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  1. 1. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 1 ENHANCING ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY: THE WAY FORWARD TO NIGERIAN SECURITY CHALLENGES Robinson, Reagan Nnabio Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Technical Education Department (Electrical/Electronic Technology), Rumuolumeni, Rivers State & Taneh, Nadum Anthony Rivers State Polytechnic Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department Bori, Rivers State ABSTRACT This paper is on Enhancing Electrical/Electronic Technology: The way Forward to Nigerian Security Challenges. The paper gave a brief introduction which pointed out that the amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914 under a clear lack of homogeneity of the people was the origin of the Nigerian security challenges. The present state of vocational and technical education in Nigeria was stated. Concept of electrical/electronic technology was given which culminate to give the concept of security. The different security challenges confronting Nigeria were pointed out, after which the way forward of the security challenges through electrical/electronic technology was analysed. The paper ended with a conclusion. INTRODUCTION Prior to the official amalgamation into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria by the military forces of the British Empire in 1914, the territory of Nigeria was a loose collection of autonomous states, villages, and ethnic communities (Shaw & Daniells, 1984). After the amalgamation, the INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJEET) ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 6.8310 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJEET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 2 people could not be fused to form a single nation due to the great diversities of origin, languages, cultures and beliefs (lack of homogeneity). Despite the challenges observed in the lack of homogeneity, the British government in order to be in control, imposed drastic political and economic policies on the Nigerian people (Khan, 2001), which lead to some security consequences shortly after the independence in 1960. Some of these security consequences were the revolt against constituted authorities by smaller communities due to oppression of larger communities, electoral malpractices,and tribal quest for independence, inter-tribal wars and regional conflicts. All these put together was the origin of the Nigerian security challenges. The inability to cub these early vices degenerated to a civil war in 1967 and further down to the present terrorism challenge. Managing security challenges is fundamental to national development. According to Olugbode (2011), no nation can have any form of development under the face of serious security challenges. One of the distinguishing characteristics of nationhood is a state’s ability to provide security for her citizens, defend her sovereignty and territorial integrity.The security of any state embodies a notion of order, or of the conditions necessary to maintain the smooth functioning and reproduction of an existing society. Adeboye (2012) submits that the security of any nation is predicated on two central pillars. On the one hand, it entails the maintenance and protection of the socio-economic order in the face of internal and external threats. On the other hand, it entails the promotion of a preferred international order, which minimizes the threats to core values and interests, as well as to the domestic order of nations. Unfortunately, Nigeria as a nation does not have any of those predicated central pillars. Meaning, the security challenges are still pending. Now the question is; what is the way forward? The answer to this question is the rationale behind this paper. From the views of the writers, enhancing electrical/electronic technology is the way forward. Electrical/Electronic phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances in the science were not made until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Moller & Kramer, 1991). Practical applications for electrical/electronic however remained few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century thatengineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The world all over, electrical/electronic technology is experiencing a rapid expansion to the extent that it is transforming industries, societies and cubing security challenges of developed world of which Nigeria can also be one. Electrical/electronictechnology extraordinary versatility as a means of providing energy and automatic devices can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, securities, communications, and computation. In fact according to Jones (1991), Electrical/Electronic Technology is the backbone of modern industrial society, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. Hence, it is the view of the writers that, with the technological encompassing prowess of electrical/electronic technology, Nigerian security challenges can be addressed drastically. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA Vocational and technical education are learning experiences meant to be imparted to an individual systematically in order to get him adequately equipped for a good employment in a recognized occupation. It is designed to prepare individual to acquire practical skill, basic and scientific knowledge and attitude required as artisans and technicians at sub-professional level (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).It invariably means, one of the objectives of vocational and technical education is to train people to become craftsmen and technicians in Mechanical Technology, Electrical/Electronic Technology and Building Technology. Training qualifies them for jobs in both public and private sectors of the economy. Both sectors, according to Akintola & Ademola (2007) require well-trained and competent technicians who can design, operate and maintain available technical equipment. Therefore, there is a need for qualitative technical colleges
