking can also be applied using color separation. In this way, the watermark appears in only one of the color bands. b) Frequency Domain: The watermarking system exchange the frequency transforms of data elements to hide the watermark data. This has proved to be more robust than the spatial domain watermarking. The aim is to embed the watermarks in the spectral coefficients of the image. The most commonly used transforms are the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), the reason for watermarking in the frequency domain is that the characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) are better captured by the spectral coefficients [3]. c) Feature Domain: The watermarking system takes into account the region, boundary and object characteristics. It presents better detection and recovery from attacks. 3. REQUIREMENTS OF DIGITAL WATERMARKING The requirements of digital watermarking are: There are a number of important characteristics that a watermark can exhibit. The most important properties of digital watermarking techniques are transparency, robustness, security, capacity, invert ability (reversibility) and complexity and possibility of verification. 350
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME a) Transparency: The quality of the embedded watermark should be clear and transparent. The embedded watermark should not reduce the quality of the original image. It relates to the properties of the human sensory. A translucent watermark never causes any type of quality loss. b) Robustness: Robustness means resistance to blind, non-targeted changes, or common media operations on basis of the requirements for watermark extraction [5].There are various types of attack for destroying the watermark such as cropping, compression, scaling etc. The watermark should be design in such a way that, it is invariant to all attacks. There are two major problems when trying to guaranty robustness; the watermark must be still present in the media after the transformation or it must be still possible for the watermark detector to detect it. When a signal is distorted, its reliability is only preserved if it’s perceptually important region remain undamaged, while perceptually unimportant regions might be extensively changed with little effect on reliability. c) Security: Security describes whether the embedded watermarking information cannot be removed beyond constant detection by targeted attacks based on a full awareness of the embedding algorithm and the detector, except the key, and the knowledge of at least one watermarked data. Watermarking security implies that the watermark should be difficult to remove or alter without damaging the host signal. As all watermarking systems request to protect watermark information, without loss of generality, watermarking security can be regarded as the ability to guarantee secrecy and integrity of the watermark information, and resist malicious attacks [4]. d) Capacity: Capacity describes the maximum amount of data that can be embedded into image, audio, video or text for suitable retrieval of watermark during extraction. Capacity describes how many information bits can be embedded. It addresses also the opportunity of embedding multiple watermarks in one document in parallel. Capacity requirement always struggle against two other essential requirements, that is, imperceptibility and robustness. A higher capacity is usually obtained at the cost of either robustness strength or imperceptibility. e) Imperceptibility: watermark should not be visible to the viewer neither the watermark corrupt the value of the content. The term imperceptible is widely used in this case. If a signal is accurately imperceptible, then perceptually based lossy compression algorithms either introduce further changes that jointly exceed the visibility threshold or avoid such a signal. It is then essential to expand techniques that can be used to add imperceptible or unnoticeable watermark signals in perceptually significant regions to oppose the effects of signal processing. f) Modification and Multiple Watermarks: Altering a watermark can be done by either removing the first watermark or then adding a new one, or inserting a second watermark. The first option goes against the rule of tamper resistance, because it implies that a watermark is easily removable. Allowing various watermarks to coexist is the ideal solution. There is, still a security problem associated to the use of multiple watermarks. It means that watermarking security can be interpreted as encryption security leading directly to the principle that it must be positioned mainly in the choice of the embedded key. These allows insertion of multiple, independently noticeable watermarks in an image. g) Invertibility: Invertibility describes the chance to produce the original data during the watermark retrieval. The optimization of the parameters is equally competitive and cannot be clearly done at the same time. If we want to embed a large message, we cannot need large robustness at the same time. A practical compromise is always a need. Hence, if robustness to strong distortion is an issue, the message that can be reliably hidden must not be too long. 351