  3. 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 3 for education and training to produce graduates that can perform competently in their chosen vocation without a need for pre-employment training. However, in Nigeria vocational and technical education has an epileptic understanding. A good number of persons do not understand the concept of VTE hence could not provide the needed support it requires. This has resulted in making the society to believe that vocational and technical education is meant for the incapables in academic pursuit. Against this background, vocational and technical education is experiencing a slow progress till date. The only solution is to enhance VTE training. THE CONCEPT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY The word electricity is from the New Latinēlectricus, "amber-like", coined in the year 1600 from the Greek ήλεκτρον (electron) meaning amber, because electrical effects were produced classically by rubbing amber. It was from this phenomenon that the principles of Electrical and Electronic Technologies were derived from. Electrical deals with the flow of electric charge (Duffin, 1980), which is a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. Similarly, electronicinvolves the controlled flow of electrons (subatomic particles) to give useful results (Robinson, 2008). The flow deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as resistors, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits. A good look reveals that electrical technology and electronic technology are closely related, hence their combination to form a single field of study in most universities. Therefore, electrical/electronic technology is the branch of science and technology that is related to a set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge or electrons in a circuit. Electrical/electronic technology gives a wide variety of well-known effects, such as lightning, signal processing, electromagnetic induction and the flow of electrical current. In addition, it permits the creation and reception of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves. CONCEPT OF SECURITY Until quite recently, security was understood generally as absence of insecurity as a result of actions of law enforcement agencies. It was misunderstood to be the responsibility of the military on the national frontiers and of the police inside the country. This perception sums up security to equal a system of law and order maintenance (Dasuki, 2013). However, the dynamism of the Nigerian society have since prove wrong that view of security to now include consideration for societally generated crises such as riots, secret cult activities, terrorism, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, armed robberies and a host of others that threaten lives and property and indeed the peace and tranquility in the society. Given the foregoing scenario, security can be said to be a state of being or existence that is free from danger, fear, threat, anxiety and uncertainty. From this simple explanation, security apparently transcends every facet of human endeavour. By implication therefore, security embraces the establishment of proactive and defensive measures to safeguard all persons, materials and information from every form of danger. THE SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA No nation is free of security challenges. These challenges also vary from one country to another. Thus, Nigeria’s security challenges would definitely differ from those in Europe and America. For instance, in US today, the dangers posed by” weapon possession are perhaps the
  4. 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 4 greatest security challenges confronting the country. The security challenges encountered by Nigeria are what make her unique. Terrorism: Perhaps the greatest and predominant security challenge in Nigeria today is terrorism or terrorism related. A religious based Islamic fundamentalist group, popularly known as Boko-Haram is the harbinger of terrorism in Nigeria today. The sect, which is predominately based in the’ North Eastern part of the country, has an ideology that is averse to western education and anything it represents. The Boko Haram has international links with other terrorist groups such as the AI-Qaeda in the Magherb (AQIM), AI-qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and al-Shabab in Somalia. The sect has been getting tremendous support from these groups. The participation of Nigeria forces in the Malian crisis is bound to open another flank of vulnerability to the Nigerian interest worldwide because the Malian terrorists have vowed to retaliate against any country that participates in the operation. The innate undertone of the sect is the enthronement of Islamic (Sharia) government in the whole of Northern Nigeria. Followers of Boko Haram attack government institutions, such as the police, and military through armed attacks, suicide bombing. Christian churches are not also spared.The inability of the government to cub their capabilities, behooves Nigeria to take additional security measures to protect her interest worldwide. Maritime Security: The insecurity in Nigeria’s maritime environment is another major security challenge. These happen in the form of piracy, oil theftand boat/ship hijacking. It has caused the Government loss of revenue and making the nation’s ports unattractive to foreign shipping lines. Efforts are being made by government to put a stop to various maritime security challenges. One of such measures is with the Nigerian Navy being strengthened through training, capacity building and purchase of new platforms to adequately cope with the tasks of policing Nigeria’s maritime environment. The Nigerian Maritime Security and Safety Administration (NIMASA) is another body set up by the government to deal with problems of safety and security in Nigeria’s harbours and coastal area. Despite the fact that the Nigerian Navy and Beninese Navy are currently involved in a combined operation code name “Operation Prosperity” aimed at enhancing maritime security between the 2 countries, the challenge is far from ending. The same is being done through the Gulf of Guinea Commission, which has 8 countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea from Angola to Nigeria. Niger Delta Militancy: During the activities of the militancy in the Niger Delta, crude oil production which is the mainstay of the country went as low as 700,000 bpd against over 2million bpd. This adversely affected Nigeria’s economy as the revenue accruable from oil dwindled. However, with the granting of amnesty to the Niger Delta militants, threats posed by the militants to oil production and oil facilities have been suspended. However, there are still some residual threats being posed by those claiming to be remnants of the Niger Delta militants seeking to benefit from the FG Amnesty Programme. They seek to be included in the third phase Amnesty Programme. On a number of times they disrupted peace and tranquility in Abuja and other cities in the Niger Delta. This invariably means that Niger Delta militants’ issues are yet to be over. Kidnapping: The crime of kidnapping initially started as one of the methods used by Niger Delta militants, to attract attention of oil companies and the government to their struggle for resource control. However, with the FG Amnesty Programme in place, Niger Delta militants have abandoned the crime but criminal elements, especially in the South-Eastern part- of the -country, have adopted
  5. 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 5 the kidnapping strategy, .believing that kidnapping is a less risky and more lucrative venture than armed robbery. Up till now, government is yet to cub this vice. Illegal Bunkering: Another security challenge confronting Nigeria is illegal bunkering and oil theft during which both crude and refined products are stolen on a regular basis. This crime does not only create serious economic problems for the country in terms of loss of revenue, it also gives the impression that the main foreign exchange earner on which the country depends on cannot be secured. Despite the task given to the military and NIMASA, the challenge is still pending. Armed Robbery: One long standing security challenge in Nigeria is armed robbery. For a very long time it was the number one security challenge confronting the nation until the Niger Delta militancy and later Boko Haram activities pushed the problem to the back burner. It has persisted despite everyeffort to tackle the root causes of this particular security challenge.Proliferation of small arms and light weapons as well as inadequate policing of our borders and maritime environment iskey inducing factor. Electrical/Electronic Technology as a Way Forward The use of force as a measure to address virtually all the security challenges is good but requires an additional support of technological means like electrical/electronic technology innovations. The only way is to make adequate provision of electrical/electronic devices, system, equipment and facilities. If these systems are provided and applied correctly, this phantom of violence currently hunting the Nigerian State can be summarily sent back to the abyss where it belongs, and Nigerians can continue the nation-building process that has been stunted by the sad events of the past couple of years. Development of National Data Base: One of the fundamental essentials of security is the establishment of a comprehensive data base to capture relevant data which would aid documentation and monitoring of the population. Nigeria, as it obtains in most Western countries, doesn’t have a comprehensive and computerized data base for everybody within the country, including visiting foreigners. Such data base is necessary because it will assist in identifying finger prints of criminals and hence expedite the efforts of security operatives. Automated Fingerprint Recognition Machine: This is an electrical/electronic device that has the ability to match fingerprints with names from a pool of database. It is being designed with powerful sensors that will pick fingerprint of a person in an entrance of a populated environment or complex without the prior knowledge of the person, and will transfer the signal to a database that will quickly identify or match it with a name. If the name is identified with criminal records, entry is rejected else entry is accepted. This device will not only go a long way of restricting contacts with criminals like kidnappers and armed robbers, but will also apprehend them easily. However, persons allowed entry can also be traced subsequently in case of any security issue. Access Control System: This system provides an exhaustive range of access control that fulfills the requirements of security over restricted areas. This device can widely be used in various corporate establishments and organizations to restrict the unauthorized movement of the people inside the premises. Only authorized personnel can pass through this system by showing their registered fingerprints or cards. The devices can easily be employed in the protection of oil pipeline areas and restriction of suicide bombers. Failure to comply will trigger an alarm or gun shots. Use of Video Door Phones as Security Measures: This is another electrical/electronic device that has an ability to provide wide range of quality audio/video door entry systems for residential and