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME 4. EMBEDDING AND EXTRACTION Digital watermarking involves the ideas and theories of different subject coverage, such as signal processing, cryptography, probability theory, network technology, algorithm design, and other techniques [3]. Digital watermarking hides the copyright information into the digital data through certain algorithm. The secret information to be embedded can be some text, author‘s serial number, company logo, images with a number of special importance. This secret information is embedded to the digital data (images, audio, and video) to guarantee the security, data authentication, identification of owner and copyright protection. The watermark can be hidden in the digital data either visibly or invisibly. The process of embedding the watermark requires modifying the original image and in essence the watermarking process inserts a controlled amount of “distortion” in the image. The recovery of this distortion allows the one to identify the owner of the image. Invisible or transparent marks use the properties of the human visual system to minimize the perceptual distortion in the watermarked image [7]. For a strong watermark embedding, a good watermarking technique is needed to be applied. Watermark can be embedded either in spatial or frequency domain. Both the domains are different and have their own pros and cons and are used in different situation. 4.1 Watermarking Algorithm a) Embedding Algorithm 1. Generate ‘e’ with the secret key shared with the detector. 2. For each pixel i in image h a) Calculate the secret dependency P (i) according to P (i) = ∑ (e (i) ⊕ e (j)) (-1) e (j) h M (j) j Є N (i) where ⊕ denotes the (XOR) operation. ---------- (1) b) Adjust h1 (i) so that the following equation holds Parity (h (i) +P (i)) = e (i) ------------ (2) Simple Digital watermarking is a technology in which a watermark (secret information) is hidden in the digital media using an appropriate algorithm for the authentication and identification of unique owner of the product. Outcome we get is watermarked image. Simple digital watermarking technique consists of two modules watermark embedding module and watermark detection and extraction module. Watermark embedding embeds the watermark into the original image using a key [2]. The watermark embedding module is shown in Fig 4.1. Key Watermark Watermark embedded Original works module Works with watermark Fig 4.1 Watermark Embedding Module 352
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME b) Detection Algorithm 1. Generate ‘e’ with the secret key shared with the embedder. 2. For each pixel ‘p’, a) Calculate the secret dependency P (i) from the received image h′ according to Eq (1) b) Extract the watermark bit e′ (i) according to: e′ (i) = Parity (h′ (i) +P (i)) ----------- (3) c) Calculate C(i) between e(i) and e'(i) using: C (i) = 0 will be e (i) = e′ (i) or, 255 otherwise ---------- (4) Watermark detection and extraction module is used to determine whether the data contains specified watermark or the watermark can be extracted [2]. The watermark embedding module is given in Fig 4.2. Works to be detected Watermark Key detection module Original works Watermark Fig 4.2 Watermark Detection and Extraction Module V. CONCLUSION The beginning work carried out on digital watermarks has been described, including the brief study of various watermarking schemes, requirements, techniques and its potential applications. Some of the watermarking techniques carried out with their pros and cons have been discussed. It firstly provided a general description of the attractive characteristics of digital watermarking system. Various watermarking techniques are discussed in short with the possible applications of the watermarking methodology. Finally, certain points are summarized based on embedding and detection technique. Watermarking provides owner authentication. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_watermarking. Jiang Xuehua, “Digital Watermarking and Its Application in Image Copyright Protection”, International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, TBD Changsha, China, 11-12 May 2010. Manpreet Kaur, Sonia Jindal, Sunny Behl, “A Study of Digital image watermarking”, Vol 2, Issue 2, Feb 2012. 353
    • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), © IAEME [4] C.-T. Li and F.M. Yang., “One-dimensional Neighborhood Forming Strategy for Fragile Watermarking”, Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 12, Issue No. 2, pp. 284-291, 2003. [5] Ahmed Salma, Randa Atta, and Rawya Rizk, “A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique Based on Wavelet Transform” IEEE International Conference on System Engineering and Technology (ICSET), University of Technology, Mara (UTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, 2011. [6] Liu J. and He X., “A Review Study on Digital Watermark, Information and Communication Technologies”, International Conference (ICICT), pp. 337-341, 2005. [7] R. B. Wolfgang, C. I. Podilchuk, and E. J. Delp, "Perceptual Watermarks for Digital Images and Video", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, pp. 1108-1126, July 1999. [8] Karimella Vikram, Dr. V. Murali Krishna, Dr. Shaik Abdul Muzeer and K. Narasimha, “Invisible Water Marking within Media Files using State-of-the-Art Technology”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 1 - 8, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [9] N. R. Bamane, Dr. S. B. Patil, Prof. B. S. Patil and Prof. R. K. Undegaonkar, “Hybrid Video Watermarking Technique by using DWT & PCA”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 172 - 179, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [10] G. B. Khatri and D. S. Chaudhari, “Digital Audio Watermarking Applications and Techniques”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 109 - 115, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 354