  6. 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 6 commercial places in the nation. It uses the principle of surveillance camera which will automatically capture the image of a person at an entry point and engage communication. In the security challenge in Nigeria, Door Phone Entry Systems can be a highly effective security solution for apartments, building, residential complexes, villas and bungalows. This security system iscustomized to meet the needs of every individual and group. Trace Security Risk With Internet Facilities: It was gathered that the terrorist group called Boko Haram uses the Internet to propagate its activities and enhance its radicalization and circulation of extremist ideologies. The internet facilities are part of electrical/electronic devices. The internet is a network of computer system in which every computer used can be traced to the least locality. Besides, everymail sent can be monitored without the knowledge of the user. This will go a long way to give direction to security agents to act accurately and with precision and hence cub their evil activities and increase of followers. Use of Satellite Technology to Monitor the Borders: One of the main security challenges in the country is the wide expanse of Nigeria’s porous borders with contiguous countries. Many border communities have over time, out of practice, come to depend on the proceeds of smuggling and consequently, have come to see such practices as a way of life. Porosity of the borders has many implications, apart from revenue lost to smuggling, small arms; light weapons and hard currencies are brought into the country in large numbers. To control these activities, Satellite devices can be employed. Satellite is an electrical/electronic device that has the ability to instantly record and show any form of activity in any part of the nation from space. This is one of the good technologies most developed nations are using in terms of security. CONCLUSION Security is an encompassing phenomenon that is paramount to individuals, entities, communities and even nations. In Nigeria today, there are contentions as to whether our system of national security is functioning effectively. A number of people opined that not much is being done to combat crime in the face of the confrontation and the resourcesowned. Security has to do with a nation’s determination to employ the entireavailable disposition to cub every criminal vices in the society especially as they threaten disintegration in case of Nigeria. To achieve this, is to employ innovative principle of technology like electrical/electronic technology. A good provision of its current innovative technicality will go a long way to address the Nigerian security challenges. REFERENCES [1] Adeboye, A. G. (2012). Managing Conflicts in Africa's Democratic Transitions. Retrieved August 2013, at www.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/boko_haram#cite_ref.14. [2] Akintola, K. &Ademola, A. (2007). Delivery of Technical and Vocational Education, “Necessary Reforms in Technical and Vocational Education System for Sustainable Development in Nigeria”. A paper presented at the 20th Annual National conference of Nigeria Association of Teachers of Technology, held at Kaduna State Polytechnics, Kaduna. [3] All Africa, (2012) Nigeria: Boko Haram's Funding Sources Uncovered. Retrieved 1 June 2012. At www.http://allafrica.com/stories/201202141514.html. [4] Dasuki, S. (2013). Nigeria’s Security Challenges: The Way Forward. Text of the speech delivered at the 3rd seminar held at the National Defence College, Abuja by the Alumni of the institution.
  7. 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 01-07 © IAEME 7 [5] Duffin, W. J. (1980). Electricity and Magnetism. London: McGraw-Hill, Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC press. [6] Jones, D. A. (1991). "Electrical engineering: the backbone of society", Proceedings of the IEE: Science, Measurement and Technology 138 (1): 1–10. [7] Khan, A. (2001). Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil. Retrieved May, 2012 at www.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/special:booksources/0197300146. [8] Moller, P.& Kramer, B. (1991). Review: Electric Fish. BioScience (American Institute of Biological Sciences). 41 (11), 794–796. [9] Olugbode, M. (2011).Nigeria: We Are Responsible for Borno Killings, Says Boko Haram. Retrieved 31 January 2012 at allAfrica.com. [10] Robinson, (2008). Electronics: An Efficacious means to the delivery of technical and vocational education. Journal of Vocational Education and Technology. 5(1), 65-72. [11] Shaw, T & Daniells, S. G.H. (1984). Excavations at Iwo-Eleru, Ondo State, Nigeria. West African Journal of Archsmelting furnaces. Vol.14. [12] Reagan N. Robinson and Anthony I. Amadi, “The Extent of Technology and Vocational Education (TVE) Innovations in Nigeria”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 229 - 237, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.